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2019年04月21日 06:33:00    日报  参与评论()人

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池州市妇幼保健院在线咨询Science and technology科学技术Social status and health社会地位与健康Misery index贫困指数Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s.可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite.因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives.实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。Cardiac arrest—and, indeed, early death from any cause—is the prerogative of underlings.心跳骤停—而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死—那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not.但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings.实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system.社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed.反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard if it were done to human beings.若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难。You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies不健康的身体,不快乐的心情Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques and split them into groups of four or five.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验,并把他们分为四到五组。The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group.根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号。The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot.研究结果有很多。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes.每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因,寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one.在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones.某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too.这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system.很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation.这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因。Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。In keeping with previous work, they found that high-and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress.与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself.同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups.表现遗传学—目前分子生物学最热的话题之一—是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals.士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life.至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed.地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use.但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around.该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201403/278292石台县妇幼保健站彩超检查好吗 Last time, we talked about “motional induction,” aphenomenon by which the ocean generates a magnetic field.上次,我们提到过动生电磁感应:海洋产生磁场的一种现象。It works like this: earth has its own magnetic field.地球有自己的磁场,The oceanhas plenty of charged atoms in it, in the form of dissolved salt.海洋有无数溶解盐形式的带电原子,These atoms are in motion because the ocean flows.随着海洋运动而运动。Charged atoms moving through a magnetic field will induce an electric current.在磁场中运动的带电原子会引起电流,And an electriccurrent will, in turn, create another magnetic field.而电流反过来又回形成另一个磁场。The ocean should generate its own magneticfield.这样海洋应该就形成了自己的磁场。You said should. How could we know this “motional induction” is happening?你说“应该”,我们怎么知道这种动生电磁感应确有其事?Direct evidence came in 2003 from scientists working at the University of Washington and aresearch institute in Potsdam, Germany.直到2003年,华盛顿大学和德国波兹坦的某研究学院。These researchers used a magnetometer on board anorbiting satellite.研究人员将磁力计放在轨道卫星上,实海洋的磁场真是存在。First, they figured out what the magnetic field of the planet should be.最初,磁力计上的数据让科学家以为是地球磁场作用的。After subtracting thisfigure, they found there was still some leftover magnetic field.而后,他们发现除去这个因素后,仍然有磁场存在。Next, the team made a computer model of what kind of magnetic field the ocean shouldgenerate through motional induction.研究人员又电脑模拟在动生电磁感应让海洋产生哪种磁场,Sure enough, their prediction matched the excessmagnetic field measured by the satellite.当然,科学家的推论和卫星上测出的“另一个”磁场吻合。The satellite also found that magneticintensity over the oceans peaked every twelve and a halfhours, but not over the land. Can you guess why?卫星还发现,海洋磁场每隔12个半小时就会出现高峰,但是地球磁场不受影响。你能猜到原因吗?Every twelve hours…Oh, I get it— tides!每隔12个半小时?我知道了!是潮汐。Exactly right!完全正确!The tides rise and fall every twelve and half hours, just as that extra magneticenergy swells and diminishes.潮汐每隔12个半小时潮起潮落,正好和“另一个”磁场高低峰吻合。This is very strong evidence that motional induction is real… andthe ocean has its own magnetism.这正是磁场感应存在的真凭实据,海洋确实有自己独特的磁力。201405/302437池州原发性生殖器疱疹的治疗

池州市包皮过长手术费What does that mean?Alcohol.什么意思 上酒Wow, send it down there. Whatever they want.放在这里 让她们随便喝Oh,here we go. Here we go.开喝吧 开喝What is that?那是什么There is tequila. No, oh my gosh.那是龙舌兰 不是吧 天哪There is win. Yeah.那是葡萄酒 好耶Thats probably vodka. no.那应该是伏特加 不是吧Oh,thats kind of pina colaba thing. This is fun.那是果汁朗姆酒 这个有意思And theres beer.然后有啤酒Ill go with the mystery fruit drink. You get the fruit drink.我来喝这个神秘的果酒 那你喝那个果酒The mystery fruit drink? this could be anything.神秘的果酒 什么都有可能是That really could be. That could be.真的 有可能是任何东西Hi,mum, you cant stop me now.妈妈 你现在管不了我了Oh boy, you are all looking at me.天哪 你们都盯着我看Ill have the wine.我喝葡萄酒Youll have the wine?Emm.你喝葡萄酒 恩What you gonna have? Its a huge glass of wine.你喝啥 这葡萄酒好大一杯Nothing, Im driving . Go ahead and...不喝 我要开车 你们喝吧Cheers.干杯Youll have whatever youre gonna have.你们想喝什么就喝什么Now lets see you do something.看看喝完你要干啥Do something special.干点特别的Now what will you do?你要干啥Well, I cant twerk.我不会电臀But what you do? But I can do something horrifying.但是你要干啥 我要做一件吓人的事Well, lets see that. yeah.那我们一起看看all my fingers are double-jointed.我所有的手指都可以往后折And outside.朝外也可以This is why she is such a good actress. She can bent her fingers....这就是她演戏为什么那么棒 她的手指可以弯成Is it just your fingers that are double-jointed?只有你的手指可以这样么It is, unfortunately. wow.很不幸 是滴 天哪But, yeah,look. thats unbelievable.你看 太不可以思议了which means you can never really break a finger, right? 也就是说你的手指永远不会骨折 对吧I can, in fact, I was in karate class when I was a kid.其实会 我小时候上过空手道课And the instructor tried to show us like things that can quick debilitate someone.那个老师想要给我们演示怎么让对手迅速弱掉And the thing was like breaking a finger.就像是把手打骨折And he actually picked me , and I didnt say anything.然后他选了我 我一句话也没说And when I went to do it, I was like, emm haha.然后我开始做的时候 我就这样 哈哈注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201401/274552 池州人民医院地址池州市青阳人民医院彩超检查好吗

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