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来源:飞度技术养生交流    发布时间:2017年12月13日 17:10:54    编辑:admin         

Online privacy and law enforcement网络隐私与执法Unwarranted毫无道理Why Microsoft is resisting an official demand to hand over data为什么微软要抵制官方要求拒不交出数据LAWYERS for Microsoft and the American government are due to face each other in a court inNew Yorkon July 31st. The two sides have been arguing for months about a warrant, served on Microsoft in December, which requires the company to hand over e-mails stored at data centres inIreland. Microsoft has aly challenged the warrant once, but the judge who issued it upheld it.微软与美国政府的双方律师预订于7月31日在纽约的一个法庭上碰面。双方对于在12月送达微软的搜查令的争论已持续数月,这一搜查令要求微软交出存储在爱尔兰数据中心的电子邮件。微软曾对此搜查令提出过质疑,但是发出这一搜查令的法官坚持要搜查。Microsoft has two main objections to the warrant, which law-enforcement officers sought during an investigation into drug-trafficking. First, it says, an American warrant cannot be used to seize evidence held abroad. Second, it claims that the warrant breaks the constitutions Fourth Amendment, which forbids “unreasonable searches and seizures”,by not specifying where the evidence is to be taken from. The warrant refers only to “information…stored at premises owned, maintained, controlled or operated by Microsoft”. The company says the government should get the information by approaching the Irish authorities, using a bilateral treaty.这一搜查令的执法人员在调查过程中追查毒品交易,而微软对此搜查令主要有两项反对。首先,美国的搜查令不能用于没收保存在国外的据。其次,微软声称,这一搜查令违反了宪法第四修正案,而这一修正案禁止不指明据去向的不合理的搜查与扣押。搜查令仅涉及储存在由微软所拥有、维护、控制或管理的场所的那些信息。微软表示,政府应该使用一项双边条例,通过爱尔兰当局得到那些信息。The government calls this absurd. If Microsofts argument stands, it believes, criminals could put electronic evidence beyond the long arm of the law simply by claiming to live outside theed States.The government also says using treaties to seek information can be slow.政府称这很荒谬。它认为,如果微软的说法站得住脚,犯罪分子就能声称居住在美国境外,轻易的把电子据储存在法律臂长不及的地方。政府也称,使用跨国条例来查找信息,进度缓慢。What is more, it argues, Microsoft is defining a warrant too narrowly. This matters because the authorities need a warrant, which requires no prior notice of seizure, to get hold of unopened e-mails less than six months old. For older or opened e-mails, they need only a subpoena, a notice demanding that certain items be presented in court. The original judge agreed, saying that a warrant under the relevant law—the Stored Communications Act (SCA)—was a “hybrid” of a search warrant and a subpoena. In that case, Microsoft retorts, why did Congress bother to distinguish between a warrant and a subpoena when it drew up the law?政府认为,更重要的是,微软对搜查令的定义太过狭隘。这很重要,因为政府需要使搜查令无需事先通知就能没收据,以得到六个月内还未阅读的电子邮件。而要获取超过6个月的或已阅的电子邮件,他们仅需要发出一张传票—一个要求将相关条目呈上法庭的通知。原告法官认同说,涉及相关法律—存储通讯法的搜查令,是一种搜查令和传票的混合体。在这种情况下,微软反驳说,在制定法律的时候,为什么国会要如此麻烦的区分搜查令和传票?Commerce as well as principle explains Microsofts nitpicking—and the supporting briefs that other American tech firms have filed in the case. If foreigners fear their data are not safe from Uncle Sams prying eyes in an American-owned data centre, they may turn to domestic providers, at American companies expense. Such worries have grown since Edward Snowdens leaks of American spooks activities last year. The tech firms may also hope a long court battle will prompt Congress to update the SCA. The law dates from 1986, when few imagined the internets borderless realm.商业以及原则解释了微软的找茬和对于其他美国科技公司牵扯进此案的简短的拥护声明。如果国外用户担心他们储存在美国所属的数据中心的数据,在美国政府的窥探下不安全,他们也许会转向本国的供应商而让美国公司付出代价。自从爱德华.斯诺登去年泄露了美国的间谍活动,这样的担心就日渐增长。高科技公司也许同样会希望一场法庭上持久战将会促使国会改进存储通讯法案。这一法案可追溯到1986年,那时没有人会想象到互联网会发展到无国界的境界。 /201407/316288。

Its easy to tell, even at a glance, that people and moose are pretty different.很显然,即便只是匆匆一瞥,也能轻易看出人和糜鹿是完全不同的动物。Moose, at leastmales, have big, wing shaped antlers.糜鹿,至少是雄性糜鹿拥有大型的、像翅膀一样的鹿角。People have no antlers. Moose are herbivores, eating only plants.而人是没有角的。糜鹿是食草动物,只吃植物。We eat mostly junk food.我们却几乎总吃垃圾食品。Despite their salad only diet, moose can weigh as much as 1400pounds.尽管“色拉”是糜鹿唯一的食物,它们的体重却能达到1400磅。Even the fattest humans top the scales at only around 1000 pounds.而我们人类中最胖的也只有1000磅。The list goes on.二者间的差异数不胜数。And yet, in some ways, people and moose are similar.但是在某些方面,人与糜鹿是相似的。For example, both suffer from arthritis.例如,两者都饱受关节炎的困扰。And thats interesting because how and why moose develop arthritis may be able to tell us something about the pathology of the human variety.这个问题很有趣,因为研究糜鹿患上关节炎的过程和原因,可能有助于我们发现一些人类患关节炎的病理。For example, researchers working in Michigans upper peninsula have been studying moose there for decades.例如,位于密西根湖上游半岛的研究人员已经对糜鹿进行了数十年的研究。And one thing theyve found is while arthritis in moose is partly genetic, its also triggered by the environment.他们发现糜鹿患关节炎在一定程度上是由基因引起的,同时也受到环境的影响。Specifically, the researchers have observed that moose that suffer from arthritis seem to have not had access to proper nutrition early in life.特别需要提到的是,研究人员观察的那些患关节炎的糜鹿似乎幼年都营养不良。Perhaps they were born during a drought when there werent enough berries and other plants toeat.可能是因为它们出生于旱期,没有足够的浆果和其他植被可以食用。Whatever the case, even if those moose had plenty to eat later on, their very early nutritional deficits appear to have doomed them to an adult life of aching joints.无论情况如何,即便那些糜鹿后来有足够的食物,它们幼年的营养匮乏使它们的成年生活注定与关节疼痛相伴。The take away for scientists who study arthritis, and doctors who treat it in people, is that how and what we eat, even as babies, may lay the foundation for chronic arthritis and other health problems later in life.研究关节炎的科学家和治疗关节炎的医生得出结论:我们怎么吃、吃什么可能会为后来生活中的慢性关节炎和其他健康问题埋下隐患。And thanks to the moose, those scientists are also beginning to better understand the sorts ofdiets that could lower those risks.得益于对麋鹿的研究,那些科学家也开始更好地了解能降低患关节炎风险的饮食种类。 201404/288733。