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2019年04月21日 07:07:12来源:飞度咨询在线咨询

China on Track to Add Coal Plants Despite Pledge for Curbs, Greenpeace Says报告称中国未来每周新增一座燃煤电厂BEIJING — The Chinese government is trying to slow down the approval of new coal-fired power plants because of overcapacity, but projects aly in the pipeline, as well as loopholes in policy, mean China is on track to add an average of one new coal-fired plant a week until 2020, according to a report released on Wednesday by Greenpeace East Asia.北京——据绿色和平组织东亚分部周三公布的一份报告称,由于产能过剩,中国政府正在努力放缓新燃煤电厂的审批,但是已经批准的项目与政策中的漏洞,意味着中国在2020年到来前,仍在以平均每周一个的速度建设新的燃煤电厂。The construction boom would result in about 400 gigawatts of excess capacity and would waste more than one trillion renminbi, or 0 billion, on building unneeded plants, the report said.报告称,这个建设热潮将在不必要的燃煤电厂上浪费超过1万亿元人民币的投资,并导致约400千兆瓦的过剩产能。China now has 910 gigawatts of coal-fired capacity and is expected to retire 70 gigawatts of that. The new construction means the country would increase capacity at a time when additional coal-fired power is not needed, Greenpeace said.中国目前的燃煤发电能力是910千兆瓦,其中有70千兆瓦的产能预计将被淘汰。绿色和平组织表示,新的建设项目意味着,在不需要更多燃煤电厂的时候,中国仍在增加产能。As part of its broad climate change policy, China — the world’s biggest emitter of greenhouse gases — has promised that it would try to make 20 percent of its energy renewable by 2030. But given the planned growth in coal power capacity, some environmentalists question that goal.中国是世界上最大的温室气体排放国,作为其应对气候变化的全面政策的一部分,中国已经承诺争取在2030年前将能源组合中的20%变为可再生能源。但考虑到计划中的燃煤发电能力的增长,一些环保人士对这个目标的实现表示怀疑。“China’s worsening coal overcapacity crisis is acting as a dead weight on the country’s ongoing energy transition,” said Lauri Myllyvirta, who wrote the report with Shen Xinyi.“中国日益严重的燃煤电厂产能过剩的危机,是中国目前能源转型的沉重负担,”柳力(Lauri Myllyvirta)说,他与沈昕一一起撰写了这份报告。Representatives of China’s hydropower and wind power industries have complained of the glut of coal power plants. The addition of a large number of such plants would make it harder for companies specializing in non-fossil-fuel energy to be profitable because coal-fired plants can more easily secure contracts with the major state-owned electrical grid companies.中国的水电、风电等行业的代表已经在抱怨燃煤电厂产能过剩的问题。燃煤电厂的大量增长将让致力于非化石燃料的公司更难盈利,因为燃煤电厂更容易从国有的电网公司获得入网合同。Mr. Myllyvirta and other Greenpeace researchers have been trying to calculate the amount of overcapacity of coal-fired power plants in China. Greenpeace East Asia released its first report on the topic in November, noting that 155 projects had received a permit in 2015, equal to 40 percent of operational coal power plants in the ed States.柳力及绿色和平组织的其他研究人员一直在试图计算中国燃煤发电的过剩产能。绿色和平组织东亚分部在去年11月份首次发布有关报告指出,共有155个燃煤电厂项目在2015年获得了许可,相当于美国目前运营的燃煤电厂总数的40%。In March, Greenpeace revised that number upward, saying 210 new or proposed plants, with a total capacity of 165 gigawatts, had received environmental permits last year. Greenpeace tracked China’s proposed capacity by examining provincial websites for permit approvals.今年3月,绿色和平组织调高了这个数字,称去年有210座新建或拟建燃煤电厂获得了环境许可,总装机容量达165千兆瓦。绿色和平组织通过在省政府的网站上查找许可的审批信息,来跟踪中国拟建的煤电产能。There are aly too many coal-fired power plants in China, as shown by a steady decline in the plants’ average operating hours since 2013, according to official statistics. China also used less coal in 2015 compared with 2014, and coal-producing companies across China have complained of a deepening slump in the industry.据官方统计,中国目前已经拥有过多的燃煤电厂,而产能过剩表现在,自2013年以来,燃煤电厂平均运行的小时数在持续下降。中国2015年的煤炭使用量与2014年相比有所减少,中国各地的煤炭生产企业也在抱怨煤炭行业日益深化的衰退。The boom in approval of coal-fired power plants began in early 2015, after the central government said provincial governments could approve projects.燃煤电厂的审批热潮始于2015年初,那之前,中央政府曾表示,省级政府可批准这类项目。But the central government has tried to rein in the approvals, and it announced a policy in April to limit capacity and retire some plants. Under that policy, about 110 gigawatts of proposed capacity would be suspended and 70 gigawatts would be retired by 2020, according to the Greenpeace report on Wednesday.但是,中央政府后来试图严格控制审批,并在今年4月宣布了一项限制产能和淘汰一些燃煤电厂的政策。绿色和平组织周三的报告称,按照这一政策,大约110千兆瓦的拟建产能将暂停,现有产能中的70千兆瓦将在2020年前被淘汰。But plants that would add 200 gigawatts are aly under construction, and projects adding 165 gigawatts could get permits despite the new limits, Greenpeace said.但是,绿色和平组织表示,已经开工的燃煤电厂将增添200千兆瓦的产能,尽管出台了新的限制,仍有许多燃煤电厂有望拿到许可,这些电厂将进一步增添165千兆瓦的产能。Mr. Myllyvirta said that he and his colleagues estimated there would be 600 new coal-fired units, or boilers, at 290 plant sites.柳力说,他和他的同事们估计,将有600个新的燃煤机组分布在各地的290个燃煤电厂中。Greenpeace said that northern and northwestern provinces and regions that are designated new “coal bases” have been trying to approve or build plants as quickly as possible. These include the provinces of Shanxi and Shaanxi and the region of Inner Mongolia, all of which have large coal reserves and whose economies depend on coal.绿色和平组织说,北部和西北省份、以及那些被指定为新“煤炭基地”的地区正在试图尽快地批准或建设煤电项目。其中包括山西省、陕西省以及内蒙古,都是拥有巨大煤炭储量、经济依赖煤炭的地方。The industrial burning of coal is the biggest source of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change. It is also the main contributor to the air pollution in many Chinese cities.工业燃煤是二氧化碳的最大来源,二氧化碳是导致气候变化的主要温室气体。燃煤也是中国许多城市空气污染的主要原因。 /201607/454551。

  • Take this quiz to see if you’re y the next time an airline asks you to give up your seat, bumps you or subjects you to a long delay.做一下这个测试,看看下次如果航空公司要求你放弃座位,在非自愿情况下让你让出座位,或令你遭到大幅延迟,你知不知道该怎么办。1. If you voluntarily give up your seat before boarding, the airline will:1.如果你在登机前自愿放弃座位,航空公司将:a. Arrange a confirmed seat for you on the next available flight but nothing more.a.为你在下一趟有座的航班上确认座位,但没有更多补偿。b. Arrange a confirmed seat for you on the next available flight and will compensate you with a voucher worth several hundred dollars to use toward future flights.b.为你在下一趟有座的航班上确认座位,并付你价值几百美元的未来航班代金券作为补偿。c. Compensate you with a voucher for the inconvenience. But you’re on your own as to booking your next flight.c.因为给你带来不便而补偿你代金券。但是你需要自己预定下一趟航班。d. Give you a cookie and a medal (not redeemable for any future airfare).d.给你一块饼干和一枚奖章(不可兑换未来的机票)。2. If you are involuntarily bumped from a flight because of overbooking, the airline will:2.如果你由于超售而非自愿让位,航空公司将:a. Let you keep your original ticket, which you can use for your next trip, or give you a full refund.a.让你保留原始机票,你可以使用这张机票进行下一次旅行,或者给你全额退款。b. Compensate you for between 200 and 400 percent of your original ticket cost, depending on how long you are delayed from your original arrival time.b.补偿你原始机票费用的200%至400%,具体取决于和原始到达时间相比,你延迟了多久。c. Both of the above.C.二者皆有。3. If you have boarded the airplane and have aly started watching one of eight available Harry Potter movies from the on-screen console, and are selected to be bumped:3.如果你已经登机,并且已经开始在小屏幕上观看八部《哈利·波特》(Harry Potter)电影中的某一部,并且被选中让出座位:a. You have a right to keep your seat, no matter what you are told.a.你有权留在座位上,无论你被告知什么。b. You will be removed from the plane (by force if necessary).b.你将被从飞机上带离(必要时用武力)。c. It’s not quite clear.c.不详。4. If your flight is substantially delayed or canceled:4.如果你的航班遭到大幅延迟或被取消:a. You had best get as comfortable as possible and wait it out, and pray the airport has a Margaritaville.a.你最好尽可能地保持舒适,等待飞机起飞,并祈祷机场有一个玛格丽塔维耶酒店。b. You are likely to receive meal vouchers and the cost of a hotel stay, or are entitled to a full refund or to rebook at no extra cost, even on nonrefundable tickets.b.你可能会收到膳食券和酒店住宿费用,有权享受全额退款或重新预订,无需付额外费用,即使拿的是不可退款的机票。c. You are likely to receive meal vouchers and the cost of a hotel stay, but cannot get a full airfare refund.c.你可能会收到膳食券和酒店住宿费用,但无法获得全额机票退款。5. If your plane has been on the tarmac for more than two hours:5.如果你的飞机在停机坪上停留了两个多小时:a. You can use the bathroom, but don’t expect anything else.a.你可以使用厕所,但不要指望任何其他的。b. You can use the bathroom, receive updates from the crew every 30 minutes and be provided with food and water after two hours.b.你可以使用厕所,每30分钟收到机组人员的更新信息,并在两小时后得到食物和水。c. You can leave the plane and wait at the Margaritaville until the flight is y to take off.c.你可以离开飞机,到玛格丽塔维耶酒店等候,直到飞机准备起飞。 /201704/503820。
  • JENNY NING WAS self-conscious about being one of Kondo’s only employees who had not yet finished tidying(!). What could Kondo possibly think of an employee representing KonMari Inc. to her American base not having her own house in order? Last year, when Kondo visited San Francisco, she came to Ning’s studio apartment, and Ning said she felt very ashamed when Kondo opened her closet. Kondo would visit San Francisco again to introduce the consultancy and maybe even before, and Ning told me she wanted to tidy and to show Kondo the progress. I asked if I could come along and maybe help Ning complete her tidying.近藤麻里惠的雇员中有几个还没有完成整理,其中就包括詹妮·宁(Jenny Ning,音),她为此感到有点不好意思。身为KonMari公司的员工,在美国受众面前代表着公司的形象,她自己的屋子却没有收拾得井井有条,这会让近藤怎么想呢?去年,近藤访问旧金山时来到了宁的公寓。宁说,当近藤打开自己的衣橱时,自己羞愧极了。近藤还会再来旧金山,启动这家咨询公司,甚至可能是在那之前。宁告诉我,她打算好好做一下整理,让近藤看到自己的进步。我问她我是否能过来,说不定能帮上她的忙呢。When Ning was little, she loved to collect things: stamps, stickers, pencils. She was never overwhelmed by her stuff. She thinks of her childhood bedroom as “very happy.” But as she grew into adulthood, she kept buying clothing: far too much of it.宁小时候喜欢收集东西:邮票、贴纸、铅笔。她从来不会觉得自己的东西是负担。她觉得自己童年时代的卧室是“非常快乐”的。但是成年以后,她不停地买衣:买得太多了。She went to work in finance, but she found the work empty and meaningless. She would come home and find herself overwhelmed by her stuff. So she began searching for “minimalism” on the internet, happening on Pinterest pages of beautiful, empty bathrooms and kitchens, and she began to imagine that it was her stuff that was weighing her down. She philosophy blogs about materialism and the accumulation of objects. “They just all talked about feeling lighter,” she said. Ning wanted that lightness.一开始她在金融业工作,但她觉得这份工作空虚而又没有意义。回到家里,她总觉得自己被她所拥有的物品压倒了。于是她开始在网上搜索“极简主义”。偶然在Pinterest上看到那些空空荡荡的漂亮卫生间和厨房,她开始感觉自己拥有的物品成了累赘。她读到一些关于物质至上主义和物品囤积的哲学客。“他们都在讲一种轻盈的感受,”她说。宁也想感受那种轻盈。And here, at this moment in the story, Ning began to cry. “I never knew how to get here from there,” she said. She found Kondo’s book, and she felt better immediately, just having it. She began tidying, and immediately she lost three pounds. She had been trying to lose weight forever, and then suddenly, without effort, three pounds, just gone.故事讲到这儿,宁开始哭泣。“我完全不知道怎么从那种状态达到今天这个样子,”她说。然后,她发现了近藤的书,光是读一读,就让她立刻感觉好了很多。她开始做整理,很快,人就瘦了三磅。她一直在努力减肥,但现在她什么额外的事情也没做,就这么突然一下子瘦了整整三磅。Ning has thrown away her collections. She wiped her tears and leaned in and told me, like a secret, that she has kept one collection: the stickers. She asked me if I wanted to see her album. She pulled it out from under her bed, pages and pages of Snoopy stickers and stickers of frogs and cupcakes and bunnies in raincoats playing in puddles and Easter baskets. She smiled down at them and touched a few while I thumbed through the pages.宁已经把自己收集的东西统统扔掉了。她擦干眼泪,凑到我身边,像说悄悄话一样告诉我,她只保留了一种藏品。那就是贴纸。她问我想不想看她的收藏簿。她把它从床底下拿了出来,里面是一页一页的史努比、青蛙和纸杯蛋糕的贴纸,还有穿着雨衣,在水洼里玩耍的兔子,以及复活节篮子。她低头看着它们,脸上露出微笑,我随手翻动时,她还轻轻地抚摸其中的几枚贴纸。A WEEK LATER I was on another assignment, still using the same notebook from the Kondo story. As I flipped through it, passing through the pages of my notes from my time with Ning, I noticed that a tiny blue butterfly sticker had escaped her collection and landed on a page. When I saw the sticker, I froze and put my finger on it. I had had a sticker album, too. It had stickers that smelled like candy canes and purple. It had bubbly heart stickers and star stickers and Mork amp; Mindy stickers and Peanuts stickers, too.一周后我有另一项采访任务,用的还是采访近藤这篇文章时用的笔记本。我随手翻页,翻过采访宁的那次所做的笔记。我突然发现,有一片小小的蓝蝴蝶贴纸从她的收藏里跑到了我的本子上。看到它,我不觉怔住了,伸出手指去抚摸它。我自己也有过贴纸簿,里面的贴纸闻上去好像拐棍糖,带着点紫色的味道。那里面还有心形泡泡贴纸、星星贴纸、“默克与明迪”(Mork amp; Mindy)贴纸和花生漫画贴纸。I went abroad for a year to Israel after high school. While I was there, the boiler in my house in Brooklyn exploded and a soot fire destroyed all our possessions. “Everyone is OK, but there was a fire,” my father said when I called. I never saw my sticker album again. I never saw anything again. After the place was cleared out, my mother was able to save a few photo albums, because they were closed when the soot invaded the basement and covered and ruined all the surfaces. When I look at the pictures, I don’t ever notice how young or cute my sisters and I were. I look in the background for the items that lie in the incidental path of my mother’s Canon. I try to think of what my life would have been like if I’d returned home to what I left behind, the way my friends were able to return to their homes to what they’d left behind and keep returning, after they finished college and after they got married and after they had kids. I try to think of who I’d be if I weren’t in the habit of looking at my home before I left it each day and mentally preparing myself for the possibility that nothing I owned would be there when I got home that night. I try to know what feelings my lost objects, which I forget more and more as the years pass, would evoke if I could hold them in my hands, KonMari style, like a new kitten. Some would bring joy and some would not, but I’m not someone who thinks that joy is the only valid emotion. I try to remember what I no longer can because, in terms of my possessions, it is as if I was born on my 19th birthday.中学毕业后,我去以色列呆了一年。在以色列期间,布鲁克林家里的锅炉爆炸了,烟殆引发的火灾烧掉了我们所有的财物。“大家都好,但是着火了,”我打电话过去时,父亲告诉我。我永远地失去了我的贴纸簿,什么都没有了。现场收拾干净之后,妈妈抢救出几本相册,烟殆侵入地下室后,覆盖并烧毁了所有东西的表面,但相册是合着的。看着那些照片,我注意的不是我和姊们过去有多么年轻可爱。我只是看着背景中那些被妈妈的佳能相机碰巧拍到的东西。我试着去设想,如果我能回到幼时的家,看到自己留在家里的那些东西,那样的生活会是什么样?就像我的朋友们可以回家,看到他们留在那里的东西仍然在那里,甚至大学毕业或者结婚生子之后,还都保持原样。我已经养成习惯,每天出门前都要审视家中,做好当晚回来发现自己所有物品都已不见的心理准备。如果我没有养成这样的习惯,现在的我又会是个什么样的人呢?那些我已经失去的东西,随着岁月流逝,也渐渐被我淡忘。但我常想,如果我能再次把它们握在手里,用KonMari的方式,仿佛捧起一只新生的小猫,那会带给我怎样的感受?我想,有些东西一定会带来快乐,而有些则不会。但我不认为快乐是唯一正当的情感。我努力回忆那些我已经不记得了的东西,因为从个人物品的角度来说,我感觉自己仿佛是19岁生日那天才刚刚出生。 The reason I bring this up is to tell you that you could not have any stuff at all, much less too much stuff, and still be totally messed up about it. The reason I tell you this is so that you know that that tiny butterfly sticker has been the same burden to me as any hoarder’s yield. Nostalgia is a beast, and that is either a good reason to KonMari your life, or a terrible one, depending on how you want to live.我之所以说起这件事,只是想告诉你,就算你什么东西也没有,就算你拥有的东西远远算不上过多,你还是有可能过得乱七八糟。我告诉你这些,是想让你明白,那片小小的蝴蝶贴纸对于我来说,也像任何一个集物癖的破烂儿一样,是一种负担。怀旧情结是一头猛兽,如果你想用KonMari法去整理自己的生活,这既是一个好理由,也是一个坏理由,完全取决于你想怎样生活。THE LAST TIME I saw Marie Kondo, we were in a hotel room in Midtown, a different one, and still the only visible objects in it were that metal suitcase and her husband’s laptop. But one item had been removed from the suitcase: a spray bottle that she keeps around. She sprays it into the air and the scent signals to her that she is finished working for the day, that her obligations, which seem endless lately, are done. I told her that, to my observation, a company trying to grow the way hers was trying to grow seemed at odds with the personality of someone who required such extreme measures for peace in the first place. “I do feel overwhelmed,” she told me, and she gave me one note of a quiet laugh. People demand a lot of her, not really understanding that you don’t go into a business like tidying if you’re able to handle a normal influx of activity and material. Kondo is not part of a breed of alpha-organizers bent on dominating the world, despite her hashtag. She has more in common with her clients. But when it comes to stuff, we are all the same. Once we’ve eliminated that which does not bring us joy and categorized ourselves within an inch of our lives, we’ll find that the person lying beneath all the stuff was still just plain old us. We are all a mess, even when we’re done tidying. At least Kondo knows it. “I was always more comfortable talking to objects than people,” she told me. At that moment, I could tell that if she had her way, I would leave the hotel room and she would spray her spray and be left alone, so she could ask the empty room if she could clean it.我上一次见到近藤麻里惠是在中城的一家酒店房间。不是同一个房间。但房间里能看到的唯一几件物品还是只有她的金属旅行箱,还有她丈夫的笔记本电脑。不过有一样东西已经从旅行箱里拿出来了,就是她的喷雾瓶。她喜欢把香氛喷洒在空气中,告诉自己一日的工作已经做完,她那些似乎永远做不完的任务已经完成。我告诉她,据我观察,一家以如此方式追求成长的公司和一个需要采取如此极端方式追求平和的人,似乎有点格格不入。“我确实感到力不从心,”她告诉我,对我静静一笑。人们向她索求很多东西,却不明白,如果你真能处理好日常生活的种种匆忙和繁乱,也就不会从事“整理”这种行业了。尽管有那样的井号标签,但近藤并不是那种一心主导世界的顶级组织者。她和自己的客户之间其实有着更多相似之处。但是说到身外之物,我们都是一样的。一旦丢弃了那些不能给我们带来快乐的东西,拼命地自我归类,我们会发现,那个身外之物底下的人,仍不过是原来旧我。我们所有人都是一团糟,哪怕是完成了整理之后。至少近藤知道这一点。“和东西说话总是比和人说话更让我觉得自在,”她告诉我。在那个时刻,我看得出来,如果按照她的心愿,我应该马上离开这个酒店房间,好让她独自一个人去喷洒香氛,然后询问这个房间愿不愿意被她清理。 /201607/453655。
  • The authorities in Shengzhou, Zhejiang Province, were encouraging people to collect discarded cigarettes from the streets and hand them in, the Sohu news website reports. 据搜狐新闻网报道,浙江省嵊州市政府鼓励人们收集街道上丢弃的香烟,交给政府。For every 50 that were collected, the city was offering a pack of tissues in return. 每收集50个烟蒂,政府就给兑换一包纸巾。But the apparently meagre reward had people turning out in droves.这看似小小的奖励却引得人们蜂拥而至。The sanitation task force was soon flooded with cigarette butts, receiving almost five million of them in three weeks, and costing them 100,000 packets of tissues. 该市环卫处很快就堆满了烟蒂,这里在3周内收到了近500万个烟蒂,兑换出10万包纸巾。One elderly woman turned up with more than 9,000 butts, Sohu says. 搜狐称,有位老妇人送来9000多个烟蒂。People were counting out their used cigarettes in little piles outside the office, the Zhejiang Radio and TV Group reports.据浙江广播电视集团报道,人们在办公室外一小堆一小堆的数着烟蒂。Officials soon felt that something was amiss, suspecting that those taking part had either been sent cigarettes by people beyond Shengzhou, or had travelled in from elsewhere. 当地官员很快就发现事情不太对劲,他们怀疑要么有外地人给参与活动的人送来烟蒂,要么就是外地人来参与兑换。That prompted them to cancel the campaign.活动因此被取消了。;Many of the cigarette butts we received were fairly clean - they were not soiled or soaked in any way, and they didn#39;t look like they were picked up from the ground,; an unnamed official tells The Paper. 一位不具名的官员告诉澎湃新闻,我们收到许多相当干净的烟蒂——上面完全没有沾染泥土、水渍,看起来不像是从地面上捡的。;We couldn#39;t be sure where the butts were collected, so we had no choice but to accept them all.;我们不能确定这些烟蒂是从哪里收集来的,所以不得不全部收下。Many social media users feel the government can only blame itself for how things turned out. 许多社交媒体用户认为,事情演变成这样政府只能怪自己。;It is just that the authorities haven#39;t prepared it well enough,; one says on the Sina Weibo microblogging site. 一位新浪微网友表示,这只能说明政府没有做好充分的准备。While some are unimpressed that people tried to cheat the system, others point out a potentially unintended consequence: the scheme could simply encourage smokers to light up more often. 虽然一些人对于人们试图欺诈的行为不以为然,但也有人指出政府此举可能带来意想不到的后果:这一方案可能只会鼓励吸烟者吸更多烟。;It#39;s no different from welfare for smokers,; one person writes. 有网友写道,这和给吸烟者发福利没什么区别,;Save your cigarette butts, we#39;ll give you tissues in exchange.;留下烟蒂,我们就给你兑换纸巾。 /201611/475304。
  • Mosquitoes. Flies. Cockroaches. The bugs that thrive in the heat of summer vex Chinese urban dwellers just as they do in most of the world.蚊子、苍蝇、。这些在盛夏迅速繁衍的虫子给中国城市居民带来的烦恼,与它们带给世界上大多数人的并无二致。But in China, some insects are viewed not as pests, but as pets — especially if they sing for their supper.但在中国,人们不认为某些昆虫是害虫,而是把它们当作宠物——尤其是如果它们能为人们的晚餐伴唱的话。Chirping bugs like katydids, cicadas and crickets are prized throughout the country, collected by children and old men who keep them in clay vessels or bamboo cages and nourish them with grains of rice and razor-thin slices of green onion.蝈蝈、知了和蟋蟀这些会叫的昆虫,在中国各地深受人们的喜爱,孩子和老人们收集这些虫子,把它们放在瓦罐或竹笼里养起来,用米粒和切得非常细的葱叶子喂它们。Crickets are even bred for their fighting prowess, and a pedigreed champion can be worth hundreds of dollars. But typical crooners can be bought from farmers in pet markets for a few dollars.有人甚至专门培养战斗力强的蟋蟀,优良品种的冠军蟋蟀价值可达数百美元。但一般只会低声哼唱的蛐蛐儿,可以在宠物市场上从农民那里,花几美元就能买到。“Summer isn’t complete without the sound of a singing katydid in your courtyard,” said Wang Xiaoming, 68, a lifelong Beijing resident who lives in a traditional hutong neighborhood, a warren of narrow alleys that are the last bastion of many Chinese traditions.“院子里没有蝈蝈的叫声,就不是真正的夏天,”68岁的北京居民王晓明(音)说,他一辈子住在一个传统的胡同社区,这种穿插着狭窄小巷的大杂院,是许多中国传统的最后堡垒。In contrast to the soft trill of the field cricket — “the bard of the grass,” one poet calls them — cicadas and katydids produce the kind of deafening hiss that can drown out conversation.与农田蟋蟀轻声短促地叫声不同(一位诗人称它们是“草地的吟游诗人”),知了和蝈蝈会发出一种嗤嗤声,淹没人们说话的声音,震耳欲聋。The practice of collecting singing insects is said to have begun 2,000 years ago. They were sought as good-luck talismans, and later as companions for imperial concubines, who kept them in gilded cages and found solace in the plaintive chirps that echoed their own cosseted, lonely lives.据说早在2000年前,收集会唱歌昆虫的做法就已经开始了。人们找寻这种虫子,把它们当作带来好运的护身符,后来皇宫里的后妃们以这些昆虫为伴,把它们养在镀金的笼子里,昆虫发出的哀怨啁啾,对她们受宠而孤寂的生活来说,成为了一种安慰。The insects are embedded in Chinese culture. Ancient poems praise their melodious songs, and many idiomatic expressions use crickets and grasshoppers as metaphors for fertility, friendship or the passage of time.昆虫在中国文化中根深蒂固。古代诗词赞美它们的悠扬歌声,许多习惯用语里用蟋蟀和蚱蜢来比喻生育能力、友谊,以及时间的流逝。In fact, in Chinese writing, the earliest character for summer takes the form of a cicada, and the one for autumn resembles a cricket.其实,在汉字书写系统中,“夏”字最早的写法来自知了的样子,“秋”字的写法像一只蟋蟀。The keeping of insects faded during the 1950s and ’60s, when Mao Zedong waged war on traditions deemed bourgeois and retrograde. But it has been revived in recent years by aficionados like Mr. Wang, a retired professor of Chinese literature, who is worried about its future. “Young people would rather play with their phones than an insect,” he said.在20世纪5、60年代,对那些被视为属于资产阶级和落后传统的东西,毛泽东发动了战争,养虫子的做法就此逐渐消失。但近几年来,这种传统已被像王晓明这样的爱好者恢复了,王晓明是一名退休的中国文学教授,担心着自己这种爱好的未来。他说,“年轻人更喜欢玩手机,而不是玩虫子。”There is, of course, a downside to befriending singing insects: They are among the most ephemeral of pets. Most live for just a few months, and even the most pampered katydid will be silenced by the first autumn frost.当然,养唱歌的虫子也有不利的一面:它们是最短命的宠物。大多数只能活几个月,就连最受宠的蝈蝈,也会在秋季初霜后不再发声。 /201608/462365。
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