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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年01月24日 14:40:58
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  WASHINGTON — An unusual question is capturing the attention of cyberspecialists, Russia experts and Democratic Party leaders in Philadelphia: Is Vladimir V. Putin trying to meddle in the American presidential election?华盛顿——一个不寻常的问题正引起网络专家、俄罗斯问题专家和身在费城的民主党领导人的注意:弗拉基米尔·V·普京(Vladimir V. Putin)是否在干预美国总统选举?Until Friday, that charge, with its eerie suggestion of a Kremlin conspiracy to aid Donald J. Trump, has been only whispered.这一指责,以及它所带来的可怕暗示——克里姆林宫密谋协助唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)——直到周五前都还只是捕风捉影。But the release on Friday of some 20,000 stolen emails from the Democratic National Committee’s computer servers, many of them embarrassing to Democratic leaders, has intensified discussion of the role of Russian intelligence agencies in disrupting the 2016 campaign.但周五公布的约2万封窃自民主党全国委员会(Democratic National Committee)务器的电子邮件,促使人们更迫切地开始讨论俄罗斯情报机构对2016年竞选的干扰活动,其中有不少邮件令民主党领袖十分难堪。The emails, released first by a supposed hacker and later by WikiLeaks, exposed the degree to which the Democratic apparatus favored Hillary Clinton over her primary rival, Senator Bernie Sanders of Vermont, and triggered the resignation of Debbie Wasserman Schultz, the party chairwoman, on the eve of the convention’s first day.邮件最初来自一个据推测为黑客的人,而后由维基解密(WikiLeaks)公布。它们的内容揭示了在希拉里·克林顿(Hillary Clinton)和其主要对手佛蒙特州参议员伯尼·桑德斯(Bernie Sanders)的竞争中,民主党机关严重偏袒前者,此事已导致该党全国委员会主席黛比·沃瑟曼·舒尔茨(Debbie Wasserman Schultz)在全国大会即将开幕之际辞职。Proving the source of a cyberattack is notoriously difficult. But researchers have concluded that the national committee was breached by two Russian intelligence agencies, which were the same attackers behind previous Russian cyberoperations at the White House, the State Department and the Joint Chiefs of Staff last year. And metadata from the released emails suggests that the documents passed through Russian computers. Though a hacker claimed responsibility for giving the emails to WikiLeaks, the same agencies are the prime suspects. Whether the thefts were ordered by Mr. Putin, or just carried out by apparatchiks who thought they might please him, is anyone’s guess.明网络攻击的源头非常困难,人所共知。但研究人员已经得出结论,全国委员会是遭到了两个俄罗斯情报机构的攻击,同一批人还在去年针对白宫、国务院和参谋长联席会议发起了网络行动。从泄露邮件的元数据来看,文档由俄罗斯的计算机经手过。有一名黑客宣布邮件是由他提供给维基解密的,但前述两家情报机构被认为有重大嫌疑。至于窃取邮件的行动是由普京下令进行的,还是手下的喽啰为了讨好他而主动展开的,就各有说法了。On Sunday morning, the issue erupted, as Mrs. Clinton’s campaign manager, Robby Mook, argued on A’s “This Week” that the emails were leaked “by the Russians for the purpose of helping Donald Trump” citing “experts” but offering no other evidence. Mr. Mook also suggested that the Russians might have good reason to support Mr. Trump: The Republican nominee indicated in an interview with The New York Times last week that he might not back NATO nations if they came under attack from Russia — unless he was first convinced that the countries had made sufficient contributions to the Atlantic alliance.问题在周日早上爆发,当时克林顿的竞选经理罗比·莫克(Robby Mook)在A的《本周》(This Week)节目上说,邮件是“俄罗斯人为了帮助唐纳德·特朗普”而泄露的,他说自己表达的是“专家”的看法,但没有给出其他据。莫克还提出,俄罗斯人持特朗普是有原因的:这位共和党候选人上周在接受《纽约时报》采访时说,如果北约国家遭到俄罗斯的攻击,他可能不会给予援——除非这些国家先让他确信,它们会向这个大西洋联盟投入足够多的资金。It was a remarkable moment: Even at the height of the Cold War, it was hard to find a presidential campaign willing to charge that its rival was essentially secretly doing the bidding of a key American adversary. But the accusation is emerging as a theme of Mrs. Clinton’s campaign, as part of an attempt to portray Mr. Trump not only as an isolationist, but also as one who would go soft on confronting Russia as it threatens nations that have shown too much independence from Moscow or, in the case of Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, joined NATO.那一刻是非同寻常的:即使在冷战的严峻时期,也很难看到一个总统竞选团队对其对手做出这样的指控,称他实际上在秘密地为美国的重要敌对国竞逐总统职位。然而这项指控现在成了克林顿的一个竞选主题,它的目标是把特朗普描绘成一个孤立主义者,不仅如此,他还会软化美国针对俄罗斯的立场,与此同时后者正在威胁那些渐渐远离莫斯科的国家,或者像立陶宛、拉脱维亚和爱沙尼亚这样加入了北约的国家。Mr. Trump has also said he would like to “get along with Russia” if he is elected, and complimented Mr. Putin, saying he is more of a leader than President Obama. Mr. Putin has in turn praised Mr. Trump. But Trump campaign officials on Sunday strongly rejected any connections between their candidate and efforts to undermine the Democrats.特朗普还说,如果当选,他会“和俄罗斯好好相处”,并赞扬了普京,称他是比奥巴马总统更好的领导人。普京反过来也夸了特朗普。但特朗普竞选团队在周日强烈否认他们的候选人和破坏民主党的行动有任何关联。“Are there any ties between Mr. Trump, you or your campaign and Putin and his regime?” George Stephanopoulos, of “This Week,” asked Paul Manafort, Mr. Trump’s campaign chairman.“特朗普、你本人或者你们的竞选团队与普京及其政权有什么关系吗?”《本周》栏目的主持人乔治·斯特凡诺普洛斯(George Stephanopoulos)向特朗普的竞选经理保罗·马纳福特(Paul Manafort)发问。“No, there are not,” Mr. Manafort shot back. “That’s absurd. And, you know, there’s no basis to it.”“没有,根本没有,”马纳福特予以反驳。“这种说法很荒唐。你要知道,它没什么依据。”One of Mr. Trump’s sons, Donald Trump Jr., was more definitive, charging the Clinton camp with a smear campaign. “I can’t think of bigger lies,” he said on CNN. The younger Mr. Trump mockingly suggested that Mr. Mook’s “house cat at home once said this is what happened with the Russians.’’特朗普之子小唐纳德·特朗普(Donald Trump Jr.)对此更加坚定,指责克林顿阵营对他们进行抹黑。“我想不出比这更大的谎言,”他在接受CNN采访时回应。小特朗普还语带嘲讽地表示,莫克“家的猫说俄罗斯人是这么干的。”It may take months, or years, to figure out the motives of those who stole the emails, and more important, whether they were being commanded by Russian authorities, and specifically by Mr. Putin. But the theft from the national committee would be among the most important state-sponsored hacks yet of an American organization.可能要花数月乃至数年才能搞清楚窃取邮件者的动机,以及更重要的问题:他们是否受到俄罗斯当局的指使,尤其是普京本人。不过,民主党全国委员会邮件泄露事件会是美国机构遭遇的由别国持的最严重的黑客袭击之一。Evidence so far suggests that the attack was the work of at least two separate agencies, each apparently working without the knowledge that the other was inside the Democrats’ computers. It is unclear how WikiLeaks obtained the email trove. But the presumption is that the intelligence agencies turned it over, either directly or through an intermediary. Moreover, the timing of the release, between the end of the Republican convention and the beginning of the Democratic one, seems too well planned to be coincidental.迄今为止获得的据显示,这起网络攻击是至少两家不同的情报机构所为,二者似乎在不知道对方也侵入了民主党计算机系统的情况下各自行动。目前还不清楚维基解密是如何获得这些邮件的。不过,外界的推测是这两家情报机构直接或者通过中间人将邮件提供给了维基解密。而且,这些邮件公布的时机是在共和党大会结束之后、民主党大会举行之前,这样的精心策划看来不可能是巧合。Mr. Trump himself leapt on the news after the WikiLeaks release on Saturday. In a Twitter message he wrote: “Leaked emails of DNC show plans to destroy Bernie Sanders. Mock his heritage and much more. On-line from Wikileakes, really vicious. RIGGED.”维基解密周六公布邮件之后,特朗普本人马上对这个消息做出反应。他在Twitter上写道:“从民主党全国委员会泄露的邮件明存在试图摧毁伯尼·桑德斯的计划。嘲笑他的犹太人身份,以及其他种种。来自维基解密的在线爆料,好歹毒。黑箱!”The experts cited by Mr. Mook include CrowdStrike, a cybersecurity firm that was brought into the Democratic National Committee when officials there suspected they had been hacked.莫克援引的专业机构包括网络安全公司CrowdStrike。民主党全国委员会的官员怀疑自身被黑客攻击之后,聘请了这家公司进行调查。In mid-June the company announced that the intruders appeared to include a group it had previously identified by the name “Cozy Bear” or “APT 29” and been inside the committee’s servers for a year. A second group, “Fancy Bear,” also called “APT 28,” came into the system in April. It appears to be operated by the G.R.U., the Russian military intelligence service, according to federal investigators and private cybersecurity firms. The first group is particularly well known to the F.B.I.’s counterintelligence unit, the C.I.A. and other intelligence agencies. It was identified by federal investigators as the likely culprit behind years of intrusions into the State Department and White House unclassified computer system.到了6月中旬,该公司宣布侵入者似乎包括一个它之前称为“安逸熊”(Cozy Bear)或“APT 29”的团体,并表示他们侵入委员会的务器已经有一年。另一个被称为“奢华熊”(Fancy Bear)或“APT 28”的团体在今年4月侵入了该系统。联邦调查人员和私人网络安全公司透露,它似乎由俄军总参谋部情报总局(GRU)指挥。对美国的联邦调查局(FBI)反间谍部门、中央情报局(CIA)和其他一些情报机构而言,第一家组织尤其熟悉。联邦调查人员认为,它有可能是美国国务院和白宫非保密级别的计算机系统遭多年侵入的罪魁祸首。Russian intelligence agencies went to great lengths to cover their tracks, investigators found, including meticulously deleting logs, and changing the time stamps of the stolen files.调查人员发现,俄罗斯情报机构不遗余力地掩盖其踪迹,包括仔细删除运行日志,修改盗窃文件的访问时间。Officials at several other firms that have examined the code for the malware used against the Democratic National Committee and the metadata of the stolen documents found evidence that the documents had been accessed by multiple computers, some with Russian language settings. Moscow has outsourced politically motivated hacking to outside groups in the past. A crippling attack on Estonia in 2007, for example, was attributed to the pro-Kremlin Nashi youth organization. Intelligence officials and security researchers believe this outsourcing is done, in part, to preserve a measure of plausible deniability.还有其他几家公司对用来对付民主党全国委员会的恶意软件的代码和被盗文件的元数据进行了分析。这些公司的工作人员找到了这些文件被多台计算机访问的据,其中有些带有俄罗斯语言设置。莫斯科过去曾将带有政治动机的黑客任务外包给外部机构。比如,2007年给爱沙尼亚造成严重损失的攻击,就被认为是由持克里姆林宫的青年团体“纳什”(Nashi)所为。情报官员和安全研究人员认为,这次之所以进行外包,部分原因是为了能让自己保留进行貌似合理的否认的可能性。Intrusions for intelligence collection are hardly unusual, and the ed States often does the same, stealing emails and other secrets from intelligence services and even political parties. But the release to WikiLeaks adds another strange element, because it suggests that the intelligence findings are being “weaponized” — used to influence the election in some way. The story has another level of intrigue involving Mr. Manafort, Mr. Trump’s campaign chairman. Working through his lobbying firm, Mr. Manafort was one of several American advisers to Viktor F. Yanukovych, the Russian-backed leader of Ukraine until he was forced out of office two years ago. Mr. Yanukovych was a key Putin ally who is now in exile in Russia.为了搜集情报而侵入计算机的现象并不少见,美国也经常这么做,从情报机构甚至政党窃取电子邮件和其他机密。但将其透露给维基解密让事情变得更加奇怪,因为这表明发现的情报正被“武器化”——在某种程度上被用来影响选举。事情涉及特朗普的竞选经理马纳福特这一点又增添了一份神秘。马纳福特是得到俄罗斯持的乌克兰前领导人维克托·F·亚努科维奇(Viktor F. Yanukovych)的几名美国顾问之一,通过他所在的游说公司开展工作。两年前被迫下台的亚努科维奇是普京的主要盟友,目前流亡俄罗斯。In April, asked on Fox News about his relationship with Mr. Yanukovych, Mr. Manafort said he was simply trying to help the Ukrainians build a democracy that could align more closely with the ed States and its allies.今年4月被Fox新闻频道(Fox News)问及与亚努科维奇的关系时,马纳福特表示他只是在努力帮助乌克兰民众建立一个能与美国及其盟友更紧密地团结在一起的民主国家。 /201607/456736

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  China is to pump almost Rmb5tn (0bn) into transport infrastructure over the next three years, in a sign of its determination to use state investment to keep the economy humming.中国将在未来三年期间投入近5万亿元人民币(合7700亿美元)建设交通基础设施,这个迹象表明政府决心动用国家投资来保持经济“轰鸣”。However, analysts said the announcement by the transport ministry added to a sense of confusion about the direction of economic policy. Infrastructure spending served China well when it was growing rapidly and seeking to build a modern economy, but in recent years it has resulted in white elephants, industrial overcapacity, economic distortions and debt.不过,分析师们表示,交通运输部的宣布令人对中国经济政策的走向更加困惑。在中国经济高速增长和寻求打造现代化经济的年代,基建出对国家十分有用,但近年这类出带来了大而无当的工程、工业产能过剩、经济扭曲以及债务。The announcement yesterday of the spending programme — Rmb5tn is equivalent to 6.9 per cent of China’s 2015 gross domestic product — comes despite other influential voices warning this week of the alarming degree of leverage in the Chinese economy.与昨日宣布这一出计划(5万亿元人民币相当于中国2015年国内生产总值的6.9%)似乎矛盾的是,本周一些有影响力的声音警告称,中国经济的杠杆高得令人震惊。On Monday, Communist party mouthpiece the People’s Daily carried a front-page interview with an “authoritative figure”, who said the country’s soaring debt levels could lead to “systemic financial risks”.周一,中共机关报《人民日报》头版发表对“权威人士”的采访,称中国不断飙升的债务水平可能导致“系统性金融风险”。“This week is a week of mixed signals,” said Andrew Batson, an economist at Gavekal Dragonomics in Beijing. “They’re swinging between poles of emphasising support for growth and emphasising structural reform. It’s not clear what message they are trying to send.”“本周是各种信号混杂的一个星期,”北京龙洲经讯(Gavekal Dragonomics)的白安儒(Andrew Batson)表示, “他们在强调持增长与强调结构改革的两极之间摇摆。不清楚他们想要传递什么信息。”It is unclear to what extent the funding targets acknowledged this week are new or previously budgeted and approved projects. Many are likely to have been flagged in the five-year plan, approved in March at the annual legislative meeting.目前尚不清楚最新宣布的出目标在多大程度上涉及新资金,在多大程度上涉及已编列预算且审批通过的项目。很有可能的是,不少项目已被列入3月全国人大年度会议批准的五年规划。Under a joint action plan from the ministry and the National Development and Reform Commission, Rmb4.7tn will be provided for 303 projects, including railways, roads, waterways, airports and metro systems.根据中国国家发展改革委(NDRC)和交通运输部联合印发的《交通基础设施重大工程建设三年行动计划》,未来三年拟重点推进303个项目(包括铁路、公路、水路、机场和城市轨道交通项目),涉及项目总投资4.7万亿元人民币。“The question is how that amount is financed. So it’s ultimately about monetary policy, because ultimately most infrastructure spending is financed by debt,” Mr Batson said.“现在的问题是这些资金将从哪里筹集。因此,最终而言关键在于货币政策,因为大部分基建出的资金归根结底将通过债务筹集,”白安儒表示。The figure, in an article from the official transportation news service republished yesterday on the ministry’s website, has refocused attention on the scale of China’s continuing infrastructure investment.4.7万亿元人民币的数字最初来自官方的中国交通新闻网的一篇文章,该文昨日被交通运输部官网转载。它再度令人关注中国基础设施投资所保持的规模。The article asserts that transportation infrastructure has failed to keep pace with the requirements of China’s social and economic development in terms of coverage and quality.该文断言,与中国的经济社会发展需求相比,交通基础设施在覆盖范围和质量水平等方面还存在较大差距。It calls for a concerted drive to enhance and maintain the national network.文章呼吁做出全方位努力,完善和维护覆盖全国的交通网络。The latest round of funding is likely to benefit the flagging heavy industry and construction sectors and follows an announcement from the NDRC on Tuesday that Rmb1.6tn would be ploughed into 130 projects in the ailing rust belt of the north-eastern provinces.最新一轮的资金很可能造福于低迷的重工业和建筑业。此前国家发改委周二宣布,将向东北三省困境中的“锈带”的130个项目投入1.6万亿元人民币。Zhou Jianping, the NDRC official in charge of reviving the north-east, said on Tuesday that the funds could not be considered a subsidy from Beijing to the struggling region. Rather, he said, funds would be allocated by project.发改委东北等老工业基地振兴司司长周建平周二表示,这些资金不能被视为北京方面对困境中的东北地区的“补贴”。他表示,资金将根据项目进行分配。“If it is appropriate, then we will give some money,” he said.“只要项目是适当的,我们就会拨出资金,”他说。 /201605/443200

  India has traditionally grappled with the problem of domestic abuse that women face at the hands of their menfolk. Despite most cases going unreported, over 113,400 such incidents were recorded in 2015.一直以来,印度都在努力解决女性面临的丈夫家暴问题。尽管大多数被家暴者都没有报案,但2015年还是有113400起家暴案记录在册。Now, in order to curb domestic abuse, a politician in the state of Madhya Pradesh has come up with a bizarre solution, that urges newly wed women to beat up their violent husbands.如今,为了遏制家庭暴力,印度中央邦的一位政客想出了一个奇葩的解决方案,呼吁新娘痛打她们的暴力新郎。Over 700 brides were #39;gifted#39; wooden paddles (popularly known as mogri) by this politician at a mass wedding ceremony. And he#39;s reportedly ordered for many more.这位政客在一场集体婚礼上向700多位新娘“赠予”木棒(这种木棒一般被称为mogri)。而据报道,他还为更多女性订购了木棒。These logs of wood carry messages like #39;For beating drunkards#39; or #39;Police won#39;t intervene#39; and urge women to set their husbands right if they ill-treat them.这些“打夫棒”上写着 “棒打酒鬼”或“警察不会介入”,并呼吁女性如果遭到丈夫虐待,就要纠正他们的错误。;Women say whenever their husbands get drunk they become violent. Their savings are taken away and splurged on liquor... they should let the wooden paddles do the talking,; the politician told AFP.这位政客告诉法新社:“女人们说,每当她们的丈夫醉酒时就会变得暴力。她们的积蓄被拿走,都被挥霍在了酒精上……她们应该让木棒替她们说话。”However, he clarified that this isn#39;t an attempt to provoke the women, but a mere effort to curb the violence they face.不过,这位政客澄清道,这么做不是为了煽动女性,只是一种为遏制女性被家暴问题所做的努力。It is true that India faces a serious alcohol problem. According to the World Health Organization, one in 20 Indians suffer from alcohol-related problems. Several states have cracked down on liquor in recent years in a bid to curb alcohol-fueled violence.印度的确存在严重的酗酒问题。据世界卫生组织称,每20个印度人中就有1人患有酒精导致的问题。为了遏制酒精引发的暴力,近年来印度多个邦已经严厉打击酗酒问题。Hence, this step might be well-intentioned but it hardly absolves the State of their inability to protect its women and act on offences. Also, we can#39;t rule out the misuse of #39;power#39; invested in the women.因此,此举可能是善意的,但印度政府仍然难以摆脱其无法保护本国女性,对犯罪行为无力采取行动的现实。此外,我们也不能排除女性滥用这项“权力”的可能。Naturally, it has drawn mixed reactions from people.当然,民众对此举也是褒贬不一。 /201705/507736

  Paul Shen can tick off the reasons Mainland Chinese people buy property in Canada as surely as any fast-talking B.C. realtor. 保罗.沈可以和那些巧舌如簧的卑诗省房产中介一样,罗列出一堆中国大陆人到加拿大置业的理由。Some long to escape the fouled earth and soupy air of their country’s teeming cities he explains while others are following relatives to enclaves so well-populated by other Chinese expats they hardly feel like foreigners.有些人是为了逃离他们国家遍地开花的城市中污染的土壤和浑浊的空气,还有些人是跟随他们的亲属,来到这到处都是中国侨民,几乎感觉不到身为外国人的飞地。The richest of course regard homes in the West as stable vessels for disposable cash but Shen lays no claim to such affluence. 最有钱的富豪当然是把西方购置的房子当成一次性出的稳定投资,不过沈先生声称自己没这么多钱。Last spring the 39-year-old left behind his middle-management advertising job in Shanghai to seek the dream of home ownership he and his wife couldn’t afford in their home city. “We just followed our hearts to begin a totally different life” he tells Maclean’s adding: “We can make the house dream come true in Canada.”去年春天,这位39岁的男人放弃了他在上海的广告公司的中层管理职位,来寻找他和妻子在家乡无力承担的梦中家园。“我们只是从心所愿,开始一种全新的生活,”他告诉麦克莱恩,并补充道:“我们在加拿大可以实现自己的买房梦想。” /201606/450937

  

  

  Australia moved to block the Abn-plus (.47bn) sale of a controlling stake in the country’s biggest electricity distribution network to two Chinese companies on national security grounds.澳大利亚出于国家安全考虑,决定阻止一笔逾100亿澳元(合74.7亿美元)的、将该国最大电网企业的控股权出售给两家中国企业的交易。The preliminary decision reflects public and political unease over the scale of Chinese investment in critical infrastructure and farm land in Australia — echoed around the globe — that has intensified following the recent election.这一初步决定反映出,在不久前的选举过后,澳民众和政界对中国企业投资澳关键基础设施和农地的规模之大感到不安。中国投资在世界其他地方也引发了这种不安。“In particular, during the review process national security issues were identified in critical power and communications services that Ausgrid provides to businesses and governments,” Scott Morrison, Australia’s treasurer, said on Thursday.澳大利亚财长斯科特#8226;莫里森(Scott Morrison)周四表示:“要特别指出的是,在审查过程中,(当局)认定Ausgrid向企业和政府提供的关键电力与通信务中存在国家安全问题。”“I am, of course, open to consider what the bidders put to me, but at this stage no suitable mitigations have been identified that would, for the proposed transaction structure, appropriately address the identified risks,” he added.他接着说:“当然,我愿意考虑竞标者提交给我的东西,但在现阶段,从提议的交易结构来看,没有看出有哪些合适的措施可妥善化解我们认定的那些风险、缓解我们的担忧。”Mr Morrison insisted to reporters that the government remained positively disposed to foreign investment despite the decision to block the transaction. The stake is being offered by the state government under a 99-year lease莫里森对记者们坚称,尽管决定阻止这笔交易,但澳政府仍对外国投资持欢迎态度。在这笔交易中,州政府是以租让99年的形式出售这些股权的。State Grid Corporation, which is owned by the Chinese government, and Hong Kong-based Cheung Kong Infrastructure, which is backed by tycoon Li ka-shing, have each submitted bids of more than Abn (.47bn) for a 50.4 per cent stake in the New South Wales electricity group Ausgrid. No local bidders took part in a privatisation process that has been thrown into disarray by the decision.国有的中国国家电网公司(State Grid Corporation,简称:国家电网)以及香港大亨李嘉诚(Li ka-shing)控制的长江基建(Cheung Kong Infrastructure),都提交了以逾100亿澳元收购新南威尔士州电力集团Ausgrid 50.4%股权的报价。并无澳本土企业参与这笔已被政府上述决定打乱的私有化交易。In a statement responding to the decision, CKI said: “We believe that the Australian Government must have reasons beyond the obvious which led them to make today’s announcement. The issue is unrelated to CKI.”长江基建在一份回应澳方决定的声明中称:“集团相信澳洲政府今日之公布背后实有难言之隐。个中原因与长江基建无关。”Chinese investment in the US, Europe and Australia has hit record levels, underlining Beijing’s growing importance as a driver of global growth and source of inward investment. But it is prompting scrutiny from regulators, including in Australia where Scott Morrison, treasurer, recently blocked the sale of the vast S Kidman amp; Co cattle farm to a Chinese group.中国在美国、欧洲和澳大利亚的投资已达到创纪录水平,突显出中国作为全球增长驱动力以及外来投资源头的重要性日益上升。但这正引发各国监管机构的密切关注,包括澳大利亚。澳财长莫里森近期还阻止了将大型养牛场基德曼公司(S Kidman amp; Co)出售给一家中资集团的交易。The proposed sale of Ausgrid has drawn sharp criticism from independent politicians, a bigger voice in parliament following July’s knife-edge election that gave the government a single-seat majority. Pauline Hanson’s One Nation party and the Nick Xenophon Team, which control seven seats in the Senate, have both publicly opposed the sale of Ausgrid to foreign buyers.Ausgrid这笔拟议中的售股交易还招致独立议员的尖锐批评。由于现政府在7月极其激烈的大选中仅获得超半数1个席位的多数,这些独立议员在议会中拥有了更大的话语权。波琳#8226;汉森(Pauline Hanson)的单一民族党(One Nation party)和谢诺峰团队党(Nick Xenophon Team)都公开反对将Ausgrid出售给外国买家。这两党在参议院合计控制7个席位。“This decision may herald the start of the coalition’s rollback on openness to foreign investment and free trade due to the new political realities in parliament,” said Duncan McDonnell, politics lecturer at Griffith University.格里菲斯大学(Griffith University)政治学讲师邓肯#8226;麦克唐奈(Duncan McDonnell)说:“这一决定或许预示着,鉴于议会的新政治现实,联合政府在向外资开放及自由贸易方面开始出现后退。”The New South Wales government said it was confident another buyer could be found in time for the next state budget to record the proceeds of the transaction. But given the lack of local bidders, the sale process is likely to be delayed and raise less cash.新南威尔士州政府表示,有信心及时找到另一个买家,以便下个州预算案中能录入这笔交易的所得。但由于缺少本土竞标者,出售过程很可能延迟,筹到的现金也不会有那么多。Australia’s business lobby and some politicians are becoming increasingly concerned that foreign investment has become a political football, which risks damaging the economy.澳大利亚商业游说团体及一些政治人士越来越担心,外国投资已变成一个“政治皮球”,那样的话可能会给该国经济造成伤害。 /201608/460455

  China’s working age population will fall by more than 10 per cent, a loss of 90m people, by 2040, as much of east Asia “gets old before it gets rich”, the World Bank said last week.世界(World Bank)上周表示,到2040年中国的适龄劳动人口将减少逾10%,相当于减少9000万劳动力,而东亚大部分地区都面临“未富先老”的风险。The findings conjure up a scenario of a shrinking workforce, sluggish economic growth, rising labour costs as workers become more scarce and increased government spending on pensions, sapping the vitality of one of the world’s key growth engines.世行的报告让人们脑海中浮现出一幅劳动力萎缩、经济增长乏力、劳动力成本不断攀升的画面,因为劳动力变得越来越稀缺而且政府不得不增加养老金出,这将削弱中国作为全球主要增长引擎的活力。This scenario is widely accepted by economic and financial commentators. It is supposedly one of the great truisms of our time.此种前景已经被经济、财经员广泛接受,并被视为我们时代的一条大道理。Except it is not true. None of these things need happen. The truth is that China and the rest of emerging Asia could actually see their workforces expand over the next 25 years if they fell in line with norms in much of the western world.但这个画面并不是真实的。所有这些都可以避免。事实是,未来25年,中国及其他亚洲新兴市场国家有可能看到本国劳动力壮大,如果他们实行与西方大部分国家相似的标准的话。To be clear, the decline in the working-age population in China and several of its neighbours is, barring some highly unlikely turn of events, certain to happen.需要澄清的是,中国与其多个邻国肯定会出现适龄劳动人口减少的情况(除非发生一些极不可能的事件)。As the first chart shows, the World Bank foresees a 10 per cent decline in those aged between 15 and 64 in China by 2040, with larger falls still expected in Japan, Thailand, Singapore, South Korea and Hong Kong, although most of Southeast Asia is likely to see an increase.如下面的图一所示,世行预计,到2040年中国年龄介于15岁至64岁之间的人口将减少10%,而日本、泰国、新加坡、韩国及香港地区的适龄劳动人口预计将出现更大降幅,但多数东南亚国家的适龄劳动人口可能出现增长。But the size of the working-age population should not be mistaken for the size of the labour force — many of the former are neither working nor looking for a job.但“适龄劳动人口”的规模不应被误认为是“劳动力”规模——前者中的许多人既不工作也不找工作。Take reasonable measures to address this, and the data show that the resultant increase in the participation rate should be larger than the decline in the working-age population, meaning more workers, not fewer.如果采取合理措施应对,数据显示,由此带来的劳动参与率的提高幅度应会大于适龄劳动人口的降幅,这意味着劳动力增多,而非减少。China’s low retirement age, for urban workers at least, is a case in point. Official pension ages in urban areas are 50 for blue-collar women, 55 for white-collar women and 60 for men, significantly lower than in most western countries.中国较低的退休年龄(至少对城镇职工而言)就是一个恰当的例子。在城市地区,蓝领女性开始领取退休金的法定年龄为50岁,白领女性为55岁,男性为60岁,显著低于大多数西方国家。One might assume this is a natural result of China having a lower life expectancy than the west. There is a grain of truth to this: China’s life expectancy of 76 (74.8 for men, 77.3 for women) is about three years lower than the western average.人们可能会认为这是中国预期寿命低于西方的自然结果。有一点道理:中国人的预期寿命为76岁(男性74.8岁、女性77.3岁),约比西方平均水平低三岁。But, firstly, the typical Chinese urban worker will almost certainly live longer than 76, with the average being dragged down by poorer rural dwellers.但是,首先,典型的中国城市劳动者的寿命几乎肯定会超过76岁,因为较贫困的农村居民拉低了平均值。Secondly, and more importantly, China’s pension age looks unsustainably low even when correcting for the life expectancy gap. Data collated by the World Bank in its document Live Long and Prosper: Ageing in East Asia and Pacific illustrate this clearly.其次(更重要的是),即使就预期寿命差做了调整,中国的退休年龄看起来也是低得不可持续。世行在《长寿与繁荣:东亚与太平洋地区的老龄化》(Live Long and Prosper: Ageing in East Asia and Pacific)报告中收集的数据清楚地阐明了这一点。Chinese women can typically expect to live for virtually 30 years in retirement, with women in Vietnam, Thailand and Malaysia also enjoying long retirements, on average.中国女性通常可以预期退休后再活差不多30年,平均而言,越南、泰国以及马来西亚的女性也可以享受较长的退休时间。In contrast, women in richer countries such as Sweden, Germany and the US can realistically expect 20 years or less of retirement, as the second chart shows.相比之下,如下面的图二所示,瑞典、德国以及美国等较富裕国家的女性实际上只能盼得20年或者更短的退休时间。For men, the gap is not so extreme but the average retirement span in China, at 18 years, is still longer than in Sweden, Germany or the US. Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia would appear to have more scope still to raise retirement ages.对男性而言,差距不是那么大,但中国男性的平均退休期为18年,仍然比瑞典、德国及美国的男性要长。泰国、马来西亚以及印度尼西亚似乎有更大的空间来延长退休年龄。Not everyone, of course, retires at the official retirement age, particularly if their pension is inadequate, but a closer look at the ages Chinese people actually do retire at vividly illustrates the scope for change.当然,并非所有人都在法定退休年龄退休,尤其是如果他们的养老金不充裕的话,但仔细观察中国人的实际退休年龄能够很清晰地展现出改革空间。As the third chart shows, by the age of 60, just one in three urban women and 55 per cent of urban men are still in the labour force. In contrast, two-thirds of rural women and 80 per cent of rural men are still in the labour force at this age.如图三所示,到60岁时,只有三分之一的城市女性与55%的城市男性仍坚持工作。相比之下,三分之二的农村女性以及80%的农村男性60岁时仍在劳动。This divergence is likely to be driven by the financial pressure on the poorer, rural population to continue working for longer.这种差异很可能是经济压力造成的,迫使较贫困的农村人口继续劳动更长时间。But given that most rural labourers are engaged in physically tough, back-breaking agricultural work, it certainly suggests most urban workers should be perfectly capable of continuing in their generally less physically demanding jobs for longer, although there will clearly be some exceptions to this, such as the construction industry.但是,鉴于大多数农村劳动力从事的都是繁重劳累的农活,这恰恰反衬出,大多数城市劳动者应该完全有能力继续再干一段时间他们通常不需太多体力的工作,虽然有一些明显的例外,比如建筑业。Overall, though, the World Bank says that average retirement ages in China (as well as Vietnam) among urban workers in formal jobs are three to four years below the aly low official retirement ages.不过,总体而言,世行表示,中国(以及越南)拥有正式工作的城市劳动力的平均退休年龄比本已较低的官方退休年龄还要低3至4年。Across east and Southeast Asia as a whole, the Bank argues this trend is driven by government policy.世行认为,在整个东亚以及东南亚地区,这种趋势是由政府政策造成的。Indonesians and Vietnamese are not allowed to continue working beyond the normal retirement age (55 in the formal sector in Indonesia, 60 for men and 55 for women in Vietnam).印度尼西亚和越南不允许超过退休年龄者继续工作(印尼正规部门退休年龄为55岁,越南男性为60、女性55岁)。In China, meanwhile, late retirement is “effectively penalised”, with the additional year of pension contributions not increasing the individual’s pension.而在中国,晚退休“实际上是不利的”,养老金缴费年头延长了,但个人养老金数额并未增加。Early retirement is incentivised in many countries. In Vietnam, early retirement “actually increases pension wealth because the penalty is too low to offset the extra benefits received”, the World Bank says, adding that “the Philippines rewards early retirement with a large increase in pension wealth and penalises late retirement at a rate of 17 per cent a year”.许多国家都采取激励措施鼓励提前退休。世行表示,在越南提前退休“实际上增加了养老金财富,因为惩罚太少,不会抵消额外收益。菲律宾对提前退休者的奖励是大幅增加养老金财富,对延迟退休者则课以一年17%的处罚”。Perhaps unsurprisingly, one of the reforms the World Bank is calling for in east and Southeast Asia is for governments to provide actuarially fair incentives for both early and late retirement.这或许可以解释为什么世行会呼吁东亚及东南亚国家的政府进行改革,为提前退休和延迟退休者提供真正公平的激励。The Bank is also recommending that countries equalise retirement ages for men and women, correcting a glaring anomaly whereby women can often retire at a younger age despite enjoying greater life expectancy in every country in the region, as well as linking retirement ages to changes in life expectancy.世行还建议各国把男性及女性退休年龄拉平,以纠正一个明显的反常现象,即该地区所有国家的女性预期寿命都要更长些,却往往更早退休。世行还建议各国将退休年龄与预期寿命变化挂钩。Its concern is not just that de facto retirement ages may fail to rise in line with life expectancy, but that they may fall still further.世行担心的不仅是实际退休年龄可能无法与预期寿命保持同步增长,而且还可能会进一步下降。“As East Asia and Pacific continues its rapid urbanisation, coverage of pension systems grows, and rising incomes provide new opportunities for people to retire before they are no longer physically capable of work, thereby creating a significant risk that average lengths of working lives will fall,” it says.世行表示:“随着东亚与太平洋地区继续快速城市化,养老金制度覆盖范围也随之扩大。收入的增加为人们提供了新的机会,他们可以不用等到体力无法负荷工作时再退休,这便产生了一个显著的风险,即人们的平均劳动寿命将缩短。”Moreover, bringing retirement systems more into line with western norms is not the only measure that would increase the workforce in ageing Asian nations.此外,让退休制度更加符合西方标准并不是亚洲老龄化国家增加劳动力的唯一措施。The World Bank also argues that many Asian countries have scope to significantly increase female labour force participation, which typically lags behind that of men, for instance by improving public childcare provision. They could also expand their labour force via immigration, although this is obviously a zero-sum game.世行还指出,许多亚洲国家具备空间大幅提高女性劳动力参与率,这一指标通常落后于男性,可采取措施包括改善公共幼儿托管务的提供。它们还可以通过增加移民来扩充自己的劳动力,不过这显然是一个零和游戏。The Bank provides a vivid demonstration of how these effects could play out in China.世行生动地展示了这些措施将会在中国产生什么样的影响。As widely reported, the baseline, business-as-usual scenario, does indeed show the labour force declining 10 per cent or so between now and 2040.就像媒体广泛报道的一样,如果一切照旧,正如基准线所示,从现在起到2040年中国的劳动力会下降10%左右。But, as the final chart shows, if China adopted measures to retain older workers in the labour force, its working population would barely fall at all until at least the mid-2030s.但正如最后一张图所示,如果中国采取措施延长退休年龄,至少到2030年代中期,其劳动人口基本不会下降。Alternatively, if China succeeded in achieving a degree of convergence between male and female employment rates, the labour force would be just as large in 2040 as it is today. (This calculation is based on female labour force participation rising at an annual rate of 1/40th of the 2010 gap between men and women, thereby eliminating three-quarters of the gap by 2040.)另外,如果中国能成功地缩小男女就业率的差距,至2040年其劳动力将与现在一样多。(该计算是基于女性劳动力参与率将以2010年男女就业率差距四十分之一的年增长率持续上升,这样至2040年中国就能消除四分之三的男女就业率差距)。It is important to note that the “elderly” and “female” lines in the chart are mutually exclusive. If both of these issues were addressed, China’s labour force would actually rise by about 10 per cent by 2040, rather than falling by this amount.需要注意的是在该图中,“老年人”和“女性”两条曲线是相互独立的。如果这两个问题都能得到解决,2040年中国的劳动人口不但不会下降10%,反而能增长10%左右。“In the most optimistic scenario, you can actually increase the labour force from the current levels,” says Nithin Umaphathi, co-author of the report. “There is underutilised potential out there.”该报告的合著者尼辛乌玛哈蒂(Nithin Umaphathi)表示:“在最乐观的情况下,中国的劳动力规模甚至会高于当前水平。中国还未充分利用其劳动力潜力。” /201512/416240

  During the second presidential debate with Republican Donald Trump, Democrat Hillary Clinton said she would not put ground forces into Syria, saying that would not be a smart strategy.在总统候选人的第二场辩论中,民主党候选人希拉里#8729;克林顿表示,她不会向叙利亚派遣地面部队,这种策略是不明智的。She called Aleppo a catastrophic situation, and that Russia is determined to destroy the city in an effort to keep Bashar al-Assad in power, and supports efforts to hold Russia and the Syrian regime accountable for war crimes in the ongoing Syrian civil war.克林顿表示,叙利亚阿勒颇的局势是灾难性的,俄罗斯决心要毁灭这座城市以确保阿萨德能够继续掌权;克林顿还表示,她持让俄罗斯和叙利亚政府对于目前持续的叙利亚内战承担战争罪责任。Trump said he disagrees with his running mate, Mike Pence, who called for strikes on Syrian government targets, but Trump saved most of his comments on Syria for President Barack Obama.共和党总统候选人川普表示,他不同意自己的竞选搭档麦克#8729;彭斯提出对叙利亚政府目标进行袭击的立场,但川普有关叙利亚问题的大部分发言都是针对奥巴马总统。Sunday night’s debate was held at Washington University in St. Louis.星期天晚上的辩论在圣路易斯的华盛顿大学举行。Some top Republicans are urging Trump to drop out of the race after a 2005 tape surfaced in which he made lewd comments about women, saying he can grope them because he is a ;star.;在此之前,川普一段2005年采访录音曝光,他在录音里说自己的明星地位使得他可以任意调戏女性。共和党内的一些人士纷纷谴责川普,并要求他退出竞选。Trump apologized for the comments, insisting he has great respect for women and that it is time to talk about more important things.川普对这些话表示道歉,但是他坚持说他非常尊重妇女,但是现在的讨论重点应该放在其他更重要的议题上。Clinton said while she has disagreed with the policies of previous Republican candidates, this is the first time she has questioned a candidate#39;s fitness to serve as president.克林顿说她过去只是与其他共和党候选人在政见上有分歧,但是对于川普她是第一次质疑一个候选人是否有资格做总统。Despite his apology, Clinton said the tape shows exactly who Trump is. She also pointed out that Trump has insulted and denigrated minorities, Muslims, and prisoner of war.她说尽管川普道了歉,但他在录音里所说的话暴露了他的真面目。克林顿还说,川普曾经侮辱过少数族裔,穆斯林和战俘。Clinton hit out at Trump over taxes, accusing him of possibly not paying taxes in 20 years.克林顿还在缴税问题上抨击川普20年没有缴税。Trump said he is was proud of knowing the tax code well enough to take advantage of it and pointed out that some of Clinton#39;s wealthy donors have done the same thing.川普为自己的缴税记录辩护说,他很自豪自己熟悉美国的税法,并因此来少纳税,他还说,克林顿的那些富豪捐款人同样也在利用税法为自己谋利。Trump said he would appoint a special prosecutor to investigate Clinton#39;s 33,000 missing e-mails, saying if he were in charge, Clinton would be in jail.川普还表示,如果当选,他将任命特别检察官对克林顿三万三千封失踪电邮一事展开调查,如果他能说了算的话,克林顿就会被送进监狱。 /201610/470554

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