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Walking around the labyrinthine 25,000 sq ft Blackwell’s bookshop in the heart of Oxford, David Prescott has to restrain himself from rearranging a display. Once a shop manager, always a shop manager.徜徉在英国牛津市中心2.5万平方英尺、有如迷宫般的布莱克韦尔书店时,戴维#8226;普雷斯科特(David Prescott,见上图)总要压抑住自己想要重新排列书籍的冲动。当过书店经理的人,一辈子改不了职业病。Mr Prescott’s first job after university was in “goods in” — unpacking books and cataloguing — at the chain of specialist booksellers. Having worked his way up, he is now chief executive of Blackwell’s, with more on his plate than fanning novels into a beautiful shape: chiefly, keeping the company afloat in an industry battered by the digital juggernaut Amazon.普雷斯科特大学毕业后的第一份工作,就是在这家专业书籍连锁书店管理“货物陈列”——把书籍拆包并且按分类陈列。他一步步晋升,如今已经是布莱克韦尔书店(Blackwell)的首席执行官,不再只需要把小说摆成漂亮的扇形,而是有更多、更重要的事务要处理:主要来说,就是要让企业在一个受到数字化巨头亚马逊(Amazon)重创的行业中维持经营。In contrast to the organised chaos of the various book departments, the 43-year-old’s office is sterile. The mock pine desk bears just a few papers and a laptop. The only decoration on the walls is a framed copy of the company’s shared values, which are strikingly simple and free of jargon, or “not American” as Mr Prescott puts it. One such value is “putting customers first”, which in turn demands that “I will always give every customer my undivided attention”.相比书店各部门乱中有序的景象,这位43岁的首席执行官的办公室空荡荡的。仿松木办公桌上只放着几张纸和一台笔记本电脑。墙上唯一的装饰物是一块企业标语相框,上面写着的企业共同价值观是一些极其简洁的大白话,用普雷斯科特的话来说就是丝毫“不像美国企业那样”故弄玄虚。其中一条价值观是“顾客第一”,这反过来要求员工做到“我永远全心全意对待每位顾客”。These values were forged as part of the plan to give each of the 550 permanent employees — from sales assistant to chief executive — an equal share of the company’s profits as part of a John Lewis-style partnership.这些价值观被打造成为企业合伙计划的一部分。布莱克韦尔实行约翰刘易斯(John Lewis)式合伙制,从销售助理到首席执行官的550名永久员工,都是企业的合伙人,都能分享等额的一份企业利润。Toby Blackwell, the present owner, whose great-grandfather founded the bookshop in 1879, has long wanted to hand it over to staff. Yet this ambition could only be fulfilled, Mr Prescott points out, if the company was on a firm financial footing. Finally, after years of decline, the company has made a very modest operating profit of #163;600,000 for the financial year ending June 2014, compared to a loss of #163;2.8m the previous year.现任老板托比#8226;布莱克韦尔(Toby Blackwell)长久以来一直希望能把书店所有权移交给员工。他的曾祖父于1879年创办了这家书店。不过,普雷斯科特指出,只有当企业拥有了坚实的财务基础,这个远大目标才有可能实现。在经营业绩连续多年下滑之后,这家企业终于在截至2014年6月的财年中实现了微薄的营业利润——60万英镑,相形之下之前的那个财年则亏损了280万英镑。This comes amid signs that the market for physical books is stabilising after years of being eroded by ebook sales. There will be no profit in 2015, however, according to Mr Prescott, as he is ploughing the money back into the company, investing particularly in digital products.眼下有迹象显示,在市场份额被电子图书销售蚕食多年之后,实体图书市场正在企稳。然而,普雷斯科特表示,2015年将不会有盈利,因为他要把利润重新投入到企业经营上,特别是要投资于电子产品。There is no date for the company to be handed over to its employees, yet. “The reality is you have to meet certain financial tests.” When will that be? “We hope it’s going to be in the foreseeable future but we can only launch it when we know that the business is self-sustaining.”至于何时将企业移交给员工,目前还没有时间表。“事实上,你必须通过某些财务测试。”那会在什么时候呢?“我们希望是在可预见的未来,但是我们只有在确定公司能够自给自足时才会启动测试。”The shared values were intended to remind employees of the purpose of the business: to sell books. It may seem obvious, but Mr Prescott says that “one of the challenges of being in a business that has been lossmaking for a long time is that you tend to run the company the wrong way up. You tend to run it on the needs of keeping your head above water, cost-cutting, finance and managing the accounts.”共同价值观的目的在于提醒员工企业的目标所在:卖书。这个目标或许看似显而易见,但普雷斯科特称,“在一家长期亏损的企业工作,面临的一项挑战是,你往往会用错误的方式想要让企业改善业绩。你总是疲于应对保持生存所必需的各种要求,削减成本、融资以及管理好账目”。Mr Prescott may be a business pragmatist, but he is not a philistine. On the topic of authors, fiction and non-fiction, he projects enthusiasm rather than expertise, though.普雷斯科特也许是一个奉行实用主义的商人,但他却不是个俗人。谈到无论是虚构类还是非虚构类图书的作者,他都兴致勃勃、如数家珍,而不是从商人的角度谈论他们的书好不好卖。Asked to pick a e for the back of his business card, unlike his colleagues who chose lines from novels, authors or poems, he picked some lines from The Clash’s “White Riot”: “Are you taking over or are you taking orders?, are you going backwards, or are you going forwards?”印名片的时候,其他同事都选择小说或诗歌中、或某位作家说过的一句话印在名片背面,他却选择了冲撞乐队(The Clash)那首《白人暴动》(White Riot)里的一句歌词:“Are you taking over or are you taking orders?, are you going backwards, or are you going forwards?(你要让别人听你的还是你愿意听别人的?你要往后退还是要向前进?)”Together with his wife, he is a member of his village book club. His most recent pick was The Wake by Paul Kings#173;north, which was on the 2014 Man Booker Prize longlist and is written in an adapted form of Old English. “Twenty pages in I thought, ‘I’ve killed the book club. They’re not going to this.’ But actually everybody loved it.”他和妻子都是乡村书友会的会员。他最近挑选的书是保罗#8226;金斯诺斯(Paul Kings#173;north)的《守灵》(The Wake),该书获得了2014年布克奖(Man Booker Prize)提名,是用一种古英语的变体写的。“读了20页后,我想,‘我害死书友会了。他们肯定读不下去’。但事实上大家都挺喜欢它。”Because most of the Blackwell’s shops are on university campuses, staff need to buy in books according to what is being taught on the various courses. “Our shops live or die by the strength of their relationships with the university departments.”因为布莱克韦尔书店大多位于大学校园里,店员需要根据不同课程教授的内容进书。“我们书店的生死存亡,取决于他们和大学各院系的关系有多密切。”Like many retailers that have been hammered by digital competitors, Blackwell’s has had to overhaul its shops. It can no longer assume customers will visit its branches. “It used to be a very simple business,” reflects Mr Prescott, who became chief executive just over two years ago. The number of independent bookshops in the UK has fallen by a third since 2005 to less than 1,000. Shops must offer experiences rather than just products. He describes Amazon as a “logistics business”, getting things from A to B. “Our job is to give our customers a compelling reason to use Blackwell’s.”与很多遭受线上竞争对手重创的零售商一样,布莱克韦尔不得不彻底改革其书店的运营模式。它不能再理所当然地认为顾客会光顾自己的书店。“这曾经是一门非常简单的生意,”两年多一点前才成为首席行政官的普雷斯科特表示。2005年以来,英国独立书店的数量减少了三分之一,现在不足1000家。商店必须提供务体验,而不再仅是商品本身。他把亚马逊形容为一家“物流公司”,把商品从A处运送至B处。“我们的工作,就是给我们的顾客一个让他们心悦诚地选择布莱克韦尔书店的理由。”“We are not short of ideas,” he says. Mr Prescott cites the Oxford branch’s Christmas line-up of author ings as the best one yet. On the events programme were London mayor Boris Johnson and Richard Adams, the author of Watership Down, as well as Vivienne Westwood, the fashion designer, and former Sex Pistol John Lydon. Although, he says, the real crowd-puller turned out to be Chris Hadfield, the astronaut.“我们不缺乏创意,”他称。普雷斯科特认为牛津分店推出的圣诞节系列作家读书会是迄今最棒的创意。该活动请来了伦敦市长鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)、《沃特希普荒原》(Watership Down)一书作者理查德#8226;亚当斯(Richard Adams),以及时尚设计师薇薇恩#8226;韦斯特伍德(Vivienne Westwood)和性手乐队(Sex Pistols)的前成员约翰#8226;莱登(John Lydon)等名人。不过,他称,真正吸引人气的却是宇航员克里斯#8226;哈德菲尔德(Chris Hadfield)。That is not to say the company can afford to focus purely on bricks-and-mortar. Blackwell’s has been encouraging customers to buy books on its own online platform since 1995. Amazon’s algorithms, he says, have yet to replace a good bookseller able to make canny recommendations. This is something he hopes Blackwell’s tech development team can improve on. The techies used to be based in London’s “Silicon Roundabout” in Shoreditch, but have now moved a few miles to Waterloo. Last year, Blackwell’s launched its academic ebook platform, which enables students to buy digital academic textbooks.这并不是说布莱克韦尔有资本把重心纯粹放在实体书店上。自1995年开始,布莱克韦尔书店便一直鼓励顾客在它自己的网络平台上买书。他称,亚马逊的运算法则,目前尚无法取代可以提供精准推荐的优秀图书销售员。这也是他希望布莱克韦尔的科技研发团队可以改进的地方。他们的技术团队曾经在伦敦肖迪奇(Shoreditch)的“硅谷环岛”(Silicon Roundabout)办公,但是如今搬到了距离那里几英里的滑铁卢(伦敦地名——译者注)。去年,布莱克韦尔书店推出了自己的学术电子书平台,让学生能在上面购买电子教科书。Managing a tech team was quite different to booksellers, many of whom have been with the company for decades. “We’re used to people coming and staying.” Technology workers, he says, are far more transient.管理一个技术团队完全不同于管理图书销售员,很多销售员已经在公司工作了数十年。“我们已经习惯了新人来到我们这儿,然后就一直在我们这儿干下去。”他称,技术人员的流动性则要高得多。More challenging, however, is overseeing a workforce besieged by years of digital disruption. “It’s a normal state of affairs. People are worried about the bookselling industry. They haven’t many positive stories. It’s an emotional business.”然而,更大的挑战在于,如何管理一已经被数字化颠覆围困了许多年的队伍。“这成了常态。人们对图书销售业忧心忡忡。他们没有听到多少好消息。这是个伤感的行业。”He shrugs off any notions that he has a victim mentality, suggesting Blackwell’s should become a “digital disrupter”, rather than wait for the next threat.他对说他有一种受害者心态的看法不屑一顾,反而认为布莱克韦尔书店应该成为“数字化的颠覆者”,而不是坐等下一个威胁到来。Would he recommend the book business to his two girls (aged nine and seven)? Long pause. “Yes.”他会推荐两个女儿(分别为7岁和9岁)进入图书行业吗?在停顿了很长时间后,他说:“会”。 /201503/365921Hi, dad? Where#39;s mom?爸,我妈呢?She#39;s in the chat room talking to someone.你妈正和一长舌妇在聊天八卦呢!Really? Mom#39;s on the internet?啥?老妈这么潮,都学会上网了啊?What internet? They#39;re in the kitchen. You know your mom. Any room she#39;s in is a chat room.上网?捞鱼么?你妈在厨房呢,你知道你妈有个本事就是她在哪儿呆着,哪儿就自动变成聊天室了。 /201506/379710To be a billionaire, the first thing you need is a personality disorder.要成为亿万富翁,你需要的第一样东西就是人格障碍。That is what I had always assumed, based on my own experience of having interviewed a few of them. Now I have corroboration from someone who knows what she is talking about. Justine Musk, who spent eight years married to the man behind PayPal, SpaceX and now Tesla Motors, has taken it upon herself to share with the world her view that those who achieve great things are mostly “freaks and misfits”.我一直是这样想的,依据就是我自己以前采访几个亿万富翁的经历。现在,我的猜想得到了一位懂行人士的实。曾与埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)夫妻8年的贾丝廷#8226;马斯克(Justine Musk),主动与世界分享了她的看法。在她看来,那些取得了非凡成就的人,大多都“古怪、不合群”。埃隆#8226;马斯克创办了PayPal、SpaceX和特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)。Her remarks were in response to an earnest question recently posted on Quora: How can I be as great as Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, Elon Musk or Sir Richard Branson? The short answer, she wrote, is you can’t.贾丝廷#8226;马斯克的话,是为了回答Quara上最近贴出的一个严肃问题:我如何能像比尔#8226;盖茨(Bill Gates)、史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)、埃隆#8226;马斯克或理查德#8226;布兰森爵士(Sir Richard Branson)那样伟大?她的回答用一句话来概括就是,你不能。The longer answer amounts to one of the best explanations of success I have ever . According to her it comes in two types: normal success — involving hard work, talent etc — and extreme success — as enjoyed by her ex. The normal variety she recommends; the extreme version is only available to those who are born that way. “They are dyslexic, they are autistic, they have ADD, they are square pegs in round holes, they piss people off, get into arguments, rock the boat.”她的详细回答则是我读过的关于成功的最佳解释之一。在她看来,成功分为两种:普通的成功(靠勤奋工作、天赋等等)和非凡的成功(如她的前夫实现的那种成功)。她推崇普通的成功;非凡的成功则只属于那些天生如此的人。“他们有读写障碍,他们有孤独症,他们有注意力缺失症(ADD),他们是圆孔里的方头钉,他们把别人惹毛,跟人吵架,把平静的地方搅得鸡犬不宁。”So they find something bigger than themselves to obsess over and work insanely hard, she explains. It is their way of coping.于是,他们找到某种超越自身的东西去痴迷,并疯狂地工作,她解释道。这是他们与这个世界的相处之道。At a stroke Ms Musk has destroyed the whole self help industry. Seen like this, there is absolutely no point in studying extreme success. If you aren’t born like that, you will never achieve it. And you would not want to anyway.贾丝廷#8226;马斯克一下子就摧毁了整个励志行业。照她的观点来看,研究非凡的成功毫无意义。如果你不是天生如此,你永远都不会实现非凡的成功。并且,你反正也不会想要这样的成功。However, these billionaires remain of zoological interest, particularly in terms of how they manage their personal lives. Ms Musk’s view on this is pretty grim. Extreme success, she reckons, comes complete with “family drama, issues with the Significant Other you rarely see, dark nights of the soul#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;little sleep, less sleep than that”.然而,作为一个特殊的人群,这些亿万富翁仍然是有意思的研究对象,特别是就他们如何安排个人生活而言。贾丝廷#8226;马斯克在这方面的看法非常冷酷。她认为,非凡的成功少不了“家庭变故,与伴侣感情不好、很少见面,灵魂的黑夜……少眠,失眠”。In other words, billionaires are rotten people to marry. Which is also precisely what I had always thought.换句话说,亿万富翁是靠不住的结婚对象。这也是我一直以来的想法。Mr Musk himself sounds like a particularly bad marital bet: shortly after divorcing Ms Musk he married an actress, only to divorce and remarry her in quick succession. Now he is in the process of divorcing her again.埃隆#8226;马斯克本人听上去就是个格外不可靠的结婚对象:与贾丝廷#8226;马斯克离婚后不久,他娶了一个女演员,然后两人离婚,又迅速复合。现在,他已第二次与这个女演员离婚。Yet just as I was congratulating myself on not having married a billionaire, I started thinking about the other names in the Quora question — Bill, Richard and Steve. The remarkable thing about them is not that they have gone through wives as quickly as the twinkling of a bed post, but that they have mostly found one and stuck with her.然而,就在我庆幸自己没有跟亿万富翁结婚时,我开始思考Quara上那个问题中提到的其他几个名字——比尔、理查德和史蒂夫。他们身上令人惊异之处,并非是他们走马灯似地换夫人,而是他们基本上都找到了适合自己的那个人,然后对她不离不弃。Bill Gates, who married Melinda 21 years ago, appears to have one of those marriages so solid that if I discovered the two were splitting up, I would feel let down, as if the world had become a less dependable place. Sir Richard Branson, after a starter marriage in his early 20s, is still married to his second wife after 25 years. And Steve Jobs remained married to the same woman for 20 years, until he died.比尔#8226;盖茨21年前与梅琳达(Melinda)结婚,两人的婚姻看上去那么稳固,假如有一天两人分手,我肯定会备感失望,就好像世界变得不那么可靠了一样。理查德#8226;布兰森爵士20岁出头的时候结过一次婚,他的第二次婚姻如今已走过25个年头。史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯与同一个女人结婚20年,直到他去世。If you go down the Forbes billionaires list a weird pattern starts to emerge. More than 40 per cent of all marriages end in divorce, but among the extremely successful, who one might have expected to be extremely unsuccessful in wedlock, the reverse seems to be the case.如果你逐个研究福布斯(Forbes)财富榜上那些亿万富翁,你会发现一条奇怪的规律。他们的婚姻超过40%以离婚收场,但在那些特别成功、可能会被认为婚姻非常失败的人中,情况似乎是相反的。Carlos Slim, number two on the Forbes list after Mr Gates, was married to the same woman for 32 years, until she died in 1999. Warren Buffett (#3) remained married to his first wife for 52 years (although for much of that time he was living with a cocktail waitress whom he married on his wife’s death).福布斯财富榜第二名、排在盖茨之后的卡洛斯#8226;斯利姆(Carlos Slim),与同一个女人结婚32年,直到她1999年去世。沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett,财富榜排名第三)与头一任妻子结婚52年(尽管他很多时间与一名鸡尾酒女招待生活在一起,头任妻子去世后,他就和女招待结了婚)。Further down the list there are only a few who have exhibited certain traits of ADD in their approach to matrimony: Larry Ellison has had four wives and Ronald Perelman five. They are the exceptions — more of the billionaires seem to be on first wives than those who are not. This is not much of an achievement for Mark Zuckerberg who only tied the knot in 2012, but Jeff Bezos and Michael Dell have been married for more than 20 years apiece, Eric Schmidt for more than 30, Ray Dalio at Bridgewater has notched up about 40 while Phil Knight of Nike is heading towards his golden wedding.排名略为靠后的人中,只有少数几个在婚姻中显示出某种ADD症状:拉里#8226;埃里森(Larry Ellison)有过4任妻子,罗纳德#8226;佩雷尔曼(Ronald Perelman)现在的妻子是他的第5任。他们俩是例外——亿万富翁中仍在与首任妻子相守的人数似乎超过了不是这样的人数。对马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)来说,这算不上很大的成就,因为他2012年才结婚,不过,杰夫#8226;贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)和迈克尔#8226;戴尔(Michael Dell)都已结婚20多年,埃里克#8226;施密特(Eric Schmidt)已结婚30多年,布里奇沃特(Bridgewater)的雷#8226;戴利奥(Ray Dalio)已结婚40年,耐克(Nike)的菲尔#8226;奈特(Phil Knight)还有几年就将迎来金婚。How can such stability happen? These billionaires have all lived in the grip of a rip-roaring obsession with work that should have ruined all relationships, and all have enough money to attract gorgeous new wives — and to pay off old ones.这些亿万富翁的婚姻怎么会这么稳定?他们都是超级工作狂,这原本应该会毁掉任何的伴侣关系,他们也都有足够的钱,能够吸引漂亮的新妻子,以及向发妻付分手费。I have no idea what the reason is, but I wonder if it might be that when the truly weird find someone who suits them, they don’t give them up in a hurry. Or perhaps it is that if you are transfixed by your work, an affair offers insufficient thrill. Or it could simply be that if you hardly ever see your spouse, he or she is significantly less likely to get on your nerves.我不知道这是什么原因,但我猜想,或许这是因为当一个真正的怪人找到了适合自己的人,他们就不会匆忙放弃。抑或这是因为,如果你一门心思扑在工作上,外遇就显得不够刺激了。又或者,这只不过是因为,假如你和自己的配偶很少见面,他或她把你惹毛的几率就大大降低了。 /201505/372939St.-Ouen. The name made me shudder. Whenever visitors asked me to take them to that vast set of flea markets just north of the Paris city line, I did my best to divert them elsewhere.圣图安(St.-Ouen),这个名字让我不寒而栗。无论什么时候,但凡有游客请我带他们去巴黎北郊这片庞杂的跳蚤市场,我都会千方百计劝他们换个地方。For me, getting to the Marché aux Puces de Paris/St.-Ouen was exhausting. It meant a ride on the No. 4 Métro line to the Porte de Clignancourt in the 18th Arrondissement and 15 minutes of jostling through a bazaar of cheap clothing, fabrics, leather goods, trinkets, cellphone covers, pots and pans.对我来说,光是抵达巴黎跳蚤市场(即圣图安市场)就让人筋疲力尽。它意味着你得先坐地铁4号线来到第18区的科里尼安古尔门(Porte de Clignancourt)站,然后在一条两侧摆满便宜衣、布料、皮革制品、小工艺品、手机壳、锅碗瓢盆等杂物的路上穿行15分钟,才终于到达。St.-Ouen is so big (1,700 dealers in 14 markets sp over 750,000 square feet) that the only way to get around is with a map. Even then, I tended to end up in cul-de-sacs of oppressive, overpriced crystal chandeliers, marble mantel pieces, gilt-framed mirrors and Italian floor lamps in the shape of palm trees.圣图安市场真大(在75万平方英尺的空间里,共有14个分市场,1700家店铺),若想顺利游览一遍,必须带上地图。但即使有了地图,我还是差点走进死胡同,陷入昂贵水晶吊灯、大理石壁炉台、镀金框镜子和棕榈树造型的意大利落地灯的包围之中。Then there was the bargain issue. There was a time when St.-Ouen was a place where tourists could hope to outwit the dealers. Decades ago, the columnist Art Buchwald wrote that it was a “hodgepodge of taste” where “one may find some precious thing the rest have overlooked, or he may have his pocket picked.”随之而来的是砍价问题。曾几何时,圣图安市场的游客可能比卖家更精明。数十年前,专栏作家阿特·巴奇沃德(Art Buchwald)曾撰文写道,它是个“品味齐全的大杂烩”,顾客“说不定能找到别人视而不见的珍宝,但也可能会被偷走钱包”。The part about finding some precious thing (cheap, that is) became much harder as rents soared, the dollar sank, dealers catered to wealthy foreigners and the antiques market turned digital. Having your pocket picked, however, was never a challenge.现在,找到好东西(即便宜东西)更难了,因为摊位租金飞涨,美元贬值,卖家都转而开始吸引富裕的外国游客,古董市场也越发数字化。然而顾客仍有可能遭到扒窃,这一点并无改变。So I preferred to take visitors to Puces de Vanves, the small, messy, open-air flea market on the opposite end of town, where bargains were still to be had. I showed them the proof: a 2-euro silver-plated gravy boat in the shape of a swan and a 10-euro cache of mismatched cut-crystal cordial glasses (.40 and , at .21 to the euro). I introduced them to the button man with thousands of Bakelite buttons sewn on to their original cards, and the woman with the collection of 10-euro cuff links.所以我宁可带着游客到旺福跳蚤市场(Puces de Vanves),它位于巴黎市的另一边,是个杂乱的小型露天跳蚤市场,在那儿仍然可以买到划算的宝贝。我向他们展示了如下据:一只镀银的天鹅造型肉汁盘2欧元,一组不成套的切割水晶甜酒杯10欧元。按照1欧元等于1.21美元计算,这两样物品的价格约合2.4美元和12美元。我推荐了一名纽扣匠,他家店里有数千只树胶纽扣,都缝在创意十足的卡片上,还有一名女店主,她家的各式袖扣只卖10欧元。I also logged on to vide-greniers.org, the website that announces weekly street markets. Vide-greniers literally means “empty the attics”; they range from residents participating in a neighborhood fair to itinerant professional dealers.我也会登录vide-greniers.org,该网站的名字意为“空荡荡的阁楼”,上面发布每周的街头集市清单。参与者从参加社区集市的本地居民到巡回叫卖的专业卖家,不一而足。Then, over the last two years, St.-Ouen has become cool again, as a go-to weekend destination for young Parisians as well as foreign tourists. And not only for treasure-hunting.然而在过去的两年中,圣图安市场再次酷炫起来,成为巴黎年轻一代和外国游客周末逛街的好去处。而且,来这里不仅仅是为了淘到宝贝。The Iranian-born cameraman Darius Khondji made the flea market sparkle in Woody Allen’s 2011 crowd-pleaser, “Midnight in Paris.” (In case you don’t remember, Inez dips in and out of the stalls of Marché Paul-Bert-Serpette Puces de Paris St.-Ouen, the largest of the markets; Gil wanders off and makes the acquaintance of a French antiques dealer named Gabrielle who shares his passion for the Lost Generation. The message is clear: Anyone can go to Paris and find serendipity, beautiful objects and a soul mate.)在伍迪·艾伦2011年深受欢迎的电影《午夜巴黎》(Midnight in Paris)中,伊朗出生的摄像师达利尔斯·康迪(Darius Khondji)通过镜头,让这座跳蚤市场更加光夺目。(不记得了?那我提示一下:在剧中,吉尔与伊内兹在巴黎圣图安的保罗-伯特-赛尔贝德市场逛街,吉尔偶然结识了法国古董商加布里埃,在后者的引荐之下,领略了迷惘一代的生活。电影传达的信息很清晰:人人都可以来巴黎寻找内心的宁静、漂亮的物品和灵魂的伴侣。)I discovered that it’s as easy as pie to get straight to Rue Paul Bert, one of the main streets of St.-Ouen, from the Left Bank north through Montmartre on the Right Bank via the No. 85 bus. It’s a lovely way to see Paris. As for pickpockets, warnings throughout the market and armies of both local police officers and private security guards serve as deterrents.我发现直接去保罗伯特大街易如反掌。这是圣图安市场的主路之一,从左岸北到右岸的蒙马特,可乘坐85路公交车顺利抵达。这是一种可爱的巴黎观光方式。至于扒窃行为,市场里到处都贴着警告信息,本地警察与私人安保公司都是可靠的震慑力量。Last year, the European furniture designer Habitat spearheaded a move to transform a spacious courtyard of old ateliers and warehouses on Rue des Rosiers across the street from Paul-Bert-Serpette into soaring, deluxe spaces that look more like small museums than retail shops.去年,欧洲家具设计商爱必居(Habitat)率先来到这片市场,入驻保罗-伯特-赛尔贝德市场对面蔷薇街上一座宽敞的院子,将里面的老作坊与仓库改建为高耸的奢华屋宇。而今,它看上去更像一座物馆,而非家具分销店。Habitat 1964, as the 4,300-square-foot installation is called in honor of the year the company was founded, plays cool jazz and showcases furnishings no longer in production, including its 1977 Mushroom lamp and 1993 Altona desk. Beware the prices: a rare Pierre Paulin couch in sky blue was recently selling for 15,000 euros.这家店坐拥4300平方英尺的内部空间,名叫“爱必居1964”,以此向公司的诞生之年致敬。店内播放着冷爵士乐,展览着业已绝版的家居产品,包括1977年的蘑菇屋(Mushroom)灯具和1993年的阿尔托纳(Altona)书桌。注意价格:一套珍稀的天蓝色皮埃尔宝兰(Pierre Paulin)沙发最新售价为15000欧元。Another pioneer is L’Eclaireur, which opened its seventh Paris outlet in a former chandelier repair atelier here. It offers high-end contemporary furniture, sculptures and vintage haute couture clothing. Galerie Gam next door specializes in 20th-century French furniture design from the 1950s through the 1970s; Le White, in objects in, bien s#251;r, white.另一家先锋店是“时尚侦察兵”(L’Eclaireur),这是该品牌在巴黎的第七家分店,那里曾是一家吊灯修理作坊。它供应高端的当代家具、雕塑与经典高级时装。隔壁的加姆画廊(Galerie Gam)专营20世纪的法国家居设计,包含20世纪50年代至70年代的作品。还有一家店叫“白色”,当然了,专营白色的家具。Also in the courtyard, Mademoiselle Steinitz’s industrial warehouse mixes rare furniture, fantastical sculptures, contemporary photography and formal gowns. On a recent visit, a Viennese Arts and Crafts couch with two armchairs and two side chairs was 53,000 euros; a one-of-a-kind 1910 butterfly desk and chairs by the Belle #201;poque fashion designer Paul Poiret cost 300,000 euros.院子里还有一家“司坦妮”(Mademoiselle Steinitz),它的库房里琳琅满目,包括珍稀的家具、梦幻的雕塑、当代摄影作品与正装礼。最近我逛过他们店,记得一套“维也纳艺术与工艺”品牌的沙发配两个扶手椅及两个直背单椅,售价53000欧元;一台1910年的独一无二的蝴蝶书桌和椅子,由美好年代(Belle #201;poque)的时尚大师保罗·珀瑞特(Paul Poiret)设计,售价30万欧元。Nearby, three small early-20th-century houses on Rue Paul Bert are musts for lookers who may not be buyers. Un Singe en Hiver, covered with wisteria and ivy at No. 6, features an inner courtyard with old stone crockery, a stone ostrich and antlers in a bowl. Sylvain Seron, who owns the space with his wife, Sylvie, will be eager to explain the history of the objects, including the construction of long metal tables from 19th-century industrial water tanks.附近的保罗伯特大街上,有三座20世纪早期的房屋堪称必游之地,哪怕不买他们的东西。“冬天的猴子”(Un Singe en Hiver)位于这条大街的6号,墙上缀满紫藤花与常青藤,内部的庭院里有古老的石餐具、石鸵鸟和放在碗里的鹿角。这家店铺的主人是西尔万·塞隆(Sylvain Seron)和妻子赛尔薇(Sylvie),他们会热切地向你介绍每件物品的历史,比如,那些金属长桌是由19世纪的工业水槽改造而成的。Up a stone staircase at La Petite Maison at No. 10, Fran#231;ois Casal also loves conversation, so much so that if you stay long enough he may offer you a glass of Champagne in a heavy crystal goblet. Ask him about the zinc-topped, marble-based bar with inlaid mother-of-pearl at the entrance.踏上大街10号“珀蒂特”(La Petite Maison)的石阶,你会发现店主弗朗索瓦·卡萨尔(Fran#231;ois Casal)特爱聊天。如果你待的时间够长,他会用沉甸甸的水晶高脚杯倒一杯香槟递给你。跟他聊些什么呢?不妨谈谈这座酒吧那镀锌的门楣、铺地的大理石和镶嵌着珍珠母的大门。My least favorite shop of the trio is Colonial Concept at No. 8, although it is a taxidermist’s delight, with more than a dozen stuffed peacocks, zebra heads, a stuffed leopard and a stuffed lion lying on its side; 4,500 euros will buy you a bearskin rug. Feather headdresses, white corals, polished fossils, a partial giraffe, assorted skulls, lamps made of ostrich eggs — all make it difficult for the environmentally correct visitor to embrace. Photographs are forbidden; the chilly welcome makes you wonder whether it wants customers at all.三家店铺之中我最不喜欢的是8号的“殖民概念”(Colonial Concept),尽管它是兽皮师的最爱。店里陈列着十几只孔雀标本和斑马头,墙边摆放着猎豹和狮子填充标本。4500欧元可以买到一条熊皮毯。羽毛头巾、白珊瑚、打磨光亮的化石、一只残缺的长颈鹿、分类整齐的动物头骨、鸵鸟蛋制成的台灯,凡此种种都让环保爱好者难以接受。店内禁止拍照。店员的务态度也不热情,令人怀疑他们是否根本不欢迎顾客的到来。St.-Ouen has become a better bad place to eat. For a snack or light lunch, La Buvette des Tartes Kluger in what was once a brick factory in the Habitat courtyard offers Kluger’s wide assortment of homemade sweet and savory pies; lunch can be eaten on picnic tables outside.圣图安已经成为饕餮胜地。想品尝小吃或快餐,可以去爱必居院子里的La Buvette des Tartes Kluger餐厅,店址由昔日的砖厂改建而成,供应家常制作的甜食和开胃馅饼,品种丰富,也可以在屋外的野餐桌上享用午餐。Since 2012, there is also Ma Cocotte, a high-ceilinged, two-level brasserie designed by Philippe Starck. With several small dining rooms and two large terraces, it screams new, a contrast to the flea market’s warrens of alleys. Without sufficient insulation, it also screams loud. The restaurant, which offers everything from caviar and foie gras to cheeseburgers and fish and chips, is open evenings during the week, even when the flea market is closed.2012年,这里有了一家“马可可特”(Ma Cocotte),这家占地两层的啤酒餐厅天花板很高,由菲利普·斯达克(Philippe Starck)设计。包含几个小餐室、两个大露台,簇新簇新的,与跳蚤市场的陋巷对比鲜明。由于没有足够的隔音设施,餐厅内也很喧闹。供应各种美食,包括鱼子酱、鹅肝酱、芝士堡、炸鱼和薯片,从周一到周日每天晚上开放营业,哪怕是跳蚤市场歇业的时候。There are also the old-timers, like Café Paul Bert for a reliable steak frites on Rue Paul Bert, and Le P’tit Landais on Rue des Rosiers for a slab of foie gras and green salad. A two-course lunch for two with wine at either place will cost around 35 euros, one of the best bargains at St.-Ouen.此地也有老字号,比如保罗伯特大街上的保罗伯特餐厅,供应的牛排加炸薯条值得信赖,而蔷薇街上的Le P’tit Landais则供应美味的鹅肝酱和蔬菜沙拉。两道菜的双人午餐包含酒,在这两家餐厅花费都是35欧元左右,在圣图安市场,算是最划算的了。In the past two years, about 50 shops have opened in Paul-Bert-Serpette, many by younger dealers. Mid-20th-century furniture, lighting and decorative arts in modern, unadorned spaces are popular, trendy and pricey.在过去的两年中,保罗-伯特-赛尔贝德市场内开张了大概50家新店铺,店主大都是年轻一代。店铺多是极简风格的房屋搭配20世纪中期的现代家具与照明系统,红火、时尚而昂贵。Last spring, the Parisian media magnate Jean-Cyrille Boutmy bought Paul-Bert-Serpette. He has aly implemented measures to guarantee the authenticity of the market’s objects and is planning to spruce up the site.去年春天,巴黎媒体大亨让-西里尔·布特米(Jean-Cyrille Boutmy)买下了保罗-伯特-赛尔贝德。他实施措施保障市场内所售物品的正宗,并打算把它整饬一新。Cyril Aouizerate, one of the founders of the Mama Shelter hotel in Belleville, in the 20th Arrondissement, is investing 40 million euros in a hotel that will open at St.-Ouen in 2016. To be called M.O.B., the 350-room hotel will include a cultural center with a bookstore, meditation rooms, an open-air movie theater and a vegetarian restaurant serving organic, local produce.贝尔维尔妈妈庇护所(Mama Shelter)酒店的创始人之一西里尔·奥泽拉特(Cyril Aouizerate)投资4千万欧元在第20区建造一家新酒店,2016年将在圣图安开业。它的名字叫M.O.B,有350个客房,文化中心内有书店、冥想室、露天音乐剧场和素食餐厅,供应本地有机农产品。For visitors who want to shop as well as look, all is not lost. Here is a rundown of some of my affordable favorites (or at least where good value can be found).那些购物与观光并重的游客也不会错过什么。我列了个大纲,下列店铺的东西都不贵(或至少是优质的)。The perfect scarf: vintage Hermès scarves, many of them decades-old and in the softest of silks, start at 160 euros at Le Monde du Voyage in Marché Serpette. Helen and Alain Zisul also offer a selection of perfectly preserved Louis Vuitton trunks.完美的丝巾:赛尔贝德市场的“世界旅游”(Le Monde du Voyage)店有经典的爱马仕丝巾,用最柔软的丝绸制造而成,其中许多有数十年历史,价格60欧元起。店主海伦和阿兰·芝萨尔(Helen and Alain Zisul)也有保存完美的LV系列行李箱。Paintings: Post-Cubist gouaches in oak frames by the little-known painter Jacques Marly (1885-1965) start at 950 euros. Marly painted only for pleasure during his life; his grandniece Josette Revellin has begun to sell a few at a time at Marché Serpette.绘画:橡木画框装裱的前立体主义水粉画,作者是鲜为人知的画家雅克·马尔礼(Jacques Marly,1885-1965),价格950欧元起。马尔礼一生作画只为自娱,他的侄孙女乔赛特·瑞福林(Josette Revellin)在赛尔贝德市场偶尔出售几幅他的画作。Old kitchenware: Call on Fran#231;ois Bachelier at Bachelier Antiquités at Marché Paul Bert for enamel scales, heavy copper pots, enameled metal animal prize medallions, tin molds, advertising signs, kitchen utensils, southwestern French pottery jugs and pitchers and winemaking paraphernalia. At 350 euros, the three-foot-high, cast-iron apparatus in fire-engine red to cork wine bottles was a steal.怀旧厨具:去保罗-伯特市场的“巴舍利耶古董”(Bachelier Antiquités)店寻访店主弗朗索瓦·巴舍利耶(Fran#231;ois Bachelier),赏鉴珐琅秤、沉甸甸的铜锅、搪瓷动物奖章、锡模、广告牌、厨具、西南法国的陶罐、水罐及全套造酒设备。有一套三英尺高的火红色铸铁装置,功能是用软木塞塞住瓶口,售价才350欧元,简直是白捡。Old paper: Take a detour to Paul Maurel in Marché Vernaison at St.-Ouen. For 35 years, the shop has offered old travel posters, maps and flower and animal prints.旧纸:到圣图安市场威尔内森市场的“保罗瑞尔”(Paul Maurel)店逛一圈。35年来,这家店铺一直在供应古老的旅行明信片、地图、花朵和动物图案印刷品。Costume jewelry: If you’re longing for native English speakers, also in the Marché Vernaison is Au Grenier de Lucie. Jason and Heidi Ellis gave up their jobs as sports coaches, sold their London home to move to Paris and opened up a vintage jewelry and accessories shop five years ago. If you’re not tempted by the alligator handbags, try a rhinestone tiara.人造珠宝:如果你渴望遇见母语是英语的人,就去威尔内森市场的Au Grenier de Lucie。五年前,店主杰森和海蒂·艾利斯(Jason and Heidi Ellis)放弃了运动教练的工作,卖掉了伦敦的房子,搬到巴黎,开了这家古董珠宝和饰品店。如果你对鳄鱼皮手袋兴味索然,就试试水钻头冠吧。Old postcards and photographs: Take another detour up an escalator to the Marché Dauphine and call on Philippe Rault just inside the entrance. Try out his stereoscopes for a look at early 3-D. And at 15 euros apiece, you might walk away with the perfect gift: a 60-year-old aerial photo of a Paris neighborhood. If you’re not worn out, head into the main Dauphine area for some of the market’s best bargains.老照片和明信片:再绕个路,乘坐向上的扶梯去王妃市场拜访“飞利浦·罗尔特”(Philippe Rault),这家店就在市场大门内。试用一下他家的立体镜,看看早期的3D景观。只需15欧元,你就可买走一件完美的礼物:有六十年历史的巴黎街区航拍照。如果你还没累坏,可以走进地位显要的王妃区,有些东西在这儿买特别划算。But if such a singular adventure sounds exhausting, hire a guide to do all the work — and price-negotiating — for you. Henry Personnaz, a French interior designer, has made a hobby of giving small private tours of St.-Ouen. He can customize them to suit your tempo and your taste for any object — from a 19th-century oil painting to an Art Deco silver table setting.但是,如果这种孤身寻宝听上去很累人,不妨请个导游包揽一切,他们还会帮你讨价还价。法国室内设计师亨利·波桑纳斯(Henry Personnaz)有个小小的雅好,就是在圣图安担任私人伴游。他可以根据你的喜好和品味选购旅行纪念品,包括19世纪的油画和装饰艺术风格的银餐具。If you want a brasher, nonstop, more American approach, contact Rachel Kaplan. She loves to show you what she calls “the deals”; she hates being interrupted.如果你喜欢便捷、直接、更加美国的旅程,可联系瑞秋·卡普兰(Rachel Kaplan)。她喜欢带你逛她所谓的“好买卖”;讨厌被人打断。“You know what I call the flea market?” she told a mother, daughter and grandmother on a private tour. “The Louvre — except you can go shopping.”“你知道我把这片跳蚤市场叫做什么吗?”在一次私人伴游中,她对一个由母亲、女儿和外婆组成的旅游团说。“卢浮宫啊。而且还能买东西。”Some may call that the perfect Paris outing.或许会有人觉得,这就是完美的巴黎之旅。IF YOU GO旅行指南Hours are Saturday 9 a.m. to 6 p.m., Sunday 10 a.m. to 6 p.m., Monday 11 a.m. to 5 p.m. For more information, visit www#173;.marcheauxpuces-saintouen#173;.com; maps are available at the St.-Ouen tourism office. Guides include Henry Personnaz (parisfleavip#173;.com) and Rachel Kaplan (contact#173;@frenchlinks#173;.com).市场内店铺开放时间为每周六上午9点至下午6点,周日上午10点至下午6点,周一上午11点至下午5点。更多信息可登陆网站www#173;.marcheauxpuces-saintouen#173;.com;圣图安旅游办公室提供地图。导游包括亨利·波桑纳斯(parisfleavip#173;.com)和瑞秋·卡普兰(contact#173;@frenchlinks#173;.com)。WEBSITES IN ENGLISH英文网站:L’Eclaireur, leclaireur.com/en.时尚侦察兵,leclaireur.com/en.Mademoiselle Steinitz, mademoisellesteinitz#173;.com.司坦妮,mademoisellesteinitz#173;.com.Un Singe en Hiver, unsingenhiver#173;.com.冬天的猴子,unsingenhiver#173;.com.Le Monde du Voyage, lemondeduvoyage#173;.com/defaultan.htm.世界旅游,lemondeduvoyage#173;.com/defaultan.htm.Paul Maurel, poster-paul.com.保罗瑞尔,poster-paul.com.Au Grenier de Lucie, augrenierdelucie#173;.com.Au Grenier de Lucie饰品店, augrenierdelucie#173;.com.WEBSITES IN FRENCH法文网站:Paul-Bert—Serpette, paulbert#173;-serpette.com.保罗-波特-赛尔贝德市场, paulbert#173;-serpette.com.Habitat 1964, habitat.fr#173;/vintage.爱必居1964, habitat.fr#173;/vintage.Galerie Gam, galeriegam.fr.加姆画廊, galeriegam.fr.aLa Petite Maison, lesmerveillesdebabellou#173;.com.珀蒂特,lesmerveillesdebabellou#173;.com.Colonial Concept, francoisdaneck#173;.com.殖民概念, francoisdaneck#173;.com.La Buvette des Tartes Kluger, tarteskluger.com.La Buvette des Tartes Kluger餐厅,tarteskluger.com.Bachelier Antiquités, bachelier#173;-antiquites.com.巴舍利耶古董,bachelier#173;-antiquites.com. /201412/350066

10. The Basic Components of the Ancient Chinese Building10. 中国古代建筑的基本组成Base台基It is also called base pedestal, which is the base of the building. Its surface is higher than ground. Base is for bolstering the building and protecting it against damp or corrosion. In the meantime, it can make up for the imperfection that the single-building in Chinese ancient architecture is insufficient in grandness and height. Generally there are four kinds of bases.也称基座。系高出地面的建筑物底U叫建筑时时潮防腐,同时可弥补中国古建筑单体建筑不甚高大雄伟的欠缺。大致有四种。 A. Common base1.普通台基It is almost 1 Chinese chi in height, which tamped and cemented with the mixed earth of white Clay or mud or brickbat. Common base is usually used for constructing the small type of building.用素土或灰土或碎砖三合土芳筑而成,约高一尺,常用于小式建筑。B. Higher Class base2.较高级台基It is higher than common base. The white marble banister is often built at the side of this type of base. Higher-class base is used for the less important building in big type buildings or palace buildings.较普通台基高,常在台基上边建汉白玉栏杆,用于大式建筑或宫殿建筑中的次要建筑。C. Much higher Class base3.更高级台基It is the XuMi Base,which is also called Buddha#39;s warrior Base. ;XuMi; is a mountain in ancient India myth, which is said locating in world center and is the tallest mount,cosmos. The sun, moon and stars appear and disappear among it and all the structures of universe need to build up alongside its layers. Xu-Mi Base is used as base of the figure of Buddha or shrine to show the lofty greatness of Buddha. The ancient Chinese architecture uses the XuMi base to show the buildings#39; class. It is generally built up in layers with brick or stone, much higher class base has cave,convex line feet,and line decoration in it, and the white marble banister is built at its stage. It is used for constructing the palace and the big temple in common.即须弥座,又名金刚座。;须弥;是古印度神话中的山名,相传位于世界中心,系宇宙间最高的山,日月星辰出没其间,三界诸天也依傍它层层建立。须弥座用阴影佛像或神鑫的台基,用以显示佛的崇高伟大。中国古建筑采用须弥座表示建筑的级别。一般用砖或石砌成,上有凹凸线脚和纹饰,台上建有汉白玉栏杆,常用于宫殿和著名寺院中的主要殿堂建筑。D. The highest-class base4.最高级台基It is folded by several XuMi Bases to make the building seem to be more large and grand. The highest-class base is usually used in the most superior buildings, for example, the three greatest halls of the Imperial Palace and Dacheng Hall of Confucian Temple in Qufu of Shandong,which are just towering aloft on the highest-class base.由几个须弥座相叠而成,从而使建筑物显得更为宏伟高大,常用于最高级建筑,如故宫三大殿和山东曲阜孔庙大成殿即耸立在最高级台基上。Wood Cylinder木头圆柱It is the cylindrical wood in common made of pine or bucket wood. Wood cylinder is placing on the stage of which the bottom is made of rock (sometimes bronze utensils). Many wood cylinders are used for propping up the purling of the house to form the beam.常用松木或桶木制成的圆柱形木头。置于石头(有时是铜器)为底的台上。多根木头圆柱,用于撑屋面穰条,形成梁架。Room Width开间The space that is rounded by four wood cylinders is called ;Opening;. Those openings which face the building are called ;room width;, 0r called ;Miankuo;. The vertical depth number is called ;enter depth;. The Chinese in ancient times took odd number as good luck numbers, so the great majority of openings in the flat surface combination are odd numbers; and more openings mean the higher grades. Taihe Hall of the Imperial Palace in Peking and the Main Hall of Ancestral Temple in Peking have 11 openings both.四根木头圆柱围成的空间称为;间;。建筑的迎面间数称为;开间或称;面阔;。建筑的纵深间数称;进深;。中国古代以奇数为吉祥数字,所以平面组合中绝大多数的开间为单数;而且开间越多,等级越高。北京故宫太和殿,北京太庙大开间为十一间。Crossbeam , Namely Horizontal Beam大梁,即横梁It is the main wood which is erected on the wood cylinder to form the ridge of roof. It is usually made of pine, elm or cedar. In Chinese traditional wood structure buildings, it is one of the main pieces of framework.架于木头圆柱上的一根最主要的木头,以形成屋脊。常用松木、榆木或杉木制成。是中国传统木结构建筑中骨架的主件之一。Arch斗拱It is a special component in the Chinese ancient building. The square board is called ;Dou;, the short bow wood is called ;arch;,the long inclined wood is called ;Ang;,and ;arch; is their general name. Usually it is placed among the pillar head and forehead,face of the house to prop up a beam and pick up eaves and it also has a decorative function. It is made up of the square wood, the short bow wood and the long inclined wood, mixing in length and bth layer upon layer and pursuing a layer to pick outwardly to form a pad base which is to descend.是中国古代建筑独特的构件。方形木块叫斗,弓形短木叫拱,斜置长木叫昂,总称斗拱。一般置于柱头和额柿、屋面之间,用来撑荷载梁架、挑出屋檐,兼具装饰作用。由斗形木块、弓形短木、斜置长木组成,纵横交错层叠,逐层向外挑出,形成上大下小的托座。Colorful Painting画It is originally for protecting wood structure against damp and corrosion and insect-eating,afterwards the press of it is just the adornment. After Song Dynasty, the colorful paintings have become the indispensable adornment art of palace. It is divided into three grades.原是为木结构防潮、防腐、防蛙,后来才突出其装饰性,宋代以后画已成为宫殿不可缺少的装饰艺术。可分为三个等级。A. The Hexi colorful painting1.和经画It is the highest colorful painting in grade. Its main characteristics are: the center of the painting is made up of various pictures of dragons or phoenix and using the flower patterns to fill the space; both sides of the paintings use 《》 to frame and daub them with some shining coating such as gilding to make them look very magnificent.是等级最高的画。其主要特点是:中间的画面由各种不同的龙或凤的图案组成,间补以花卉图案;画面两边用《》框住,并且沥粉贴金,金碧辉煌,十分壮丽。B. The circle colorful painting2.旋子画Its grade is next to the Hexi colorful painting. The painting uses the simplified form of flowers with the eddy petals; sometimes it can also draw dragon and phoenix. The two sides may frame with gilding powder It is generally used in the less important palace or temples.等级次于和窒画。画面用简化形式的涡卷瓣旋花,有时也可画龙凤,两边框起,可以贴金粉,也可以不贴金粉。一般用在次要宫殿或寺庙中。C. The colorful painting of Su#39;s type3.苏式画Its Grade is lower than the two kinds above. The picture covers landscape, person story, flowers, birds, fish, and insects..., the both sides use ;《》; or ; ( ); to frame. ;(); is called ;wrapper; by architects. The colorful painting of Su#39;s type is developing from the ;wrapper; colorful painting of the South of the Yangze River.等级低于前两种。画面为山水、人物故事、花鸟鱼虫等,两边用《》或()框起。;( );被建筑家们称作;包袱苏式画,便是从江南的包袱画演变而来的。Roof (called in ancient times ;House Cover;)屋顶(古称屋盖) The Chinese traditional roof has the following seven kinds, the Palace Wu of the double-eave roof and the heavy summit of hill of the double-eave roof are the highest grades , and then followed with the Palace Wu of the single-eave roof and the heavy summit of hill of the single-eave roof.中国传统屋顶有以下七种,其中以重檐庞殿顶、重檐歇山顶为级别最高,其次为单檐庞殿、单檐歇山顶。A. The roof of the Palace Wu1.庞殿顶Its all sides are sloping with one positive ridge and four inclined ridges. The house#39;s surface has a little bit radian,it is also called Four A Roof.四面斜坡,有一条正脊和四条斜脊,屋面稍有弧度,又称四阿顶。B. The roof of the heavy summit of hill2.歇山顶It is a combination of the roof of the Palace Wu and the hard summit of hill, which means the upper part of the house surface with four sloping sides, and turns to the triangle wall surface which is hanging straight. There are one positive ridge, four hanging ridges and four dependent ridges in it, so it is also called nine-ridge roof.是庞殿顶和硬山顶的结合,即四面斜坡的屋面上部转折成垂直的兰角形墙面。有一条正脊、四条垂脊,四条依脊组成,所以又称九脊顶。C. The roof of the hang summit of hill3.悬山顶It is that the two sides of the double ascent of the house surface stretch out the gable wall. There is a positive ridge and four hanging ridges on the house surface, so we also call it the roof of the picking-summit of hill.屋面双坡,两侧伸出山墙之外。屋面上有一条正脊和四条垂脊,又称挑山顶。D. The roof of the hard summit of hill4.硬山顶The double ascents of the house surface and two sides of the gable wall are at the same level of the house surface, or slightly higher than it.屋面双坡,两侧山墙同屋面齐平,或略高于屋面。E. The roof of the accumulating top5.攒尖顶Its flat surface is circular or polygon and it is a roof of taper up. There is no positive ridge and several house ridges hand over in the top end. This type of roof is generally used in ordinary pavilion, terraces and towers.平面为圆形或多边形,上为锥形的屋顶,没有正脊,有若干屋脊交于上端。一般亭、阁、塔常用此式屋顶。F. The roof of rolling shed6.卷棚顶The house surface has double ascents and there is no obvious positive ridge, that is the connection of the front ond bock of the oscents building up in layers in a curved form instead of using the ridges.屋面双墟,没有明显的正脊,即前后坡相接处不用脊而砌成弧形曲面。山墙即房子两侧上部成山尖形的墙面。常见的山墙还有风火山墙,其特点是两侧山墙高出屋面,随屋顶的斜坡面而呈阶梯形。Gable Wall藻井It is the wall which is formed as the top of mountain at the up of both sides of the house. The familiar gable wall still has the wind-fire gable wall, which has the characteristics of two sides of gable wall being higher than house surface, presenting a stairs form with the slope surface of the roof.中国传统建筑中天花板上的一种装饰。名为;藻井含有五行,以水克火,预防火灾之义。一般都在寺庙佛座上或宫殿的宝座上方。是平顶的凹进部分,有方格形、六角形、八角形或圆形,上有雕刻或绘,常见的有;双龙戏珠;。Decorated Ceiling Panel (Algae Well)It is a kind of adornment on the ceiling in the Chinese traditional building. ;Algae well; implies that the water subdues fire, which con prevent it from a fire. It is generally above the Buddha#39;s seat of temples or the throne of the palace. Algae well is the sunken part of the even roof, there being square space form, hexagon, octagon or circular, which is engraved or colored up on it,among those pictures ;double dragons play with a bead; is quite populaor. /201505/373243

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