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2018年12月19日 18:02:40|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度排名公立医院
Business商业报道Chinese industry中国工业Haier and higher海尔海阔天空The radical boss of Haier wants to transform the worlds biggest appliance-maker into a nimble internet-age firm与众不同的海尔老总想将世界上最大的家电制造商改造成一家矫捷的互联网时代的公司NO URINATION or defecation in the working area. That admonition was among 13 rules that managers felt necessary to post on the walls of a shambolic fridge factory in Qingdao in the early 1980s.上世纪八十年代早期,一家位于青岛的冰箱制造厂车间赫然写着:不许在车间大小便,厂长认为这对于已经陷入混乱的工厂来说很有必要。After several senior managers failed to turn it around, in 1984 the municipal government of the Chinese city appointed a young employee, Zhang Ruimin, as the firms boss.在一年几度换帅却无法扭转颓势的情况下,年轻的张瑞敏临危受命出任厂长。The gamble worked. Since then a lousy local firm has turned into the worlds biggest appliance-maker.青岛市政府的这次豪赌收到了成效,随后这家濒临倒闭的工厂一跃成为世界上最大的家电制造商。Most think of Chinese companies as peddlers of cheap, undifferentiated kit or mere copycats.印象中,中国公司即廉价产品、低端元件、或山寨产品的代名词。In contrast, Haier is recognised globally for reliability and marketing know-how.相比之下,海尔已赢得全球顾客的信赖,并且精通市场运作。Mr Zhang had spent time in quality-obsessedGermany, where he observed that even manhole covers were precisely made and numbered.张瑞敏曾到以品质著称的德国考察,他注意到在那里即便只是一个普通的井盖都是精密制造的,还编上了序号,It made a deep impression.这在他脑海里留下了深刻的印象。Incensed that a fifth of the products his plant turned out were defective, in 1985 he handed out sledgehammers and joined employees in smashing 76 faulty fridges in public view.随后,工厂生产的产品不合格率高达20%令他震怒;1985年,他让生产出那些不合格产品的员工当众砸毁了76台冰箱。That won him national celebrity and was the start of the firms transformation.这让他在全国开始小有名气,工厂的转型也由此拉开了序幕。Now comes Mr Zhangs latest radical notion: eliminating the firms entire middle management.如今,张瑞敏最新的理念是:去掉公司所有中层管理人员。But surely it is barmy to tinker with a successful business model?但是,但是如此巨大地改动成功的商业模式是不是疯了?A close inspection of the firms rise reveals that Mr Zhang has never adhered to conventional wisdom.进一步审视海尔的崛起之路不难发现,张瑞敏从不会受制于传统观念。Haier became Chinas biggest fridge-maker in 1999 in part by acquiring lots of lossmaking local rivals.1999年,海尔成为中国最大的冰箱制造厂,一个原因是他不断兼并国内日益亏损的竞争对手。Mr Zhang looked for firms with strong products and markets but inept leadership—stunned fish, he calls them—that could be turned around by superior management.张瑞敏注意到的是那些产品质量过硬、有一定市场份额而管理不善的公司—他称之为休克鱼—这些公司能够通过先进的管理扭转格局。His un-Chinese obsession with quality and branding helped, earning his products a premium even during periodic price wars.他对产品质量、品牌的非中国特色式痴迷,让他在周期性的价格战中为其产品赢得了一项荣誉。He also emphasised top-flight service, rare in China, promising that machines would be free if not delivered within 24 hours.同时,他还注重一流的务理念,这在中国也实属罕见。他向顾客许诺如果海尔产品如果未能在下单后24小时送达,该订单即可免费。Mr Zhang also defied Chinese notions of how to expand overseas.此外,张瑞敏摒弃了中国传统的海外扩张思想。Rather than go first to less competitive regions like South-East Asia and Africa, Haier long ago pushed into America and Europe.很久以前,海尔首先打入美国、欧洲市场,而非首先向竞争力薄弱的东南亚、非洲扩展。Mr Zhang wanted the firm to learn how to meet the demands of the worlds most sophisticated consumers.张瑞敏希望公司能够学校如何满足世界上最挑剔客户的需求,Haiers quality exceeded norms set even byJapans exacting standards bodies.海尔的质量甚至高于日本严格的产品标准。By listening closely to demanding consumers, his firms fast and frugal engineers came up with clever products like mini-fridges built into computer tables, freezers with a slightly warmer compartment and horizontal deep freezers with two tiers of drawers.通过仔细聆听用户需求,海尔敏捷的工程师设计出的智能产品,如内置于电脑桌中的小冰箱,冷冻机上带有一个小暖室,还有一个带有两层抽屉的水平冷藏器。Haier also developed new niches, such as affordable wine fridges, ignored by Western rivals obsessed with economies of scale.海尔还设计了新的壁龛式冰箱,如储酒冰箱,其西方竞争对手痴迷于规模化生产,不屑于这种小众化的产品。It is now pioneering wireless charging of appliances.如今,海尔现在正走在家电无线控制技术的前列。The results of Mr Zhangs unconventional strategy have been breathtaking.张瑞敏非传统策略的成果令人震惊。Haiers revenues have shot up fourfold since 2000, topping 160 billion yuan last year.2000年后,海尔的销售收入增长了四倍,去年达到了1600亿元。Pre-tax profits rose more than six fold over the same period.同期,税前利润涨幅超过六倍。It was judged the eighth most innovative firm worldwide, ahead of Amazon among others, in a ranking drawn up last year by the Boston Consulting Group. And now KKR, a private-equity giant, is investing in the firm.去年,波士顿咨询公司发布的一项排名显示,海尔跻身全球第八大创新企业,领先与亚马逊等名企。现今,股权投资巨头科尔伯格-克拉维斯公司已向海尔投资。It has stumped up 0m for a 10% stake, if the rumours are correct.如果传言属实,KKR向海尔注资5000万美元,占其投资份额10%。Most bosses would be satisfied with such a record, but not Mr Zhang.如此骄人成绩换做任何老总都会很满意,但张瑞敏却不沾沾自喜。Though in his 60s, he still works nearly every day and he rarely takes a holiday.尽管已年过花甲,他仍然将近每天工作,基本不休假。And far from resting on his laurels, he is occupied reinventing his business.张瑞敏非但没有躺在过去的功劳簿上,现今还致力于公司重整。The point of killing middle management is to make the firm more responsive, he says: In the past, employees waited to hear from the boss; now, they listen to the customer.去掉公司所有中层管理人员的意义在于让公司更加。他说:过去,员工等着老板发话;现在,他们得听顾客的。Previously, the firms 80,000 or so workers toiled in traditional and distinct areas like manufacturing, sales and so on.先前,海尔近8万员工遵循传统,在诸如制造、销售等不同部门辛勤工作。Now, they are organised into 2,000 zi zhu jing ying ti—self-managed teams that perform many different roles.现今,他们每2000人组建一个自主经营体,实现团队自我管理,履行各种不同职能。Each is responsible for profit and loss, and individuals are paid on performance.经营体内每位成员都要对团队盈亏负责,个人报酬多少基于其表现好坏。In the past, managers relied on internal support services for, say, research or marketing.过去,像市场调查、营销这类工作,管理人员需要依靠内部的援。To encourage open innovation, the firm insists the new ZZJYTs must attract outside partners and resources.为了鼓励开放式创新,海尔坚持自主经营体必须吸引外部合作伙伴及相应资源。If ambitious employees spot an opportunity, they are free to propose an idea for a new product or service.如果雄心勃勃的员工发现机遇,他们完全可以建议开发一款新产品或一项新务。A vote, which can include not just employees but suppliers and customers, decides which project goes ahead.一种即包括员工,还兼顾供应商、顾客的投票机制,可以决定哪个项目先行实施。The winner also becomes the projects leader.同时,胜者将成为项目负责人。He forms his team by recruiting from across the company; employees are free to join or leave ZZJYTs.张瑞敏通过从整个公司挑选人才,搭建管理团队;员工自行选择是否加入自由经济体。Mr Zhang says the goal is a free market in talent, so the cream rises.他表示这样做的目的是人才自由市场,是金子便会发光。He explains why such disruption is necessary: If we dont challenge ourselves, someone else will.他解释道这样分化管理的必要性:如果我们不自己寻求挑战,总有人会向我们发起挑战。If that sounds like talk straight out of Silicon Valley, in a sense it is.这话听起来就像硅谷的理念,从某种意义上来说确实如此。He is convinced that if Haier is to flourish in the internet age, it must become a services company.张瑞敏相信如果公司想在当今的互联网时代站稳脚跟,那么海尔就要成为一家务型公司。He even thinks it can mine user information to become a big data firm, to serve customers even better.他甚至认为海尔可以开发用户信息而成为一家大型数据公司,如此才能更好的为顾务。How exactly does Mr Zhang intend to strike a balance between the chaotic entrepreneurial energy released by the ZZJYTs and the need for corporate control at the top?既然如此,那么张瑞敏又如何做到平衡混乱自由经济体的创造力和公司高层对整个企业的管理呢?We dont need to balance!, he says with a smile. An unsteady and dynamic environment is the best way to keep everyone flexible.对此,他坦然一笑,并说道:我们不需要去平衡,一个不稳定的动态环境是让每个人都灵活工作的最佳途径。If you doubt his seriousness, just consider the catfish.如果你怀疑他的决心,想想鲶鱼效应的作用。Yang Lin, who started at the firm 12 years ago as a technician, won the contest to become the head of the team for automatic top-loading washing machines.12年前,杨林开始了自己在海尔的技术员工作。如今,他已成为海尔洗衣机全自动型号经营体长。He works extremely hard, he says, not only to earn his bonus but also to stay ahead of the catfish.他说自己工作努力,不仅可以分得公司红利,还在诸多鲶鱼中处于领先位置。That is what the firm calls the person with a rival idea who came second in the voting. He works on the victors team but watches for any chance to unseat him.这便是海尔号召竞职选举中得票第二的人要有竞争意识的结果,他为第一工作,却时刻想着取代第一。Does this upset Mr Yang?这让杨林感到困扰吗?I cant run things like an emperor, he reflects, but I dont mind.他反省道:我无法像一个皇帝统揽大权,但我并不介意。In fact, Im a catfish to other teams myself.事实上,对于其他团队而言我同样也是只很具竞争力的鲶鱼。Its fish-eat-fish at the heart of the worlds most successful white-goods firm.这种鱼吃鱼的理念已经深入这家世界上最成功的家电公司。 /201310/260798q]n;u0Gw8+p(*HG4N7Lf[XsT)!^Colombian mammoths had to feed almost round the clock to fuel their bulky bodies.哥伦比亚猛玛象每天24小时都在不停地进食来供养它庞大的身体@yRxQza#dv]h。But as the ice age ended, food was not the mammoths biggest problem.随着冰河时代的终结,猛犸象面临的最大困难并不是食物IGtDZ~TDMM。A new and deadly predator began to infiltrate the plains,致命的新捕食者悄然入侵平原,a match for any prey, even the mighty mammoths.它其捕食的猎物都强大,即使是巨大的猛犸象8~[]Vs.C*P0;Ec。These people knew how to make lethal weapons.这些人懂得如何制造致命的武器JFLrFi9APP4+hhkFG。They let spear points, knife blades and other tools scattered all across the plains.他们制造了尖矛,石刀片和其他可以横扫平原的武器,_JF;8jGkOQ。And they sp fast. The evidence suggests it took them,这些武器传播的很快AbwRg7aRpBVjs.。据考,它们only 1,000 years to sp across the entire northern continent.只花了一千年时间就传遍了整个北方大陆0rBM*bmGgrK2S。What can we learn today about the lifestyle of these butchers of the plains?今天,我们能从这些草原屠杀者的生活方式中了解到些什么?They left a stream of clues to how they lived, including strange pyramids of rocks.他们给后人留下了一些他们生活的遗迹,包括石头堆砌的奇形怪状的三角形塔t1(cruY5|)fY2z,^PuXz。Inside are bones of animals that show how they were slaughtered and cut up for meat.塔里面有动物的残骸,显示了它们是如何被宰杀和分割的MU7@Ynp95@;DPvmK,。These camps are thought to be cold-weather larders, marking prehistoric hunting camps.这些塔被当做天气冷时候的贮藏室,标记着史前的狩猎营地@]H,ChXxZZVNj%R8w。When hunting parties had more meat than they could eat or carry,当这些狩猎者们猎获的肉吃不完也搬不走时,they would stash the surplus under these rocks to be collected later.他们就会把剩下的堆积在收集好的石头下面贮藏,They seemed to have used bones as markers.他们似乎使用骨头作为标记m~u5F,S5@%XN(。k|rQh+oo4@+2;Z%1ec39P]CfQmxrVx#[Wmez7P4FU~q%]goz201304/235369Heres a neat experiment: Find an open doorway and standinside it, facing into the room.做一个简单的实验:找一扇开着的门并站在门口,面向房间。Now press your arms outward until the backs of your hands are pressing into the door frame.接下来向外伸展手臂直到手背是被压入门框。Go ahead and try it. Keep pressing outward, as hard as you feel comfortable with, for the nextminute or so.试一试吧,努力向外伸展手臂,接下来的几分钟你将会感到很舒。In the meantime, lets talk about what your muscles are doing.一起来讨论一下这期间你的肌肉发挥了什么样的作用。In order to maintain the rightamount of stiffness, your muscles need to know how much resistance theyre up against.人体肌肉需要了解他们所承受的阻力是多少以便能够保持适当的刚度。To check this, your muscles have sensory receptors inside the muscle tissue itself which tell your nervous system just how stiff or relaxed these muscles are.由此,肌肉组织内部有感觉感受器,通过这些感受器向神经系统传达肌肉的僵硬度或者是松弛度。For example, muscle spindles are thin,fluid filled sacks that measure your muscles stretch.例如肌梭是体内感觉肌肉伸展的细长梭形本体感受器, Receptors in the tendons measure your muscles contraction.肌腱中的感受器感觉肌肉的收缩。With this information feeding back from the muscle, your body can figureout how tight the muscle needs to be in order to keep it in the same place.有了这些从肌肉中反馈的信息,本体才能计算出为了使肌肉保持在相同位置需要多大的松紧度。Which, right now asyou press the doorway, is pretty tight.在按住门口时,肌肉绷得很紧。What will happen, though, if you suddenly take the resistance of that door frame away? Lets findout.如果突然移除门框的阻力会发生怎样的事情?一起来寻找。Step into the room again and completely relax your arms.走进房间,彻底放松自己的手臂。If youve been pressing hard enough,youll be surprised to find your arms now drifting effortlessly upward, as though you had heliumballoons tied to your wrists.如果您之前压得足够紧,您会惊讶的发现您可以毫不费力的向上抬起手臂,仿佛有一只氦气球绑在您的手腕上。Whats going on is this: While you were pressing, your muscles learned that they needed to bepretty stiff to stay in the same place.一切缘由如下:在您用力压的时候,肌肉感知到需要崩得很紧才能处于同样的位置,Stepping out of the doorway changed all that-and very suddenly.而走出门口之后一切在瞬间改变,It takes your muscles a few moments to learn about this new situation.肌肉感受新情形需要花费一些时间,Until that happens, your arms will continue to press outward against a door frame thats no longer there.在这期间,手臂仍然保持在一种向外继续按压已经不存在的门框的状态。201408/317309

If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then youknow that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。Everyseason several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion,amnesia, nausea,dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling ofthe brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by thehead spinning suddenly.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。Take, for example, a common incident during a football game.以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,Thequarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps movingand hits the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twistsviolently.同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brushthe skull.头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain.结果是脑部化学失衡。All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area firesimultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning andmemory.所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells toget the nutrients they need to recover.化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good ideato take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 201402/277100

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