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2018年07月18日 12:41:19|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞管家医院排行榜
The U.S. Federal Communications Commission will vote Thursday on a proposal that would ensure the nation#39;s Internet sector operates as a free and open marketplace.美国联邦通信委员会星期四将投票表决一项有关确保美国互联网成为一个自由公开的交易平台的提案。The commissioners are expected to approve a proposal offered by chairman Tom Wheeler that would ban so-called paid prioritization, in which big Internet service providers would charge content providers a higher fee to stream their material over cyberspace faster than smaller customers.预计该委员会将通过委员会主席维勒提交的这项提案。该提案禁止所谓的“付费优先权”,即互联网务商在收取内容提供商更高费用后,该提供商即可享受更快捷的宽带务。Wheeler#39;s proposal, which he announced earlier this month, would regulate the Internet under a section of the decades old Communications Act that regulates the telephone industry like a public utility.维勒本月早些时候宣布的这一提案将依照一项已实行数十年的通信法案来管理互联网,而制定该法案的初衷是将电话业作为公共设施加以管理。In an opinion piece for Wired magazine, Wheeler said his proposal would ;preserve the Internet as an open platform for innovation and free expression.;维勒在《连线》杂志上说,他的提案将确保互联网成为创意和自由见解的公开平台。 /201502/361035This year, Ford, announced it was opening a research and innovation centre in Silicon Valley. But it’s not just computer geeks that the great American carmaker is hiring these days. It has recently taken on a plethora of social scientists as well, in its research labs in Michigan and around the world.今年,福特(Ford)宣布将在硅谷(Silicon Valley)建立一个研发与创新中心。但是这家美国汽车巨头聘用的并不只是计算机怪才。最近,福特还为位于密歇根乃至世界各地的研究实验室聘请了大批社会科学家。These psychologists, sociologists and anthropologists are trying to understand how we interact with our cars in a cultural sense. It is a striking development and one worth pondering in a personal sense if, like me, you spend much of your life rushing about in a car.这些心理学家、社会学家以及人类学家正试着从文化角度来理解我们是如何与自己的汽车互动的。这是一个引人注目的动向,也是一个值得从个人角度深思的议题——如果你像我一样,每天花费大量时间驾车奔波。In the early days of the company, Ford executives did not seem to be overly concerned about “culture”. The founder, Henry Ford, was cavalier about his customers, famously declaring: “Any customer can have a car painted any colour that he wants so long as it is black.” But while the company has become far better at offering a customised service since Ford’s day, its cars generally seemed to have been designed by clever engineers who tended to assume that everyone liked the same things that they did: mostly flashy gadgets.在公司创立的早期阶段,福特的高管似乎并没有过度担忧“文化”。创始人亨利#8226;福特(Henry Ford)对顾客漫不经心,他有一句“名言”:顾客想要什么颜色的汽车就能拥有什么颜色的汽车——只要它是黑色的。”但是,尽管自从福特时代以来,该公司已经在提供定制化务方面取得长足进展,但总体而言,迄今福特汽车似乎都是由高智商的工程师们设计的,这些人倾向于假定,每个人都喜欢他们所喜欢的东西:大多是花里胡哨的小玩艺。These days, Ford executives have realised that it is not good enough to create cars simply according to what seems cool to its (mostly male) engineers in Michigan. They need to take a much wider and more imaginative view of consumer tastes.如今,福特的高管已经意识到,单纯依据其密歇根工程师(绝大多数为男性)认为炫酷的喜好来造车是不够的。他们需要从一个更开阔、更具想象力的视角来看待消费者的口味。That is partly because of globalisation — and, in particular, the fact that Ford (like all carmakers) is more reliant on the Chinese market for sales. Unsurprisingly, Chinese consumers often have radically different ideas of what makes a great car, especially if they are female.部分原因是全球化,尤其是福特(就像所有汽车制造商一样)现在更依赖于中国市场增长销售的事实。并不奇怪的是,中国消费者(特别是女性消费者)对什么才是好车往往有着截然不同的观点。A second reason why Ford is becoming more interested in culture is that the nature of cars is being transformed in a surprising way. Back when Henry Ford started making his Model T, the task of building cars was a job for technical engineers. Today, it also involves computer experts since cars now contain a dizzying amount of software.福特对文化的兴趣日益浓厚的第二个原因在于,汽车的本质正在以一种出人意料的方式发生转变。当年亨利#8226;福特开始打造其T型车(Model T)时,制造汽车是技术工程师的工作。而现在,研发汽车的过程还涉及计算机专家,因为汽车包含了令人眼花缭乱的各种软件。That has prompted tech companies to jump in. Last month, I listened to some engineers at Viv Labs, a Silicon Valley start-up created by the founders of Apple’s intelligent personal assistant Siri. They explained how we would soon be using cars embedded with artificial intelligence. Companies such as Google are creating self-driving cars and even Apple is rumoured to be creating a car of its own — a move that would probably create even more waves than last week’s launch of the Apple Watch.这促使技术公司加入进来。上个月,我与Viv Labs的几名工程师聊了聊,这是由苹果(Apple)人工智能助手Siri的创始人建立的一家硅谷初创企业。他们向我解释,我们将在不久的未来使用搭载人工智能的汽车。谷歌(Google)等公司正在打造无人驾驶汽车,甚至有传言称苹果也在研发自己的汽车——此举很可能将比上周发布的Apple Watch掀起甚至更大的波澜。As competition from the tech sector heats up, this is not only putting traditional car markets under pressure but also fostering creative thinking about the future of travel. Executives at Ford are now trying to look at the whole business of carmaking in a wider sense — both by hiring social scientists and by working with consultancies such as ReD, a group that specialises in social science research.来自科技行业的竞争日益升温,不仅让传统汽车制造商承受压力,还为未来旅行育创造性的思维。现在,福特高管正尝试以一个更开阔的视野来审视整个汽车制造业务——通过聘请社会科学家,并与专门从事社会科学研究的ReD之类的咨询机构共同合作。“We are looking at the bigger cultural context of cars,” explains Christian Madsbjerg, co-founder of ReD, who says that while Ford used to design cars “inside-out” (based on what engineers wanted), it is now trying to create them “outside-in” (based on what consumers want to experience). Or as Parrish Hanna, Ford’s global director of human machine interface, argues, what Ford is trying to do is promote “innovation” while using social scientists as consultants.“我们正在寻找汽车更大的文化内涵,”ReD的共同创始人克里斯蒂安#8226;马斯比耶尔格(Christian Madsbjerg)解释道。他称,福特过去设计汽车是“由内而外”(根据工程师的要求来设计),而如今它正试着以“由外而内”(根据消费者想要的体验)来打造汽车。或者正如福特全球人机界面总监帕里什#8226;汉纳(Parrish Hanna)所称的那样,福特尝试去做的是促进“创新”,并请社会科学家担任顾问。Though it remains to be seen what type of car will emerge from Ford’s new centre, I applaud the project for two reasons. The first is somewhat partisan: I trained as an anthropologist and have always lamented the fact that the discipline tends to be woefully under-appreciated and under-resourced. If companies such as Ford are now hiring social scientists, it might give anthropology a badly needed boost. Indeed, groups such as ReD say anthropologists are now cropping up in an increasing range of companies, such as Samsung, Adidas, Carlsberg, Lego and so on.尽管福特新的中心会研发出何种车型尚有待观察,但我出于两个原因而赞赏该项目。第一点多少有点偏袒之意:我曾经学习成为一名人类学家,并且一直对该学科倾向于被严重低估及资源不足耿耿于怀。如果福特之类的公司现在开始聘请社会科学家,这或许会给人类学带来一个亟需的推动。事实上,ReD等集团称,人类学家如今在越来越多的公司中崭露头角,比如三星(Samsung)、阿迪达斯(Adidas)、嘉士伯(Carlsberg)、乐高(Lego)等。The second, more important reason this trend is interesting is that it could point to a bigger shift in business attitudes. Back in Henry Ford’s day, the power relationship between corporate executives and consumers was imbalanced; these days consumers can band together to express their preferences — and change their tastes at lightning speed.这种趋势有意思的第二个也是更为重要的原因是,它可能指向商界态度的整体转变。在亨利#8226;福特的时代,企业高管与消费者之间的实力关系是不平衡的;如今消费者可以联合起来表达自己的喜好——并以闪电速度改变自己的口味。So when you next get into a car, it is worth taking a look around and thinking about what you might tell an anthropologist if they were sitting in the passenger seat. Could you imagine a radically different way of driving? Does the way we imagine “cars” meet what you really need? And if it does not, how might we — or those brainiacs in Silicon Valley — redesign the experience? I daresay the answer would make Henry Ford spin in his grave.所以,当你下一次坐进汽车里时,你应该环顾四周并想一想,如果人类学家就坐在副驾座位上,你或许想告诉他/她些什么。你能想象出一种完全不同的驾驶方式吗?我们想象的“汽车”体验是否满足了你的真正需求?如果这未能满足你,我们——或者硅谷的天才们——该如何重新设计这种体验?我敢说,亨利#8226;福特地下有知的话也会忙活起来。 /201503/366462

Apple is working on new ways to strengthen the encryption of customers’ iCloud backups in a way that would make it impossible for the company to comply with valid requests for data from law enforcement, according to people familiar with its plans.苹果(Apple)正在研发新的方法来强化对用户iCloud备份的加密。据熟悉该计划的人士称,这将使得苹果在面对执法部门发出的有法律效力的获取数据的请求时,无法提供任何帮助。The move would bolster Apple customers’ security against hackers but also frustrate investigators who are currently able to obtain data from Apple’s servers through a court order. Apple has complied with thousands of such orders in the past.此举不但可以提升苹果用户享有的安全性、防范黑客攻击,而且会让调查人员徒劳无功。调查人员目前可以借助法庭令从苹果务器获得数据。过去,苹果已遵照执行了几千个这样的法院令。Developing such technology is in some ways more complex than adding the kind of device-level security that Apple introduced to the iPhone in 2014 with its iOS 8 update.从某种角度讲,研发这类技术要比添加那种设备层安全更复杂。2014年,苹果利用其iOS 8更新将设备层安全引入iPhone。Building new protections that mean Apple no longer has access to iCloud encryption keys may inconvenience some customers. Such a change would most likely mean that customers who forget their iCloud password may be left unable to access their photos, contacts and other personal information that is backed up to Apple’s systems.建立新的防护措施意味着,苹果不再能够访问iCloud加密密钥,这可能会为部分用户带来不便。这种变化最可能导致的是,如果用户忘记iCloud密码,可能就无法访问他们的照片、联系人以及备份到苹果系统上的其他个人信息。The plan adds a new twist to Apple’s legal fight with US authorities over access to the San Bernardino shooter’s iPhone. The case has divided US public opinion between those who believe that Apple should help investigators trying to unlock Syed Rizwan Farook’s iPhone, and others who agree with chief executive Tim Cook that doing so would create a dangerous precedent that threatened customer security.该计划为苹果与美国当局围绕是否该解锁圣贝纳迪诺击案凶手的iPhone手机而爆发的法律战增添了新的波折。这宗击案使美国舆论出现了分歧,其中一方认为苹果应帮助调查人员尝试解锁赛义德#8226;里兹万#8226;法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)的iPhone,另一方则赞同苹果首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)的主张,即这么做将树立一个危险的先例、对用户享有的安全性构成威胁。In an interview with A News on Wednesday, Mr Cook said that complying with the FBI’s demand to create a new version of its operating system, which would allow investigators to break into the iPhone, would be like writing “the software equivalent of cancer”.库克周三接受A News采访时表示,听从美国联邦调查局(FBI)的要求开发一个新版本的操作系统(这将让调查人员能够侵入那部iPhone),就像是编写“等同于癌症的软件”。“There are many things technology should never be allowed to do. The way you do not allow it, is to not create it,” Mr Cook said.他说:“有很多事情是技术永远不该去做的。不允许它去做的办法就是别去创造它。“Security gets better with every software release that we have. Encryption gets more advanced. It has to, to stay one step ahead of the bad guys.”“我们每发布一个版本的软件,安全性就提高一级。加密变得更加先进。为了比那些坏家伙领先一步,不得不如此。”Last week, in a conference call with reporters, when asked if the iPhone maker would take further steps to harden its products, an Apple executive said that it was reasonable to expect that Apple would continue to strengthen its security.上周,在与记者们的电话会议上,当有人问到苹果是否会采取进一步举措来强化其产品时,一名苹果高管表示,认为苹果会继续加强其安全性的想法是合理的。The New York Times reported on Wednesday that Apple engineers had aly begun developing new security measures that would prevent authorities from accessing an iPhone, even if they were equipped with the kind of software tool that the company is fighting not to write.《纽约时报》(The New York Times)周三报道称,苹果工程师已开始开发新的安全措施,这些措施将使得当局无法获取iPhone的信息,即便它们搭载了该公司正努力抗争不去编写的那种软件工具。Apple declined to comment on its plans.苹果拒绝就其计划置评。Speaking to A, Mr Cook said that he would be prepared to take its current fight with the FBI to the Supreme Court if necessary.库克在接受A采访时表示,若有必要,他将准备把眼下与FBI的这场法律战打到最高法院(Supreme Court)那里。“If a court compels Apple to write this piece of software, to place a backdoor in the iPhone, we believe it does put hundreds of millions of customers at risk,” he said. “This is not about one phone, this is about the future.”他说:“如果法庭强迫苹果编写这种软件、为这部iPhone植入后门,我们相信这会使无数用户处于危险之中。这关乎的不是一部手机,而是未来。” /201603/428692

Cosmic superhero Stephen Hawking never ceases to amaze his admirers. At the age of 72 he is the world’s most celebrated scientist and the ultimate symbol of triumph over adversity, as he celebrates five decades of intellectual achievement while living with motor neurone disease, which kills most patients within two or three years.“宇宙之王”斯蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)从未停止让他的崇拜者惊叹。72岁高龄的他不仅是在世最著名的科学家,而且是战胜逆境的终极象征。50年来,他在患有运动神经元疾病(MND)情况下取得了非凡学术成就,而这种疾病的患者大多在两、三年内死亡。This week Professor Hawking enjoyed the limelight at the London premiere of the latest film about his life, The Theory of Everything, starring Eddie Redmayne. Last week he showed off a new communications system designed by Intel, which enables him to write and speak more efficiently — in his famous American android voice — by registering tiny movements of his cheek muscles.最近,霍金教授在《万物理论》(The Theory of Everything)伦敦首映式上成为公众瞩目的中心,这是最新一部刻画霍金生平的电影,由埃迪#8226;雷德梅尼(Eddie Redmayne)主演。更早些时候,他展示了由英特尔(Intel)设计的新通讯系统,通过捕捉他脸颊肌肉的微小抽动,这一系统使他能够更高效地写作和讲话——用他那著名的美国机器人的声音。At the same time Prof Hawking stirred up controversywith his views on artificial intelligence, which “could be a real danger in the not too distant future”, he told the Financial Times by email. “The risk is that computers develop intelligence and take over. Humans, who are limited by slow biological evolution, couldn’t compete and would be superseded.”同时,霍金对人工智能的看法激起了争议。他在发给英国《金融时报》的电子邮件中说,人工智能“可能在不太遥远的将来给人类带来真正的危险”。“风险在于电脑开发并掌控智能。人类受到缓慢生物进化的限制,可能无法与之竞争,并被取代。”Lord Rees, astronomer royal and fellow cosmologist, first met Prof Hawking in 1964 when both were graduate students at Cambridge university. “He was aly unsteady on his feet and spoke with great difficulty,” recalls Lord Rees. “I learnt that he might not live long enough even to finish his PhD.英国皇家天文学家、宇宙学家里斯勋爵(Lord Rees)第一次见到霍金是在1964年,那时两人都是剑桥大学的研究生。“他已经无法站稳,而且说话也非常困难,”里斯勋爵回忆说。“我意识到他可能活不了多长时间,甚至可能无法完成他的士学位。”“Astronomers are used to large numbers,” he adds. “But few numbers could be as large as the odds I’d have given, back in 1964 when Stephen received his ‘death sentence’, against ever celebrating this uniquely inspiring crescendo of achievement sustained now for more than 50 years.”他说:“霍金早在1964年就接到了‘死亡判决书’,而他还可以庆祝这一至今逾50年、不断发挥独特的鼓舞人心作用的辉煌成就,放在当年我会认为出现这一结果的几率无比之小。”Prof Hawking’s scientific reputation rests on his work on the relationship between gravity, space and time. “He has done as much to advance our understanding of gravity as anyone since Einstein,” says Lord Rees.霍金在科学领域的声誉建立在他对重力、空间和时间关系的研究上。“他是继爱因斯坦之后,在加深我们对重力的理解方面贡献最大的人,”里斯勋爵说。His most celebrated research concerns black holes, concentrations of matter so dense even light cannot escape their gravitational pull. Prof Hawking showed black holes are not just a bizarre theoretical construct but also play an important role in the development of the universe. His eureka moment came in the early 1970s, when he realised that black holes would not be completely black but would emit what became known as “Hawking radiation”, a key concept in mathematical physics.他最著名的研究成果与黑洞有关。黑洞是超高密度的天体,连光都逃不过他们的引力。霍金告诉人们,黑洞不仅是一种奇怪的理论建构,而且在宇宙的进化中发挥着重要作用。他的“尤里卡时刻”在上世纪70年代初降临,当时他认识到黑洞并不完全是黑的,而是会发射出被称做“霍金辐射“的能量,这个词后来也成为数学物理领域的一个重要概念。Although his subsequent work has not had such a strong scientific impact, he has continued to publish research papers on quantum cosmology, tackling questions such as what happened before the birth of our universe. His later output is doubly remarkable in a mathematical subject where most researchers peak at an early age.虽然霍金之后的研究没再产生那么大的科学影响,但他不断地发表关于量子宇宙学的研究论文,力图解答诸如宇宙诞生前发生了什么之类的问题。他后来在一个数学课题上取得了卓越成果,而在这一领域,大多数研究者在年轻时就达到了顶峰。He became a celebrity in 1988 with the publication of his first popular book, the bestselling A Brief History of Time. Ten further books have appeared, including four written for children with his daughter, Lucy. “The concept of an imprisoned mind roaming the cosmos plainly gripped people’s imagination,” Lord Rees says.霍金在1988年因其第一本畅销书《时间简史》(A Brief History of Time)成为名人。之后,他又出版了10本书,其中4本是为儿童以及他的女儿露西(Lucy)所写。“一颗身体被禁锢的心灵在宇宙中漫游的想法显然激发了人们的想象,”里斯勋爵说。Prof Hawking enjoys his fame, happily filling lecture rooms from London’s Royal Albert Hall to the White House. He has featured in Star Trek, The Simpsons and many other television shows. Several films have been made about him, including a notable portrayal by Benedict Cumberbatch in 2004.霍金享受他的声誉,他高兴地发表演讲,从伦敦的皇家阿尔伯特音乐厅(Royal Albert Hall)到白宫的演讲厅都挤满了他的听众。他在《星际迷航》(Star Trek)、《辛普森一家》(The Simpsons)和其他许多电视节目中出演过。已有多部关于霍金的电影问世,其中包括本尼迪克特#8226;康伯巴奇(Benedict Cumberbatch)在2004年塑造的著名形象。The best account of Prof Hawking’s early life is his memoir, My Brief History,published last year. He grew up just north of London, the son of Oxford graduates. After three laid-back undergraduate years, also at Oxford, serious work began as a Cambridge postgrad. His illness started at that point, too.对霍金早年生活最好的记录是他的回忆录——去年出版的《我的简史》(My Brief History)。他在伦敦北部长大,父母都是牛津大学毕业生。他同样在牛津念大学,度过3年悠闲的本科时光之后,他成为一名剑桥硕士生并开始了严肃的研究工作。他的病情也是在那时开始发展的。The Theory of Everything focuses on Prof Hawking’s marriage to Jane Wilde, who looked after him and their three children with extraordinary devotion for more than 25 years. They broke up under the strain of 24-hour medical care — and in 1995 he married Elaine Mason, one of his nurses. That, too, ended in divorce and since 2006 he has depended on a team of helpers — and the best medical technology available.新片《万物理论》着重刻画了霍金与简#8226;怀尔德(Jane Wilde)的婚姻,后者为照顾霍金和他们的3个孩子做出了超过25年的非凡奉献。但在24小时医疗护理的压力下,他们离婚了。1995年,霍金与照看他的护士之一伊莱恩#8226;梅森(Elaine Mason)结婚,但这段婚姻也以离婚收场。自2006年以来,霍金一直依靠一个助手团队和当今最先进的医疗技术生活。Prof Hawking retains a strong sense of fun and adventure, though respiratory problems are curtailing his ability to travel and in particular to fly.霍金依然对和冒险保持强烈的兴趣,尽管呼吸道问题限制了他旅行,特别是坐飞机。“He is a fantastic symbol for people living with motor neurone disease,” says Belinda Cupid, research director of the UK Motor Neurone Disease Association, with his role in the 2012 London Paralympics opening ceremony particularly inspiring. “As patron of our charity, he is very generous with his time.” Why Prof Hawking has lived so much longer than other MND patients remains a medical mystery, however.英国运动神经元疾病协会研究部主任贝琳达#8226;丘比特谈到霍金在2012年伦敦残奥会开幕式上特别鼓舞人心的作用时说:“他对患有运动神经元疾病的人来说是一个神奇的象征。”“作为我们慈善机构的赞助人,他付出了很多时间。”但是,为什么霍金可以比其他运动神经元疾病患者多活如此之久仍是个医学谜题。In the past 15 years Intel engineers have looked after his communications needs. “They have redesigned my software and incorporated new word prediction algorithms that allow me to write faster,” he says. “Through my computer I can write, talk, scientific papers, make Skype phone calls and search on the internet. Recently I decided to join Facebook .”在过去15年中,英特尔的工程师一直在关注他的通讯需求。“他们重新设计了我的软件,并加装了新的单词预测算法,让我可以写得更快,”霍金说。“通过我的电脑,我能够书写、讲话、阅读科学论文、拨打Skype电话以及在互联网上进行搜索。最近,我决定加入Facebook。”Important as Prof Hawking’s own research has been, his role as a beacon inspiring young people to study maths and physics may be even more influential in the long run, says Professor David Wands, director of Portsmouth university’s cosmology institute: “The iconic figure of Hawking the celebrity is impossible to disentangle from his profound contribution as a scientist.”朴茨茅斯大学宇宙学研究所所长大卫#8226;万兹(David Wands)教授说,与霍金教授自己所做的研究同样重要的是,从长远来看,他作为鼓舞年轻人学习数学和物理的一盏明灯可能会发挥更大的影响。“霍金作为一个名人的偶像形象不可能脱离他作为一个科学家的巨大贡献。” /201412/349711

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