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Mike: Im glad you decided to come watch this movie with me today, Amanda. The director has done a lot of cutting edge work, and I hear that this is his most experimental film yet.迈克:阿曼达,我很高兴今天你能陪我一起看这场电影。这部片子的导演曾创作过不少前卫的电影,而且听说这是他最成熟的一部电影。Amanda: I just hope it isnt as boring as the last movie you made me watch—the one where the main character did nothing but stare at clocks for two hours. I dont understand why we always have to go see such artsy-fartsy movies. Why cant we just watch a good old-fashioned romantic comedy sometimes?阿曼达:我只希望它不像你上次带我去看的那部那么无聊就好了。那部电影里面的主演什么事都没做,光盯着时钟就看了两个小时。我真不明白我们干嘛整天看这种做作的文艺片,难道我们就不能去看一部老式的浪漫喜剧吗?Mike: Going to see those kinds of mainstream Hollywood movies is just going to make your brain cells rot. Dont you want a movie to make you think? Dont you want it to cause you to see the world in profound new ways?迈克:去看那些随大流的好莱坞电影只会让你的脑细胞死亡。难道你就不想看一部能够引你思考的电影吗?难道你就不想看一部可以让你对世界有新的、更深层次的认识的电影吗?Amanda: Actually, I always thought that we go to the movies because we want to be entertained. I wasnt aware that it was supposed to be educational, like going to school or something.阿曼达:实际上,我总觉得我们去看电影就是因为想。我没有意识到原来看电影还要有教育意义,就像去上学似的。Mike: Shhh... All right, be quiet! The movies starting.迈克:嘘...好吧,安静点!电影开始了。Amanda: Wait a second! I didnt know Angelina Jolie was going to be in this! I thought the reason you wanted to watch this movie was because its ;experimental.;阿曼达:等一会!我不知道这部电影里会出现安吉丽娜·朱莉!我还以为你看这部电影是因为它有“实验性”。Mike: It is! It is! Trust me, youll thank me for bringing you!迈克:对啊!对啊!相信我,你会感谢我带你来看的!原文译文属!201303/230611

Business商业Corporate governance in America美国的企业管治Heating up逐渐升温Shareholders are ever more willing to vote against management股东永远愿意对管理者投反对票TWENTY years ago Bob Monks bought an ad in the Wall Street Journal declaring members of the board of Sears, to which he hoped (in vain) to be elected, ;non-performing assets;. Nowadays, shareholder activists just create a website. On April 2nd Dan Loeb, a hedge-fund boss, launched valueyahoo.com, which brims with proposals for reviving the struggling web firm. Mr Loeb is trying to get himself elected to Yahoo!s board against the wishes of its managers-a fight that could be the highlight of the annual corporate proxy season that is getting under way. He may win the shareholder vote, if Yahoo! does not strike a deal with him first.20年前,鲍勃.蒙克斯在华尔街日报刊登了一则广告,宣称西尔斯百货的董事会成员是;不良资产;,在此之前,他渴望被选中的成为其中之一,可惜没有。现今,股东维权主义者只需创建一个网站即可。4月2号,一个对冲基金的老板丹?勒布,建立一个valueyahoo.com网站,公布了各种拯救雅虎这不景气网络公司的方案。勒布先生正尝试违背公司管理层的意愿,令自己被选进雅虎的董事会。一场可能成为公司年度股东大会期间的焦点战争正准备打响。一旦雅虎没有预先和他达成协议,他可能赢得股东们的选票。Several hedge funds are urging shareholders to give boards a good kicking. Starboard Value has nominated five candidates to the board of AOL, another ailing web firm. On April 2nd Pershing Square added a seventh candidate to the alternative slate of directors it has nominated to the board of Canadian Pacific Railway. Shareholder activism is ;getting back to normal after the financial crisis of 2008,; says Peter Harkins of D.F. King, a firm that advises participants in proxy contests.几个对冲基金正说股东们给董事会一个下马威。(美国对冲基金)Starboard Value已经给另一间衰落的网络公司——美国在线(AOL)的董事会里提名了五名候选人。4月2号,波欣广场(资本管理公司)在已经提命的加拿大太平洋铁路公司董事会候选人中增加第七位候选人作为董事的替代人。;股东激进主义在2008年经济危机后现正回归到正常。;D.F. King的皮得.哈更斯说,D.F. King是一间为代理权争夺的参与者提供咨询的公司。.It is not just hedge funds that are flexing their shareholderly muscles. Pension funds are at it, too. On March 27th it was reported that Goldman Sachs had made peace with the pension fund of the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees (AFSCME), which had proposed a resolution to split the roles of chief executive and chairman, both of which are held by Lloyd Blankfein. The bank convinced AFSCME to withdraw its proposal by agreeing to appoint a ;lead director; to keep Mr Blankfein in check. The union has made similar proposals at several firms, including JPMorgan Chase, whose boss AFSCMEs president calls the ;most dangerous man in America;. Rupert Murdoch, the embattled chairman and chief executive of News Corporation, will face a motion that he surrender his chairmanship to someone independent.不仅仅是对冲基金显示了他们的股东权力。养老基金同样如此。在3月27号,据报道,高盛投资公司与美国养老基金会以及美国工会达成协议,工会在为分离首席执行官与董事会提出了解决方案,而此前两个职位都是由贝兰克梵担任的。高盛同意任命一个;首席董事;以限制贝兰克梵,以此说美国工会会撤销它的方案。该联合会在几间公司都采用了类似的方法,包括JP根大通——美国工会主席称他们的老板为;美国最危险的男人;。鲁伯特.默多克,一个新闻公司备受争议的董事会主席兼首席执行官,将面临一项移交他的主席身份给某个独立人的变动。Two other issues are expected to attract scrutiny from shareholders this year. One is bosses pay. Investors will show ;a little more backbone; in curbing it, ;having rather fluffed it last year;, predicts Anne Simpson, who oversees the corporate-governance activities of CalPERS, a giant pension fund for Californias public employees. Many boards struggled to win 70% support for pay packages last year, the first time such votes were required. This year, several could lose the vote (which is not binding) unless they have linked pay more explicitly to performance, reckons Paul Hodgson of GMI Ratings, a firm that measures corporate governance.另外两个问题今年将有望得到股东们的严格审查。一个是领导者的工资。投资者将在处理这一问题上显示更大的决心,;去年已经付出了很多;,辛普森组织认为,该组织负责监督加州公务员基金——这一巨型的加利福尼亚公务员的养老基金的管理活动。许多董事会通过抗争,去年在薪酬福利当面赢得了约70%持,第一次被要求进行这样的投票。今年,一些董事会可能会失去票数,(那些曾处于中立的票)除非他们把工资与绩效明确地挂钩起来。GMI评级机构的保罗-霍奇森这样指出,GMI是一间评估公司治理的公司。Perhaps the most contentious resolutions will be those demanding that firms be more transparent about their political spending, and requiring boards to ensure that this money is used in the interests of shareholders, not managers. This effort is being fiercely resisted. The US Chamber of Commerce argues that these resolutions, which mostly come from shareholders who are also trade unions or social activists, are not in the best interests of the firms concerned. Jim Copland of the Manhattan Institute, a think-tank, says that ;some of these proposals may serve primarily to chill corporate political speech broadly, including on issues that most diversified shareholders-as distinguished from the proposals sponsors-might prefer that the corporations views be heard.;可能最有争议的解决方案是那些要求公司在关于政治方面的花费更加透明,且同时要求董事会确保这些钱被用到符合股东的利益上而不是管理层。这一方案被强烈地抵制。美国商会认为这些解决方案,大多数是由来自工会或者是社会活动家的股东们提出,方案并不符合公司所关注的最大利益。一个曼哈顿研究所的智囊团,吉姆.科普兰认为;其中的一些建议中的可能主要是为广泛地冻结公司政治性言论;,其中包括关于股东多样化的问题,有别于建议赞助商,这些股东们可能更喜欢公司的意见被听到。Well, maybe. But, as with the other issues on the proxy this year, that is for shareholders to decide.也许是这样。但就像今年董事会中的其他问题一样,这都将由股东们去决定。 /201210/203665

The Invisible Hand无形的力量A: Whats going on?A:发生什么事了?B: Check out the setup, Yaoyao.B:瑶瑶,看一下都有些什么设备吧!A: A stove, an empty aluminum soda can, kitchen tongs, and a saucepan. Are you experimenting with a new recipe?A:火炉,铝制的的易拉罐,餐钳和平底锅。你是在做一个新的食谱吗?B:No, Im experimenting with air pressure.B:不是的,我是在做一个关于气压的实验。A:How?A:怎么做?B:First, I will put about a tablespoon of water in the soda can, and a little cold water in the saucepan. Now, I will heat the water in the soda can on the stove until it boils.B:我先在易拉罐里加入约一汤匙的水,在平底锅里加少许冷水。接着,将易拉罐放在火炉上加热至其沸腾。A: There steam coming out of the can.A:这样水蒸汽就从罐子里冒出来了。B: Good! Now watch, i will pick up the can with a kitchen tongs like this and put it face down in the cold water in the pan. Ready?B:对了!现在,我要用餐钳像这样将易拉罐夹起来,并将其正面放在有冷水的平底锅里。准备好了吗?A:Ready!A:准备好了!B:Here goes!B:看看会发生什么吧!A: Wow, the can collapse like with being crushed down by an invisible hand.A:哇噢,易拉罐碎了!就像被一只无形的手给压碎的!B: When the water in the can boiled, the water vapor pushed all the air out of the can. And when I flipped the can and put it in the pan, the cold water cooled the vapor, making it condense.B:因为在(易拉罐里的)水沸腾时,罐子里的所有空气都被水蒸汽排出。所以当我将罐子翻转过来放在平底锅里时,(锅里的)冷水将水蒸汽冷却、凝结。A:Which left the can empty inside, allowing the pressure of the air outside the can to crush it.A:这就使得易拉罐内部变空,从而让外面的气压将其粉碎。B: Exactly. Normal air pressure is about 15 pounds per square inch. Since the can was about three inches high and two inches wide, the air pressure on it was 15 pounds per six inches, or ninety pounds of air pressure used to crush the can.B:非常正确!正常的气压大约是每平方英寸15磅。由于易拉罐大约是3英寸高、2英寸宽,它周围的气压就是6平方英寸15磅,即每平方英寸90磅,从而将易拉罐粉碎。A: Very interesting!A:太有意思了! /201212/215899

Science and Technology Military camouflage That old razzle dazzle科技 军事伪装 旧式迷魂战术How to confuse the enemy about how quickly you are travelling如何让敌方无法判断己方的前行速度IN THE second world war, many Allied ships were painted with dark and light stripes, and other contrasting shapes, making them look a bit like zebra.二战期间,许多盟军军舰船身都被喷涂了黑白条纹及其它迷图案,这让它们看上去有些象斑马。The idea was to distort an enemy submarine commanders perception of the ships size, shape, range, heading and speed, so as to make it harder to hit with the non-homing torpedoes of the period.这样做的目的是为了迷惑敌军潜水艇指挥官,使其无法判断盟军船舰的尺寸,形状,距离,航向和速度。由于当时的鱼雷还不具备制导系统,因此想要击中目标愈加困难。These had to be pointed not at the target directly but, rather, at the place where the commander thought the target would be when the torpedo arrived.因此敌军指挥官不再让鱼雷直接对准目标发射,而是将它们发射到他认为盟军军舰可能会驶向的位置。At the time, though, it was only an educated guess that this so-called dazzle camouflage would work.当时, 对于这种所谓的迷伪装术的有效性判断还只是基于经验上的考量。Now someone has actually tested it and the short answer is that it does work—but not in the way that Allied navies thought it did. Ships move too slowly for dazzle camouflage to be effective.而如今已经有人对此进行了真实测试,结果验这种迷伪装的确有效——但并不是按照盟军海军所设想的那种方式发挥作用。However, it might well have a role in protecting faster-moving vehicles, such as military Land Rovers.迷伪装无法保护航行速度过慢的船艇。但它对于军用路虎这样快速行驶的车辆却能起到很好的保护作用。Nicholas Scott-Samuel, of the University of Bristol, and his colleagues, came to this conclusion by asking volunteers to watch patterned rectangles cross a computer screen.以上结论是由布里斯托尔大学的Nicholas Scott-Samuel和他的同事通过实验得出的。Some of the rectangles had horizontal stripes inside them. Some had vertical stripes. Some had zigzags. And some had checks.他们让志愿者观察在电脑屏幕内横向移动的长方形物体,这些物体内部被喷涂了不同图案,图案形式有横纹,竖纹,锯齿纹和方格纹。Others, acting as controls, had no internal patterns.而作为参照的物体则未喷涂任何图案。Each test involved a jazzy rectangle crossing the screen either before or after a plain one. Volunteers had to estimate which of the two was travelling faster.每次实验志愿者在观看了迷图案的长方形横过电脑屏幕之前或之后,还被要求观看一个没有条纹图案的物体横过屏幕,之后志愿者需要估计这两个物体哪个移动速度较快。In fact, in all cases, the two rectangles travelled at the same speed.实际上,在所有实验中,这两个长方形物体移动的速度都相同。But the researchers varied the conditions in other ways, without telling the participants.但研究人员通过其它方式改变了实验条件,志愿者对此却一无所知。Sometimes both rectangles travelled slowly, at just over 3o of arc a second from the observers point of view, as a ship might. Sometimes they travelled much faster, at 20o a second, mimicking the way a land vehicle moves.有时两个长方形物体移动速度都很慢,从志愿者的观察角度看,就象一艘船以每秒驶过3度的距离在航行,有时它们都模仿陆地车辆行驶方式以每秒走过20度的距离快速移动。The jazzy rectangles also came in different flavours. Some were low-contrast (ie, not very jazzy at all) and some high-contrast.长方形物体的迷图案也不尽相同,有些图案对比度不强烈(看起来不那么花哨),有些图案的对比度则很强。The upshot, as Dr Scott-Samuel reports in the Public Library of Science, was that participants were not fooled by slow-moving rectangles, nor by low-contrast ones.实验结果如同Scott-Samuel 士在公共科学图书馆报告所说,志愿者对慢速移动或图案对比度不强的物体移动速度判断较准确。Fast-moving, high-contrast shapes, however, did befuddle them.而对于快速移动和图案对比度强烈的物体,他们的判断常常出错。On average, an observer reckoned that such a fast, jazzy rectangle was going 7% slower than was actually the case.志愿者对于有迷图案和快速移动的正方形物体的速度估计要比它们的实际速度平均低了7%。Ships, therefore, travel too slowly for dazzle camouflage to work.因此喷涂迷伪装的军舰航行速度过于缓慢是起不到迷惑敌军作用的。In any case, modern torpedoes and missiles are guided to their target electronically.在任何情况下,现代的鱼雷和导弹都采用了电子制导来跟踪目标。But 20o a second corresponds to the perceived movement of a vehicle 70 metres away that is travelling at 90kph.但是从视觉角度看,每秒20度的移动速度相当于在70米外看到一部车辆在以90公里/小时行驶。That is precisely the sort of distance from which an unguided rocket-propelled grenade might be fired at a lightly armoured military vehicle, and just the sort of speed such a vehicle might be travelling at.在与此相同的距离和速度条件下,一个非制导火箭推进榴弹能够击中一辆轻型装甲军车。Perhaps the answer, then, is for modern armies to buy their Land Rovers second-hand from game parks, which often paint them in zebra stripes for effect.如果果真如此,那么现代军队可以考虑在狩猎公园买个涂有斑马条纹的二手路虎车了。Whether real zebra got their own jazzy stripes to confuse predators has yet to be determined.至于斑马身上的条纹能否让其躲过掠食动物的捕杀则还有待实。 /201212/212722


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