原标题: 抚顺市妇幼保健医院医院男科飞度养生问答网
Halfway between Manzanera and Mora de Rubielos the car radio signal dies. The rest is silence, and a lonely road winding through a high plateau ringed with crags and pine forests. The shepherd leading his flock through the dry stalks of a fallow field is the only person I see on this half-hour journey.汽车行至曼萨内拉(Manzanera)与莫拉-德鲁别洛斯村(Mora de Rubielos)半途时,车载收音机就收不到任何广播信号了。此时万籁俱寂,只剩孤零零的公路蜿蜒于峭壁林立与松树密布的高原山区。在整个半小时的车程中,领着羊群穿过一片布满干麦秆的休耕地的牧羊人成了我们见到的唯一的人。Welcome to Gúdar Javalambre. This remote county in eastern Spain covers 2,350 sq km but contains only 24 villages and fewer than 9,000 inhabitants. It belongs to Teruel, one of the three provinces of Aragón and a region best known in Spain for Teruel Existe (“Teruel exists”), a citizens’ campaign launched in 2000 to call for more investment and to fight depopulation. This land of massive skies and tiny population densities — as low as 3.7 people per square kilometre — reminds you how vast and empty much of Spain still is, away from the boisterous cities and teeming coasts.欢迎莅临古达尔-哈瓦尔布雷县(Gúdar Javalambre)。这座位于西班牙东部的偏僻县面积达2350平方公里,但全县只有24个村落,居民不到9000人。它隶属于特鲁埃尔省(Teruel),是阿拉贡自治区(Aragón)所属三省之一,该地区以“拯救特鲁埃尔”(Teruel Existe)名闻西班牙,这是2000年发起的一项全民运动,旨在呼吁更多投资以及与积极应对人口减少现象。这片地广人稀之地(每平方公里只有3.7人)提醒诸位西班牙仍是幅员辽阔、人烟稀少的国家,远非喧嚣的都市以及人满为患的沿海地区给人的印象。Gúdar Javalambre’s efforts to forge a future are a fine example of the adage that necessity is the mother of invention. The climate here can be harsh and the soil is too poor and dry for arable agriculture. Communications are not all they could be. Yet the county is doing what it can to get ahead. As interest grows in lesser-known parts of Spain’s unspoilt interior, visitors are increasingly being drawn to Gúdar Javalambre’s wild natural beauty and gourmet products, such as its superb air-dried ham. There is good infrastructure at ski resorts such as Valdelinares and Javalambre, and the new A23 motorway has brought Valencia airport within a 90-minute drive. The absence of light pollution in the skies — plus the news that Galáctica, an observatory/museum of global importance, is scheduled to open here this year — has led to the rise of “astro-tourism” in the county, with guided starlight walks.古达尔-哈瓦尔布雷为开创美好未来付出的不懈努力,绝好地诠释了“需要是发明之母”的格言。这儿气候条件恶劣、土地太过贫瘠与干旱,不适于农业耕作,此外交通也极不便利。然而,该县正竭尽所能利用一切可利发展的条件。随着游客对人迹罕至、鲜为人知的西班牙内陆地区兴趣渐浓,他们越来越流连忘返于古达尔-哈瓦尔布雷县的自然旖旎风光与美食(如美不胜收的风干火腿),巴尔德利纳雷斯(Valdelinares)与哈瓦尔布雷(Javalambre)等滑雪胜地的基础设施一应俱全,新的A23号高速公路通车后,距巴伦西(Valencia)机场仅1.5小时车程。此地毫无光污染以及世界级Galáctica天文台/物馆将于今年正式开馆的消息,引发了该县的“天文观测游”热,即导游引领的星夜漫步旅游。But the most remarkable draw is the truffle. Until the 1960s the sought-after fungus was little known in Spain and European truffle culture was dominated by the French and Italians. But since the discovery that the “black diamond” could be grown in the meagre soil of Teruel, the province has experienced a production boom. Planting began in the 1980s and some 6,500 hectares of truffle-producing carrasca oak trees are now under cultivation.但最引人注目的旅游项目是找挖松露。在上世纪60年代前,这种珍稀美味在西班牙鲜为人知,欧洲的松露文化主要由法国人与意大利人打造。但自从发现这种“黑色钻石”能存活于特鲁埃尔贫瘠的土壤后,该省就开始了大规模种植。上世纪80年代正式拉开了种植松露的序幕,如今该地区播种了约6500公顷生长松露的矮橡树林。I have come to the county for a long weekend at La Trufa Negra, a hotel whose pioneering “truffle tourism” package includes a truffle-hunting expedition with dogs, a truffly tasting- and truffle-based therapies in the hotel spa. Now in its fourth year, “trufiturismo” at the hotel has grown to the point where it brings in 60 or more customers on any given Saturday, in a season that lasts from November until March.我们入住于古达尔-哈瓦尔布雷县的La Trufa Negra酒店度周末长假,这家酒店推出的“松露旅游套餐”包括了猎找寻松露旅行、品尝松露定价餐以及松露spa。如今酒店的“松露旅游套餐”已推出四年,生意火爆,每个周六能吸纳60位(甚至更多)游客入住,从每年11月一直持续至次年三月。At the heart of Teruel’s truffle zone lie a pair of pretty, historic villages with confusingly similar names: Mora de Rubielos and Rubielos de Mora. La Trufa Negra is in the former (known locally as Mora) and is surprisingly sleek, designed in a modernist style that contrasts sharply with the rustichotelitos of the area. It is the first venture in hotel-keeping from the Pérez family, whose nearby estate La Masía El Olmo is a major truffle producer.就在特鲁埃尔松露种植中心区域,坐落着两座名字类似、却让人晕菜的迷人古村庄:莫拉-德鲁别洛斯与德鲁别洛斯-莫拉(Rubielos de Mora)。La Trufa Negra酒店坐落于前者(当地人称为莫拉村),特别时尚(着实出人意料),由现代主义建筑风格设计而成,它与本地区的诸多“乡村酒店”(rustichotelitos)建筑风格大相径庭。这是佩雷斯家族涉足酒店行业的第一家,附近的La Masía El Olmo庄园则是主要的松露产地。The Pérezes have long been one of Mora’s more prominent families. Emilio, the patriarch, was a farmer before he bought the village’s first lorry in 1963 and founded a transport company which became the cornerstone of his business empire. The new generation are his granddaughter Alexandra, 26, who runs the hotel, and her sister Alba, 20, a student of agronomy who, together with their father Miguel, looks after La Masía El Olmo.佩雷斯家族一直是莫拉村的名门望族。家族企业创办人埃米利奥(Emilio)曾是农民,1963年购买了该村首辆大卡车后,建立了运输公司,从此奠定了其庞大商业帝国的基础。家族年轻一代的代表是埃米利奥26岁的孙女亚历山德拉(Alexandra),她负责家族酒店经营;亚历山德拉20岁的阿尔芭(Alba)是农学专业学生,与她们的老爸米格尔(Miguel)一起掌管La Masía El Olmo庄园。La Trufa Negra is a shrine to its namesake. Black truffles from the family farm are a mainstay of Melanosporum, the hotel restaurant where chef Victor Pérez (no relation) showcases them in dishes ranging from the luxuriously plain (olive oil-macerated carpaccio of truffle on toast) to the plainly luxurious (salad of truffle shavings and duck ham with peach and curry vinaigrette). Truffles are sold in the lobby, fresh, steeped in brandy, and infused in cheese and longaniza sausage. They also feature on the at the hotel spa, which claims its truffle-derived cocktail of vitamins, minerals and polyphenols works as a “natural Botox” for the skin.与松露同名的La Trufa Negra酒店是美食饕餮们的圣地。家族农庄出产的各种黑松露是酒店餐厅Melanosporum的“镇馆美食”,其大厨维克多#8226;佩雷斯(Victor Pérez,与家族并无亲戚关系)向我们展示了各色松露:从既好看简约的橄榄油煎炸松露薄片吐司到赏心悦目型(用桃汁与咖啡汁调出的松露屑火腿鸭沙拉)。松露就在酒店大厅里销售——新鲜松露浸泡在白兰地中,其它则做在干酪与灌在longaniza香肠中。它们还是酒店spa中心的特色项目,该中心自诩从松露中提取的混合物富含维生素、矿物质以及多酚类物质,对皮肤的疗效就如同“天然肉毒杆菌”(Botox)般神奇。On a rapidly darkening Friday afternoon I make the short drive to Mora’s twin village, Rubielos de Mora. I have been enchanted by Mora’s 14th-century church of Santa Maria la Mayor, a glorious Gothic barn, and the village’s mighty castle in dust-coloured stone, which would not look out of place in Game of Thrones. But Rubielos de Mora is, if anything, even more impressive architecturally. The grandeur of its 27 historic mansions gives an idea of the village’s once-enormous wealth, derived from the wool trade, which reached its peak in the 16th century.星期五的傍晚时分,我抽出一点时间,开车短暂造访了莫拉村的村——德鲁别洛斯-莫拉村。本人曾流连忘返于莫拉村建于14世纪的Santa Maria la Mayor教堂、一座恢宏的哥特式风格的谷仓以及灰褐色石头盖成的雄伟城堡,它与《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)中的城堡相比也丝毫不逊色。但德鲁别洛斯-莫拉村的建筑更显气度不凡。27座气派的老宅似乎在昭示这里曾经的极度富奢,其财富来自于羊毛贸易,16世纪时达到顶峰。The truffle, Gúdar Javalambre’s newest hope for potential riches, is less in evidence here, though if the s in the tapas bars and restaurants are anything to go by, it is gradually finding a place in the cuisine. That evening at Los Leones, a fine little palace-hotel, owner Manuel Górriz serves me an aged sirloin steak adorned with thin truffle slices bestowing a pungent aroma on the simply cooked meat.松露最有希望成为古达尔-哈瓦尔布雷县未来财富的来源,但它在本地却并不引人注目,尽管如果按照小餐馆与高档餐厅的菜单来衡量,它已逐渐成为本地餐饮的必备美食。当晚,精致小巧的Los Leones豪华酒店老板曼努埃尔#8226;格里斯(Manuel Górriz)用沙朗熟成牛排——在煮熟的牛肉上,就用散发着浓郁香气的松露小薄片点缀——热情款待了我们。Back in Mora, Saturday dawns bright and bracing. I take my place along with eight other “truffle tourists” — they include a chef, a cherry farmer and a food-loving family from Bilbao — in the hotel screening room where Alexandra Pérez offers us an introductory course in thetrufa as species, crop and ingredient. Thanks to her explanations I learn the taxonomy of the truffle family and to easily distinguish Tuber magnatum, the renowned wild truffle of Piedmont, from Tuber aestivum, the milder-flavoured summer truffle, andTuber melanosporum, the black winter truffle traditionally associated with Périgord in southwest France but now cultivated here on such a scale that local producers claim Teruel accounts for a fifth of the global crop.第二天(星期六)一大早回到莫拉村,阳光明媚、沁人心脾。我与另外八位“松露游客”(包括一位厨师、一位樱桃园主以及来自毕尔巴鄂(Bilbao)的一位美食饕餮)一起就座于酒店的放映室,由亚历山德拉#8226;佩雷斯(Alexandra Pérez)向我们普及了松露作为物种、作物以及调味品的入门知识。正是得益于她的介绍,我才得以区分清各种松露,知道如何一下子辨别白松露菌(Tuber magnatum,产于皮埃蒙特(Piedmont)的名贵野生松露)、黑松露(Tuber aestivum,味道温和的夏块菌)以及黑孢松露(Tuber melanosporum)。黑孢松露这种黑色冬块菌原先产于法国东南部的佩利哥(Périgord),如今在特鲁埃尔大规模种植,当地种植者自豪地宣称此地出产的松露占据了全球五分之一的产量。 /201503/364022Love A Good Bargain? You May Change Your Mind After Reading This你还忍心购买打折商品吗?How often have you walked out from your favorite store with a great sense of accomplishment for snagging an incredible pair of jeans or a gorgeous dress for next to ;nothing?; However, would you feel as smug if you knew that the person who made it works in an unsafe environment and gets paid next to ;nothing?; This was what the folks at advocacy group Fashion Revolution recently decided to put to test in Berlin, Germany.你有过多少次从最爱的装店走出来,为自己低价抢到很棒的牛仔裤或者漂亮的裙子而感到异常满足呢?然而,如果你知道装厂工人在不安全的环境辛苦制作这些衣,换来的却是可怜的薪水,内心还会自鸣得意吗?On April 23rd, some luck city residents encountered a bright turquoise pop-up vending machine with a sign that we all love to see - beautiful t-shirts for a mere 2 Euros ( .40 USD)! Not surprisingly, many flocked over to claim the bargain before it was gone.4月23日,部分市民有幸看到一款青绿色的自动售货机,上面写着深受欢迎的标语——好看的T恤,只要2欧元(1.4美元)。果不其然,看到的市民开始一阵哄抢,生怕折扣结束。When customers inserted their money, they were asked to select the color and the size they wished to purchase. But as they waited for the awesome t-shirt to drop, they experienced something unusual - images of the women and children that spend up to 16 hours a day making the cheap clothing inside overcrowded derelict warehouses. What#39;s worse is that despite working this hard work they barely make enough money to live on.顾客把钱塞进去后,会提示他们挑选自己喜欢的颜色和尺码。但是,在等待T恤出来的时候,他们却看到了一些不同寻常的东西——妇女和儿童为了加工这些低价装在简陋拥挤的仓库每天工作近16小时。更糟的是,他们工作时长这么久,所得工资还不足以糊口。Once the buyers had been educated about who made their cheap clothing, they were given the choice to go ahead with their purchase or donate the money to a charity dedicated to improving the life of contract workers in developing countries. Not surprisingly, 90% of the shoppers chose to donate. This just proved what Fashion Revolution has always believed - if people are made aware of the true cost of cheap fast fashion, they will re-think their purchases. The group is of course not trying to dissuade consumers from buying. They just want them to be aware of the entire supply chain and support Fashion Revolution#39;s mission to hold manufacturers accountable for the poor working conditions and low wages.顾客了解是谁加工了这些低价装之后,机器会给他们一个选择,是继续购买还是把这些钱捐给这些发展中国家的合同工,用来改善他们的生活。不出所料,90%的顾客选择把钱捐出去。这种行为正实了Fashion Revolution所相信的,如果人们意识到廉价衣真实的价值,就会重新考虑自己的购买行为。该组织这样做并非为了劝阻客人购买衣,而是想让他们了解整个生产链,并持他们组织来促使生产商对这些在艰苦环境工作、低收入的工人们负责。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/382386

It is said that there is a correlation between the number of storks’ nests found on Danish houses and the number of children born in those houses. Could the old story about babies being delivered by storks really be true? No. Correlation is not causation. Storks do not deliver children but larger houses have more room both for children and for storks.丹麦流传着一种说法,一户人家屋檐上的鹳巢数量与这家人所生孩子的数量存在着相关性。婴儿是鹳鸟送来的古老传说是真的吗?当然不是。相关性跟因果关系不是一回事。鹳不会送来孩子,但大房子有更大的空间为孩子和鹳所用。This much-loved statistical anecdote seems less amusing when you consider how it was used in a US Senate committee hearing in 1965. The expert witness giving testimony was arguing that while smoking may be correlated with lung cancer, a causal relationship was unproven and implausible. Pressed on the statistical parallels between storks and cigarettes, he replied that they “seem to me the same”.这是一则人们喜闻乐见的统计趣闻,但如果你知道1965年在美国参议院一场听会上它是如何被用到的,你就不会觉得那么有趣了。那位做听发言的专家人辩称,尽管吸烟或许跟肺癌相关,但两者之间不存在已明的、令人信的因果关系。当被问及为何把鹳和孩子的关系与香烟和肺癌的关系进行类比,他回答说,两者“在我看来是一样的”。The witness’s name was Darrell Huff, a freelance journalist beloved by generations of geeks for his wonderful and hugely successful 1954 book How to Lie with Statistics. His reputation today might be rather different had the proposed sequel made it to print. How to Lie with Smoking Statistics used a variety of stork-style arguments to throw doubt on the connection between smoking and cancer, and it was supported by a grant from the Tobacco Institute. It was never published, for reasons that remain unclear. (The story of Huff’s career as a tobacco consultant was brought to the attention of statisticians in articles by Andrew Gelman in Chance in 2012 and by Alex Reinhart in Significance in 2014.)这位人的名字叫达莱尔#8226;哈夫(Darrell Huff),是一名自由记者,因其1954年出版的那本精、大为畅销的《统计数字会撒谎》(How to Lie with Statistics)而深受数代极客的爱戴。如果该书续集付印的话,他今天的名声或许会完全不同。《吸烟统计数字会撒谎》(How to Lie with Smoking Statistics)使用了各种鹳式论点来对吸烟与癌症的相关性提出质疑。该书得到了美国的烟草研究所(Tobacco Institute)资助,但不知出于什么原因一直没有出版。(2012年安德鲁#8226;格尔曼(Andrew Gelman)在《Chance》杂志上发表的文章,以及2014年亚历克斯#8226;莱因哈特(Alex Reinhart)在《Significance》杂志上发表的文章,使哈夫担任烟草业顾问的经历引起统计学家们的注意。)Indisputably, smoking causes lung cancer and various other deadly conditions. But the problematic relationship between correlation and causation in general remains an active area of debate and confusion. The “spurious correlations” compiled by Harvard law student Tyler Vigen and displayed on his website (tylervigen.com) should be a warning. Did you realise that consumption of margarine is strongly correlated with the divorce rate in Maine?毋庸置疑,吸烟会导致肺癌和其他多种致命疾病。但广泛意义上的相关性与因果之间的尚存疑问的关系,仍是当前一个极易引起争议和混淆的领域。哈佛大学(Harvard)法学院学生泰勒#8226;维根(Tyler Vige)编撰并发布在其网站(tylervigen.com)上的“伪相关”应算是一种警告。你知道缅因州人造奶油的消费量与离婚率之间存在很强的相关性吗?We cannot rely on correlation alone, then. But insisting on absolute proof of causation is too exacting a standard (arguably, an impossible one). Between those two extremes, where does the right balance lie between trusting correlations and looking for evidence of causation?所以,我们不能仅仅依赖相关性。但是,坚持为因果关系提供绝对据就过于苛刻了(甚至是一种不可能达到的标准)。在这两个极端之间,如何在相信相关性与寻找因果据之间达到合理的平衡呢?Scientists, economists and statisticians have tended to demand causal explanations for the patterns they see. It’s not enough to know that college graduates earn more money — we want to know whether the college education boosted their earnings, or if they were smart people who would have done well anyway. Merely looking for correlations was not the stuff of rigorous science.科学家、经济学家和统计学家倾向于要求为他们看到的现象提出因果解释。知道大学毕业生能赚更多钱还不够,我们想知道,大学教育是否提高了他们的收入,或者他们本来就是聪明人、不管接受大学教育与否都能赚更多钱。仅仅寻找相关性并非严格科学的做法。But with the advent of “big data” this argument has started to shift. Large data sets can throw up intriguing correlations that may be good enough for some purposes. (Who cares why price cuts are most effective on a Tuesday? If it’s Tuesday, cut the price.) Andy Haldane, chief economist of the Bank of England, recently argued that economists might want to take mere correlations more seriously. He is not the first big-data enthusiast to say so.但随着“大数据”的到来,这场争论开始发生变化。海量数据集可以产生一些有趣的相关性,在某些用途上它们就足够好用了(谁关心为何周二降价效果最好呢?如果确是这样,那就选这一天降价。)英国央行(BoE)首席经济学家安德鲁#8226;霍尔丹(Andy Haldane)不久前表示,经济学家们或许想更认真地看待纯粹相关性(mere correlation)。他不是第一个这么说的大数据热衷者。This brings us back to smoking and cancer. When the British epidemiologist Richard Doll first began to suspect the link in the late 1940s, his analysis was based on a mere correlation. The causal mechanism was unclear, as most of the carcinogens in tobacco had not been identified; Doll himself suspected that lung cancer was caused by fumes from tarmac roads, or possibly cars themselves.我们回头来讲抽烟与癌症之间的关系。20世纪40年代末,英国流行病学家理查德#8226;多尔(Richard Doll)最早开始怀疑二者之间的联系。当时他的分析基于纯粹相关性,他不清楚因果机制,因为当时还没确定烟草中的大多数致癌物。多尔本人怀疑肺癌的致病原因是柏油公路的烟气,或者可能就是汽车本身。Doll’s early work on smoking and cancer with Austin Bradford Hill, published in 1950, was duly criticised in its day as nothing more than a correlation. The great statistician Ronald Fisher repeatedly weighed into the argument in the 1950s, pointing out that it was quite possible that cancer caused smoking — after all, precancerous growths irritated the lung. People might smoke to soothe that irritation. Fisher also observed that some genetic predisposition might cause both lung cancer and a tendency to smoke. (Another statistician, Joseph Berkson, observed that people who were tough enough to resist adverts and peer pressure were also tough enough to resist lung cancer.)多尔与奥斯汀#8226;布拉德福德#8226;希尔(Austin Bradford Hill)在1950年发表了他们关于吸烟与癌症关系的早期研究结果,由于俩人的研究基于纯粹相关性,在当时果不其然遭到了批评。伟大的统计学家罗纳德#8226;费雪(Ronald Fisher)在20世纪50年代多次加入论战,指出很可能是癌症引起吸烟,毕竟癌前期病变会对肺部造成刺激,人们可能会通过吸烟来缓解这一刺激。费雪还认为有些遗传特征可能既会引发肺癌,还会引起吸烟倾向。(另一位统计学家约瑟夫#8226;伯克森(Joseph Berkson)提出,假如一个人强悍到足以抵制广告的诱惑和同龄人的压力,那么他也强悍到足以抵抗肺癌。)Hill and Doll showed us that correlation should not be dismissed too easily. But they also showed that we shouldn’t give up on the search for causal explanations. The pair painstakingly continued their research, and evidence of a causal association soon mounted.希尔和多尔的例子告诉我们,不要轻易否定相关性,但他们也以行动明,不应放弃寻找因果解释。俩人继续勤恳研究,很快就发现了更多表明因果关系的据。Hill and Doll took a pragmatic approach in the search for causation. For example, is there a dose-response relationship? Yes: heavy smokers are more likely to suffer from lung cancer. Does the timing make sense? Again, yes: smokers develop cancer long after they begin to smoke. This contradicts Fisher’s alternative hypothesis that people self-medicate with cigarettes in the early stages of lung cancer. Do multiple sources of evidence add up to a coherent picture? Yes: when doctors heard about what Hill and Doll were finding, many of them quit smoking, and it became possible to see that the quitters were at lower risk of lung cancer. We should respect correlation but it is a clue to a deeper truth, not the end of our investigations.希尔和多尔在寻找因果关系时采取了一种务实的方法。比如,是否存在一种剂量效应?是的,烟瘾大的人更可能患肺癌。烟龄长短有关系吗?有关系,吸烟者开始吸烟很久后,癌细胞开始形成。这与费舍尔设想的人们在肺癌早期阶段用烟草进行自我医疗的假设相矛盾。多个据来源凑到一起能否得到一个逻辑连贯的描述?是:能够得到。当医生们听闻希尔和多尔的发现时,许多医生开始戒烟,现实情况也表明戒烟者患肺癌的风险要更低。我们应该尊重相关性,但相关性只是通向更深层真理的一个线索,而不是研究的终点。It’s not clear why Huff and Fisher were so fixated on the idea that the growing evidence on smoking was a mere correlation. Both of them were paid as consultants by the tobacco industry and some will believe that the consulting fees caused their scepticism. It seems just as likely that their scepticism caused the consulting fees. We may never know.目前尚不清楚为什么面对越来越多的吸烟致癌的据,赫夫和费雪却执着地认为这仅是相关性。他们二人都是烟草行业的顾问,因而有些人会认为他们的怀疑动机来源于顾问费。但也很可能正是他们的怀疑带来了顾问费。到底哪个为因,哪个为果,后人可能永远不得而知。 /201504/372173All over the world, the middle classes take temporary leave of their senses when they bear their first child and especially when junior is y to start school. We all know about China’s Tiger Mums, but as far as I can see, other countries have ferocious felines too.世界各地都一样,当中产阶层的父母养育第一个孩子时,尤其是当孩子准备开始上学时,都会一时丧失理智。我们都听说过中国的虎妈,不过据我所知,其他国家也不乏这种凶猛的“猫科动物”。Chinese mums are not the only ones loading their tiny ones up with after-school classes, to make sure they do well in college entrance exams (China’s own version of this — the ded gaokao — finishes on June 9).[NB CHINA’S COLLEGE ENTRANCE EXAMS RUN JUNE 7-8 IN MOST PARTS OF THE COUNTRY, HENCE THE REFERENCE TO HOW IT HAS “JUST FINISHED” ON JUNE 9]并不是只有中国妈妈会带着小孩去上补习班,确保孩子在大学入学考试中取得好成绩。就在6月9日,可怕中国的大学入学考试——高考,刚刚结束。I sent my first daughter to pre-school at 20 months, convinced that if she waited to start with all the other two-year-olds, she would never get into Harvard.我大女儿1岁8个月大时,我就送她去了幼儿园。当时我相信如果等她两岁再跟其他孩子一起入托,她肯定永远考不进哈佛大学(Harvard)。By that time, she had aly completed courses in baby music, baby swimming, baby gymnastics, baby Chinese (and doubtless some other dumb thing that I have since forgotten about). Last week she finished sitting final exams for her first year of high school. I am not prepared to disclose the results but I think I can safely say that I could have waited on the whole pre-school thing — at least until she could talk.其实在入托前她已经上完了许多课程,包括婴儿音乐、婴儿游泳、婴儿体操、婴儿汉语……我肯定还为她做了其他很蠢的安排,不过我已经想不起名字了,因为实在太蠢了。上周她刚考完了高一最后一门期末考试。我并不准备公布她的成绩,但我可以肯定地说,我其实没必要那么早送她去幼儿园——至少应该等她能说话时再送。It seems I am not the only one having a rethink on the idea of academic training for toddlers though, even in China. One of the most popular series on Chinese television recently was Tiger Mum and Cat Dad, about that perennially tortured topic: does ferocity or meekness produce the best gaokao scores? The child in the series has a nervous breakdown due to too much homework pressure: I guess that is your answer. It seems it is no longer so obvious that it is a good idea to start cramming kids for university entrance in the same week you take them out of nappies.现在看来,即便是在中国,反思幼儿学习培训的观念的人并不只有我一个人。最近中国的一部热播电视剧《虎妈猫爸》探讨了一个长期困扰着家长们的话题:到底是该严厉还是温和,才能让孩子取得最好的高考成绩?我猜人们会回答,这部电视剧里的孩子由于作业太多,压力太大而患上抑郁症。对于家长来说,让刚摘掉尿布的婴儿早早开始填鸭式高考教育,似乎不再是个好主意。“Parents born in the 1980s, unlike their predecessors, are more aware of the importance of the happiness of their child at kindergarten, instead of just the development of their academic capacities,” the official China Daily ed the general manager of Kids R Kids in China as saying.官媒《中国日报》(China Daily)援引Kids R Kids驻华总经理的话说:“80后父母与上辈人不同,他们更能意识到孩子去幼儿园更重要的是快乐,而不再仅仅关注孩子学业能力的进步。”They would say that, wouldn’t they, since Kids R Kids is a US early education company whose motto is “hug first, then teach”. You can’t sell that kind of thing to Tiger Mum — but there must be more Cat Dads out there than before. Otherwise who will Kids R Kids peddle classes in things like infant sign language and “lying on the belly with friends” to?当然了,人们肯定会说,这是因为Kids R Kids是一家美国早教公司,其座右铭是“先拥抱孩子,再教授知识”。虎妈是不会接受这套说辞的,不过现在的猫爸肯定比以前多。否则Kids R Kids向谁推销譬如婴儿手语,“与朋友们趴着玩儿”这类课程呢?The government also seems to be more on Cat Dad’s side these days: changes in official education regulations introduced in Shanghai this year halved the number of children interviewing for slots in highly competitive private kindergartens and primary schools, according to state media. Shanghai Daily said the goal was to “ease the parent frenzy about getting offspring into the best schools”. Sounds like feline fathers are getting the upper hand there, too.近来政府似乎更站在猫爸的一边:根据中国官方媒体的报道,今年上海出台教育条例改革,使竞争极为激烈的民办幼儿园和民办小学的入学面试报考人数减半。《上海日报》(Shanghai Daily)表示,改革的目标是“缓解家长对于择校的焦虑心态”。听起来,猫爸们似乎逐渐占了上风。State media gave this as an example of the kind of question primary school interviewers might ask: You have a 5m pole. If you take a deep breath and climb up 2m, but then slip down 1m each time, how many deep breaths will you have to take before reaching the top?” I’m glad they didn’t ask my high schooler that.对于参加小学入学面试的孩子们要回答的问题,官方媒体给出了一个例子:有一个5米的爬杆。如果你深吸一口气能爬高两米,但每次都会滑下1米,你需要深呼吸几次才能爬到杆顶?我很高兴我上高中的孩子过去没被问到这个问题。Yang Huiyu is a young dad with a child entering primary school next academic year, and he thinks pre-school cramming is a waste of money: he holds up a maths test from such a school — which even includes a few algebra questions — and points out that children only have a limited period to answer the questions. Not for him, he says: “It’s just a matter of time, my child will learn this in school anyway,” adding that if his son is given more than an hour and a half of homework per night, “I’ll ask him to take the unfinished work back to the teacher.”杨辉宇(音译)是一位年轻的父亲,他的孩子下学年就要上小学了。他认为学前填鸭式教育完全是浪费钱:他拿起一张这种学校提供的数学测试题,里面甚至包含几个代数问题,他指出孩子们只有有限的时间回答这些问题。他不认同这一做法,说:“这只是时间问题,我的孩子迟早会在学校里学到,”他还补充说,如果儿子每天晚上的作业量超过了一个半小时,“我会让他把没完成的作业还给老师。”Like many Chinese parents these days, he plans to administer after-school education himself — in a fun way. “I can teach him about physics by telling him the story of Archimedes while he’s in the shower,” he says. I hope my kids learnt that at school, since I surely wasn’t up to teaching them physics at bath time (and if you’re rusty on it, I can suggest a good infant cram school). Will he send his son for extra lessons after he finishes his primary school day? “Definitely not, unless he wants to,” says Mr Yang. Don’t let Tiger Mum hear you say that.和现在的很多中国家长一样,他计划自己给孩子实施课后教育——用一种寓教于乐的方式进行。他说:“他洗澡的时候,我会给他讲阿基米德的故事,教他物理知识。”我希望我的孩子能在学校里学到这些,因为我过去肯定没打算在孩子洗澡的时候教他物理(如果你的物理生疏了,我可以给你推荐一个很好的幼儿补习班)。我问他会不会在孩子放学后送他去补习班?“绝对不会,除非他自己想去,”杨说。这番话可不能让虎妈听到。 /201506/380035

The pleasure and pain of shoes: something afoot at the Vamp;A穿鞋的苦与乐:维多利亚和阿尔伯特物馆发生的事情One of the first things you notice on entering the Vamp;A’s new summer exhibition Shoes: Pleasureamp;Pain are the ballet slippers wornby Moria Shearer in Powell and Press burger’s film The Red Shoes.一进入英国国立维多利亚与艾尔伯特物馆,第一眼看见的便是夏日展厅里的鞋子:那是莫伊拉·希勒出演鲍威尔和皮斯伯格的电影《红菱艳》时穿过的红色芭蕾舞鞋,那双红舞鞋展现了女主人公的苦与乐。Instead of being the usual confectionery pink, satin slippers appear to have been dipped in blood. In the Hans Christian Andersen story on which the 1948 film is loosely based, the heroine Karen is doomed to dance to her death for wanting to show off her new crimson shoes in church.和一般的糖果粉相反,那双绸子的鞋子似乎已染上了血的颜色。1948年的电影大体基于安徒生的故事,在教堂里想要炫耀她的新鞋子的女主角卡伦注定要跳舞直到死亡。Even after she hacks off her incessantly whirling feet, the bloodied stumps continue to caper. Likewise, Shearer, as Vicky Page, is danced to her death by her fidgety red slippers as a punishment for wanting both art and love, ballet and marriage. In both cases, the red shoes, which initially seemed to offer the fulfilment of female desire, turn out to be its fatal scourge.在她破解了不停地旋转的脚上(的魔法)之后,血迹斑斑的树桩仍然在雀跃。而且,就像是维基页面显示的一样,由于艺术和爱情,芭蕾和婚姻不可兼得,红舞鞋惩罚希勒跳到死。在这两种情况下,红舞鞋最初都似乎满足了女性欲望,但同时也是其致命的灾难。It’s a bit like that in real life too. The fashion for wearing ballerina slippers as streetwear, which crested a couple of years ago, appeared to offer the pleasing possibility of skipping insouciantly through summer, rocking an Audrey Hepburn or Amy Winehouse vibe.这也有点像真实生活中(的事情)。几年前街上流行前沿的时尚芭蕾舞鞋,似乎漫不经心地旋转中便带有奥黛丽·赫本或艾米·怀恩豪斯的气质,为整个夏日带来了快乐。But anyone who has tried wearing ballet flats all day, whether in Cannes or Camden, will know that they are not adapted to pavement living. Every single bit of grit makes itself felt through the flexible soles, so that after a couple of hours you start to resemble another of Andersen’s heroines, the Little Mermaid, whose every step cut her feet to bloody ribbons.无论是在戛纳还是在卡姆登的(典礼上),那些一整天都穿着芭蕾平底鞋的人,并不适应路面(的走路)。勇敢地穿上灵活的鞋底(的舞鞋),但几小时后,你开始变得像是安徒生的另一个女主人公,小美人鱼,她每走一步都将脚上的丝带染红。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,不得转载。 /201507/384516

An amputee who was cruelly nicknamed #39;peg-leg#39; by school bullies has conquered her insecurities to become a model。英国有位截肢姑娘,她读书时经常被同学取笑、还有人给她起了个外号“木桩腿”。 如今,她已经成功战胜各种不安全因素成为了一名模特。Taylor Crisp, 19, from Leicester, was born with femur fibula ulna syndrome, which left her with a shortened femur on her right leg, no kneecap or ankle and a missing toe, had to have leg amputated at 15 after an MRSA infection。19岁的泰勒·克里斯普来自英国莱斯特,她生来就患有股骨腓骨综合症,右腿股骨短、而且没有膝盖骨和脚踝骨,还缺了一根脚趾头、脚跛得很厉害。15岁时,克里斯普因感染耐甲氧西林金葡菌被迫截肢。 /201506/379219Panda is widely recognized熊猫被世界广泛认知The panda is the most widely recognized symbol among foreigners to represent Chinese culture, followed by green tea and yin/yang, according to a survey released Saturday.6日发布的一份调查显示,熊猫是外国人认知度最高的中国文化符号,紧随其后的是绿茶和阴阳。Chinese theory that humans are an integral part of nature; the concept of face, or mianzi; and the Dunhuang Cave Murals are poorly understood.外国人对;天人合一;、;面子;和;敦煌壁画;的认知度较低。The survey collected 2,407 questionnaires from the US, UK, France, Australia, Japan and South Korea.该调查收集了来自美国、英国、法国、澳大利亚、日本和韩国的2407份调查问卷。The results indicated that 13.3% of respondents have a poor understanding of Chinese culture and only 6% an excellent understanding of Chinese culture.结果显示13.3%的受访者对中国文化认知较差,仅6%的受访者对中国文化认知程度为优秀。Foreigners in general are willing to learn about Chinese culture.总体来看,外国人愿意了解中国文化。 /201506/379569

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