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2019年03月25日 05:03:58

Last week, Jack Ma called for a new “e-WTO” with the aim of helping small businesses get on the Internet, as the best hope in the fight against poverty. This appeal came after Alibaba’s largest ever “Singles Day” a week earlier, with almost US.3bn of merchandise sold in 24 hours. Alibaba’s social media accounts even reported that Premier Li Keqiang called CEO Jack Ma to wish him a successful day. “Singles Day” is now the world’s largest shopping day,dwarfing even the ed States’ “Black Friday.”不久前,马云(Jack Ma)呼吁建立一个新的、旨在帮助小企业利用互联网的“电子世贸组织”(e-WTO),并将此作为消除贫困的最大希望所在。马云发出此番呼吁一周之前,阿里巴巴(Alibaba)在“光棍节”(Singles Day)当天24小时内销售了创历史新高的近143亿美元的商品。阿里巴巴的社交媒体账户甚至宣称,中国总理李克强也致电马云,预祝“双十一”取得成功。“光棍节”如今已成为世界规模最大的购物狂欢节,甚至连美国的“黑色星期五”(Black Friday)都相形见绌。These are the latest manifestations of a worrying obsession with e-commerce and the Internet in Asia’s largest economies. In March, Beijing announced its new “Internet Plus” plan to expand Internet connectivity. Premier Li, when describing it, brought up the “mobile Internet”, “cloud computing”, “big data”, “intelligent manufacturing” and the “Internet of Things,” in a manner similar to business leaders in America. Nor is this digital obsession restricted to China. Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s meeting with Mark Zuckerberg at Facebook’s headquarters received as much, if not more, media attention as his address on sustainable development to the ed Nations days earlier.From the almost breathless manner in which business leaders use words like “innovation”, “the sharing economy” and “maker spaces”, it can sometimes be hard to distinguish real analysis from wild speculation when talking about the Internet and e-commerce. The assertion is that digital expansion would allow countries to skip entire stages of development, such as investing in real infrastructure, preventing life-threatening pollution, managing resources carefully, and installing value systems in an increasingly ethically-challenged world. What the focus on e-commerce actually represents is the continued inability of the developing world to free itself from Western ideas about models for economic growth and definitions of modernity.这是亚洲大型经济体令人担忧地醉心于电子商务和互联网的最新表现。今年3月,中国政府宣布了新的“互联网+”(Internet Plus)计划,目的是扩大网络连通性。在描绘这一计划时,李克强总理以近似于美国商界领袖的方式提及了“移动互联网”、“云计算”、“大数据”、“智能制造”以及“物联网”等概念。这种对数字化的痴迷并不仅限于中国。印度总理纳伦德拉莫迪(Narendra Modi)在Facebook总部与马克丠克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)的会面,受到的媒体关注与他在联合国就可持续发展议题发表演讲时一样多——如果不是更多的话。在谈到互联网与电子商务时,从商业领袖嘴里不停冒出的“创新”、“分享经济”和“创客空间”中,有时很难分辨出是真正的分析还是疯狂的投机。有断言称,数字化扩张将使各国能够将一些发展阶段完全跳过——如对实体基础设施进行投资,防止危及生存的污染,审慎管理资源以及在道德日益遭到挑战的世界确立价值体系。对电子商务的关注实际上体现出,发展中国家一直不能摆脱西方关于经济增长模式的理念及对现代性的定义。The claim that the Internet will fundamentally transform development is unproven and untested. What is clear is that the Internet makes consumption easier, faster and more expansive than ever before. Analysts have thus looked to e-commerce and China’s Internet giants to help “save” China’s economic model from slowing down.互联网将从根本上改变发展模式的断言既未经实,也未经检验。当下明显的是,互联网使消费变得比以往任何时候更容易、更快、更无所不包。因此,分析师们开始指望电子商务以及中国的互联网巨头帮助“拯救”中国的经济模式免于陷入增长放缓。However, this is the last thing China and other developing countries need. The reality is that e-commerce reduces the private costs of consumption, but little, if anything, to reduce its overall social cost. Now, billions of locally-produced products have a massive carbon footprint, as they transported across large distances to faraway customers at a time when we need to be reducing our carbon emissions. In addition, internet retail relies on a growing global addiction to wasteful impulse-buying as driver of its business model —“Singles Day” and “Cyber Monday” are testament to that.但是,这是中国及其他发展中国家最不需要做的事。现实情况是,电子商务降低了消费行为的私人成本,但很少、甚至根本没有减少消费的整体社会成本。如今,正当我们需要减少碳排放之际,数十亿计地方制造的产品在跨越千里送到遥远的消费者手中的同时也产生了巨大的碳足迹。此外,网络零售依靠全球越来越着迷于浪费性冲动购物作为此种商业模式的推动力——“双十一”和“网络星期一”(Cyber Monday)即为明。Thus, e-commerce increases the divergence between what the individual pays and what society suffers. If one accepts that our economic model thrives on under-pricing goods and services to promote relentless consumption by externalising its true cost (such as greenhouse gases and carbon emissions), then e-commerce, by making goods cheaper, worsens the economy’s market failure. This will only lead to greater costs being placed on the majority due to the external costs central to underpriced consumption. The institutions society depends upon to draw the balance between consumption, protection and conservation—be they governments, watchdogs or international agencies—are put under enormous pressure as production and consumption become far easier and faster through the Internet.因此,电子商务加剧了个人出与社会成本之间的不平衡。如果人们接受并认为,我们的经济模式要依靠定价偏低的商品与务实现繁荣,而后者又通过将自身真实成本(如温室气体和碳排放)外部化来推动疯狂消费,那么电子商务就通过降低商品价格加剧了市场经济失灵。这只会让大多数人被迫承担更大的成本,因为价格偏低的消费的核心就是造成外部成本。随着互联网使得生产与消费变得更便捷、更迅速,社会所依赖的在消费、环境保护与节约之间保持平衡的机构——不论是政府、监管机构,还是国际机构——均面临巨大压力。The truth is that the ability to access Facebook or Alibaba is simply not a priority for a majority that has yet to fulfil their basic needs. How would “the Internet of Things” lead to real development outcomes for the global poor? How would the majority gain access to the rights of life—food, water, sanitation, healthcare, education—through e-commerce?事实是,能够访问Facebook或阿里巴巴对于大多数仍未满足自身基本需求的人而言根本不重要。“物联网”如何为全球贫困人口带来真正的发展成果?多数人又如何通过电子商务获得包括食物、水、卫生、医疗、教育在内的生命权?Hoping that the Internet, by supposedly unleashing consumption and entrepreneurship, will help the poor is merely another example of wishful economic thinking: where helping those at the top would hopefully trickle down to the poor. Even in the ed States, with its decade-long head start in digital connectivity, it has yet to be seen how e-commerce helps the lives of the unemployed and the working classes—if anything, it has taken jobs away. Part of the savings from e-commerce has come at the expense of labour, by providing fewer jobs with less job security and fewer benefits than traditional employment. This is not a model to be repeated in the developing world where millions are looking for a decent job and still lack secure access to basic needs as well as the social safety nets meant to be provided by the state.期待互联网——通过所谓释放消费和创业精神——能帮助穷人只是又一种一厢情愿的经济思维:顶层富人受益的同时可能向穷人下渗一些好处。即使在数字化连接领域领先了10年的美国,也尚未看到电子商务对失业者和工薪阶层的生活有什么帮助——如果说有什么影响的话,也是夺走了就业机会。电子商务带来的部分收益是以牺牲劳动者权益为代价的,因为其提供的工作岗位比起传统就业更少,工作保障和收入也更少。这并非发展中世界应该效仿的模式,发展中国家仍有数以百万计的人口正在寻找体面的工作,仍缺乏满足基本需求的有保障途径,而且本应由国家提供的社会保障网也不完善。To be fair to China, Beijing has yet to reveal the full details of the “Internet Plus” plan or its significance in its future development program. Over the next five years, China is currently predicted to spend about Rmb2tn, or 3bn, on the Internet — a large amount, to be sure, but dwarfed by the Rmb17tn, or .6tn, that China will spend on environmental protection.公平而言,北京方面尚未透露“互联网+”计划的全部细节或在其未来发展规划中的重要性。目前预计中国未来五年将在互联网领域投入约2万亿元人民币(合3130亿美元)——可以肯定,这是一笔巨额投入,但与中国将在环境保护上出的17万亿元人民币(约合2.6万亿美元)相比就很小了。However, the risk remains that Chinawill be distracted by a lop-sided view of the economic benefits of e-commerce. This risk is not limited to China. Prime Minister Modi has called for a national fibre optic network and pledged the construction of hundreds of “smart cities.” These goals seem outlandish given the very real development issues that plague India, such as the lack of consistent and adequate access to adequate sanitation and clean water. Funding the pipes that would carry the latter rather than optic cables would certainly make a great deal of sense, yet it is only the investment in Internet connectivity that attracts the attention and interest of politicians and investors.然而,风险依然存在:关于电子商务经济效益的片面观点将分散中国决策者的注意力。这种风险不仅存在于中国。印度总理莫迪曾呼吁建立全国光纤网络,并宣称要建设数百个“智能城市”。考虑到困扰印度的众多现实发展问题——如缺乏卫生设施和清洁水的持续充足供应,这些目标显得格格不入。显然,投资于输送清洁水的管道、而非光缆才是极为合理的,然而,只有网络连接方面的投资才能吸引政界人士和投资者的注意与兴趣。The issues faced by China, Indiaand the developing world have no precedent in human history, and seeking solutions via archaic economic models and technology fads is sheer folly. Their economic development has aly led to huge environmental degradation: China’s official news agencies now use the term “doomsday” to describe air pollution.中印以及整个发展中世界所面临的问题在人类历史上没有先例,通过过时的经济模型和技术风潮寻求解决方案绝对是愚蠢的。这些国家的经济发展已经带来了大范围的环境退化:中国官方新闻机构如今用“世界末日”一词来形容国内的空气污染。Billions of poor have yet to have their basic needs met, let alone share in prosperity. These are the people that those involved in “maker spaces” or “the sharing economy” conveniently ignore. After all, the poor don’t have anything to share in what so far is an “un-sharing” global economy typified by widening economic disparities. The Internet will surely not solve these problems, and more free-riding consumption is the last thingChina orIndia needs. Using the Internet as a crutch must not distract from the tough work of development.数十亿计的贫困人口仍未能满足自身的基本需求,更不用说共享繁荣。他们就是被那些参与“创客空间”或“共享经济”的人轻易忽视的群体。毕竟,在迄今仍为“非共享”且发展差距日益扩大的全球经济中,穷人没有什么可供分享。互联网必然无法解决这些问题,更多的搭便车式消费是中国和印度最不需要的。利用互联网作为拐杖不能影响为发展所要付出的艰难努力。By extension, China and India must have “dreams” that are bigger than the Internet. They need to take the lead in figuring out a new model of development for the 21stCentury that intelligently leverages science and technology, but without being seduced by musings about e-commerce that mask deep structural flaws of current economic models. Resolving those pressing issues should be the real “innovation” that lies at the heart of any development program.更进一步而言,中国和印度必须有比拥抱互联网更大的“梦想”。他们需要带头为21世纪找到一种新的发展模式——智慧地利用科学技术,同时不能因迷恋掩盖了当前经济模式深层次结构缺陷的电子商务而误入歧途。解决这些紧迫问题才是应该居于所有发展规划核心的真正“创新”。 /201512/415116长春医科大学附属第一医院做产前检查多少钱Internet search is a lucrative business — just ask Google. The company accounts for two-thirds of desktop searches in the US. But change is afoot this year. Microsoft and Yahoo, numbers two and three in US search, could revisit their search agreement with each other. Yahoo’s market share in this field has risen (now 13 per cent, ComScore says) after it became the default for Mozilla Firefox. Meanwhile Google’s exclusive search deal with Apple’s Safari browser is up for grabs; UBS estimates that the Safari deal could drive nearly bn in sales for Google this year. So 2015 could become the year of the search wars.互联网搜索是一项有利可图的业务——只需问问谷歌(Google)就知道了。该公司占美国台式电脑搜索的三分之二。但今年,这样领域正在酝酿一场变革。在美国搜索领域排名第二的微软(Microsoft)和排名第三的雅虎(Yahoo),可能会重新修订互相之间的搜索协议。在成为Mozilla火狐(Firefox)浏览器的默认搜索引擎后,雅虎在互联网搜索领域的市场份额已上升(ComScore称,如今其份额为13%)。与此同时,谷歌与苹果(Apple)浏览器Safari的独家搜索协议仍悬而未决;瑞银(UBS)估计,与Safari的协议今年可能会为谷歌带来近80亿美元的销售额。因此,2015年可能会成为搜索大战之年。This all matters more for Yahoo than for most of its rivals. Search will be a crucial part of the company after its stake in Alibaba is spun out. Its search agreement with Microsoft accounted for 35 per cent of revenues last year.这一切对于雅虎,比对于它的大多数竞争对手更为重要。在雅虎剥离了其在阿里巴巴(Alibaba)的股权后,搜索将成为雅虎的一项关键业务。雅虎与微软的搜索协议占到雅虎去年收入的35%。But that agreement with Microsoft has had its drawbacks. Under the 2009 deal, which covers desktop usage, Yahoo-branded searches essentially distribute Bing results. Microsoft controls the search algorithm and handles ad sales, taking a 12 per cent fee. Disappointing sales have led Yahoo to consider ending the deal. Chief executive Marissa Mayer said in the January earnings call that discussions were under way. The agreement allows Yahoo to wriggle out after five years if certain targets are not met. The window for renegotiation expires this week. Otherwise the agreement will stay in force for another five years.但与微软的那份协议也存在一些不利之处。根据2009年的这份协议,雅虎品牌的搜索列出的主要是必应(Bing)的搜索结果。该协议涵盖了在台式机上的使用。微软控制搜索算法并管理广告销售额,从中抽取12%的分成。令人失望的销售额导致雅虎考虑终止该协议。在今年1月的盈利电话会议上,雅虎首席执行官玛丽萨#8226;迈耶(Marissa Mayer)表示,谈判正在进行之中。该协议规定,假如5年后某些目标没有达到,雅虎可以退出。重新谈判的机会在本周到期。否则,该协议将再续5年。But the bigger battle may be over mobile search. This has posed a challenge for search operators. Users do not engage with mobile search as deeply as with desktop, so advertisers are unwilling to pay as much for ads. Google has tried to address this with its Android operating system. Yahoo has built mobile search through acquisitions such as Aviate, an app with Yahoo search. But without full control over its search offerings and ad sales — across all formats — success in search could be an uphill battle for Yahoo.但更重要的战役可能在移动搜索领域。这对搜索运营商构成了挑战。在移动端,用户对搜索的依赖并不像在台式机上那么高,因此广告商不愿付那么多的广告费。谷歌一直试图利用其安卓(Android)操作系统来解决这个问题。雅虎则一直通过并购Aviate等应用扩大移动搜索业务,Aviate现已内置雅虎搜索。但对于雅虎而言,在没有完全控制搜索结果和广告销售(所有平台)的情况下,要想在搜索领域取得成功可能需要一场攻坚战。 /201503/366472长春都市丽人妇科医院路线Huawei, the Chinese telecoms company, has been given the all-clear over fears it may compromise UK national security.针对华为(Huawei)是否可能损害英国国家安全的担忧,这家中国电信设备制造商如今已经获得了“完全健康通知”。Risks from using equipment provided by the company have been “sufficiently mitigated”, according to the first report into the operation that vets its technology in the UK.针对华为在英国供应的技术,首份审查评估报告称,使用该公司所提供的设备的风险已被“充分缓解”。Huawei is one of the UK’s largest providers of telecoms equipment, with deals in place to provide critical national infrastructure as well as the technology behind services from companies such as BT, EE, Virgin Media, O2 and Sky.华为是英国最大的电信设备供应商之一,按照已经签署的协议提供关键的国家基础设施,也向英国电信运营商,如英国电信(BT)、EE、维珍媒体(Virgin Media)、O2和Sky,提供技术设备。However, concerns have been raised in countries such as the US and Australia about potential links to the Chinese government and the People’s Liberation Army in spite of strong denials from the group.不过,在美国和澳大利亚等国家,有人对于华为与中国政府和解放军的潜在联系提出了关切,尽管该集团强烈否认存在这种联系。A cyber security evaluation centre in Banbury was established in 2010 by Huawei to take apart the physical equipment and software used in the UK to mitigate risks to national security.2010年,华为在英国班伯里(Banbury)建立了一个网络安全评估中心,负责分解并剖析在英国使用的硬件设备和软件,以缓解对国家安全构成的风险。In the report for the national security adviser, the centre’s oversight board said the “technical assurance” provided by Banbury was of “sufficient scope and quality to meet its obligations”.该中心的监督委员会在提交国家安全顾问的报告中表示,班伯里提供的“技术保”具有“足够的涵盖范围和质量,足以履行其义务”。Huawei has also pledged further funds to expand the centre.华为还承诺提供更多资金以扩大这个中心。A management audit by Ernst amp; Young showed the centre was sufficiently independent from Huawei, which will address concerns about the centre and its staff being fully funded by the Chinese group.安永会计师事务所(Ernst amp; Young)的一项管理审计显示,该中心已经足够独立于华为公司,这将化解有关该中心及其工作人员完全由这家中资集团资助的担忧。Three concerns were identified by the report, although these were rated as “low risk”. They included difficulties in recruiting staff owing to a lack of cyber security skills as well as the reluctance of potential new recruits to complete security clearance.报告提出了三项关注,尽管它们都被评为“低风险”。它们包括:缺乏网络安全技能所导致的招聘困难,以及潜在的新聘人员不愿接受安全审查。Ernst amp; Young found some staff working at the centre without developed vetting clearance — the most comprehensive type of security vetting — although this has now been reduced to just two.安永发现,在该中心工作的一些工作人员尚未通过“高度审查”(developed vetting,简称DV),即最全面的安全审查,尽管其人数已减至两人。The report also found “tensions” between teams working in the centre and the Huawei response team in Shenzhen, but decided they did not have a “detrimental effect on the security of the UK networks”.报告还发现,在班伯里中心工作的团队和华为在深圳的响应小组之间关系“紧张”,但得出结论认为,这并未“对英国网络安全造成不利影响”。Senior government representatives visited Huawei in Shenzhen in January 2015, according to the report, when the company provided further reassurances.报告称,英国政府高级代表2015年1月在深圳走访了华为,当时该公司提供了进一步的保。David Pollington, former Microsoft cyber security expert, has been lined up to replace retiring chief Andy Hopkins at the Banbury centre.微软(Microsoft)前网络安全专家戴维#8226;波林顿(David Pollington)已被任命为班伯里中心的下一任负责人,接替即将退休的首席安迪#8226;霍普金斯(Andy Hopkins)。Huawei has also sought to alleviate concerns over corporate governance with the appointment of former BP chief executive Lord Browne to head a UK board of directors to oversee British operations.华为还任命英国石油(BP)前首席执行官布朗勋爵(Lord Browne)执掌一个英国董事会,由其监督在英业务,以求减轻有关公司治理的担忧。In a statement, Huawei said it was “pleased to be playing its part in providing reassurance to its UK customers of the quality of our products and solutions”.华为在一份声明中表示,该公司“很高兴能够发挥自己的作用,就本公司产品和解决方案的质量向英国客户提供保”。 /201503/366743Nov 19 LG Electronics Inc said on Thursday it signed an agreement to develop its own mobile payment service called LG Pay.LG电子在11月19日表示已签署一份协议,将研发自己的移动付务系统,名为“LG Pay”。LG, which signed the agreement with South Korea#39;s largest and second-largest credit card firms Shinhan Card Co Ltd and KB Kookmin Card Co Ltd, did not give a timetable or description of its planned technology.LG电子与韩国前两大信用卡公司Shinhan Card与KBKookmin Card签订协议,不过并未就计划中的这项技术提供时间表或描述。The mobile payment market is getting crowded as smartphone makers like Apple and Samsung Electronics Co Ltd have launched their own mobile payment services.由于苹果与三星电子业已推出他们的移动付务,移动付市场已渐趋拥挤。LG Electronics#39; mobile payment system will be able to be used in all LG smartphones, unlike Samsung Pay which is available only in the recent Samsung smartphone models, South Korean wire service Yonhap reported on Thursday, without citing a specific source.根据韩国联合通讯社周四报导,只要是LG电子的智能手机,就能使用LG的移动付系统;这与三星电子的“Samsung Pay”不同,三星的移动付只适用于自家新近推出的智能手机。不过报导并未点明消息来源。An LG spokesman declined to comment on the report.LG电子发言人对此项报道拒绝做出。 /201512/413175九台区妇幼保健院在那

吉林省结核病骨病医院妇科预约吉林大学第三医院分院妇科咨询There’s a little parlor game that people in Silicon Valley like to play. Let’s call it, Who’s Losing?硅谷的人喜欢玩一个小小的室内游戏。咱们就叫它“谁在走下坡路”吧!There are currently four undisputed rulers of the consumer technology industry: Amazon, Apple, Facebook and Google, now a unit of a parent company called Alphabet. And there’s one more, Microsoft, whose influence once looked on the wane, but which is now rebounding.在目前的消费科技行业,亚马逊(Amazon)、苹果(Apple)、Facebook和谷歌(Google)是无可争辩的统治者。后者现在隶属于一家名为Alphabet的母公司。当然,还有微软(Microsoft)。微软的影响力一度让人感觉是在衰减,但现在有所回升。So which of these five is losing? A year ago, it was Google that looked to be in a tough spot as its ad business appeared more vulnerable to Facebook’s rise. Now, Google is looking up, and it’s Apple, hit by rising worries about a slowdown in iPhone sales, that may be headed for some pain. Over the next couple of weeks, as these companies issue earnings that show how they finished 2015, the state of play may shift once more.那么,这五家公司中谁在走下坡路呢?一年前,当谷歌的广告业务似乎更容易受到Facebook崛起的影响时,该公司似乎处境艰难。但现在,谷歌的情况正在好转,因为iPhone销量放缓而引发日益强烈担忧的苹果,却可能会经历一些痛苦。接下来的几周里,随着这些公司公布能彰显自己2015年战绩的收益,局面可能又会产生变化。But don’t expect it to shift much. Asking “who’s losing?” misses a larger truth about how thoroughly Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google and Microsoft now lord over all that happens in tech.但不要指望会有大的变化。问“谁在走下坡路”忽略了一个更广泛的事实。这个事实涉及当前亚马逊、苹果、Facebook、谷歌和微软对科技领域方方面面的全面控制。Who’s really losing? In the larger picture, none of them — not in comparison with the rest of the tech industry, the rest of the economy and certainly not in the influence each of them holds over our lives.谁真的在走下坡路呢?纵观全局,它们谁都没有。和科技行业的其他企业及其他经济领域相比,它们没有走下坡路,就它们各自对我们生活的影响而言,也无疑是否定的。Tech people like to picture their industry as a roiling sea of disruption, in which every winner is vulnerable to surprise attack from some novel, as-yet-unimagined foe. “Someone, somewhere in a garage is gunning for us,” Eric Schmidt, Alphabet’s executive chairman, is fond of saying.科技圈的人喜欢把自己所在的行业说成是一片波涛汹涌的海洋,时刻面临颠覆性的变化。在这片海洋中,每一个赢家都容易遭受尚且不为人知的新对手出其不意的攻击。Alphabet公司执行董事长埃里克·施密特(Eric Schmidt)喜欢说,“在某个车库里,某个人正在伺机攻击我们。”But for much of the last half-decade, most of these five giants have enjoyed a remarkable reprieve from the boogeymen in the garage. And you can bet on them continuing to win. So I’m coining them the Frightful Five.但在过去五年中的相当一部分时间里,五大巨头中大部分都没遇到从车库里走出来的强劲对手。而且可以肯定他们会继续获胜。因此,我给它们起名叫“五恶人”(Frightful Five)。It’s not just because I’m a Tarantino fan. By just about every measure worth collecting, these five American consumer technology companies are getting larger, more entrenched in their own sectors, more powerful in new sectors and better insulated against surprising competition from upstarts.这不仅因为我是塔伦蒂诺(Tarantino)的粉丝。从能收集到的几乎每一项标准来看,美国这五家消费科技公司的规模都在扩大、在各自所在领域的地位都更加稳固、抵御初创公司出其不意地发起的竞争的能力也更强。Though competition between the five remains fierce — and each year, a few of them seem up and a few down — it’s becoming harder to picture how any one of them, let alone two or three, may cede their growing clout in every aspect of American business and society.尽管五家公司之间的竞争依然颇为激烈——且每年各自的实力都有消长变化——但想象它们中的一家丧失对美国企业和社会方方面面日渐增加的影响力变得越来越困难,更别说是其中两家或三家了。“The Big Five came along at a perfect time to roll up the user base,” said Geoffrey G. Parker, a business professor at Tulane University and the co-author of “Platform Revolution,” a forthcoming book that explains some of the reasons these businesses may continue their dominance. “These five rode that perfect wave of technological change — an incredible decrease in the cost of I.T., much more network connectivity and the rise of mobile phones. Those three things came together, and there they were, perfectly poised to grow and take advantage of the change.”“五巨头一路走来正好赶上了积累用户基础的最好时机,”杜兰大学(Tulane University)商学教授杰弗里·G·帕克(Geoffrey G. Parker)说。“这五家公司搭上了最好的那股科技变革浪潮:信息技术成本显著下降、网络连通性全面提升、移动电话崛起。这三个方面汇合到一起,而它们生逢其时,处于不断成长和从变革中获利的完美位置。”帕克与人合著的《平台革命》(Platform Revolution)即将面世,该书列出了一些原因,解释这些企业的统治地位为何可能会继续下去。Mr. Parker notes the Big Five’s power does not necessarily prevent newer tech companies from becoming huge. Uber might upend the transportation industry, Airbnb could rule hospitality, and as I argued last week, Netflix is bent on consuming the entertainment business. But if such new giants do come along, they’re likely to stand alongside today’s Big Five, not replace them.帕克指出,五巨头的力量不一定会妨碍更新的科技公司壮大起来。Uber可能会颠覆性运输行业,Airbnb可能会主宰住宿招待行业,且正如我上周所说,Netflix一心想颠覆业。但如果真出现这类新巨头,它们可能会站在当今的五巨头旁边,而不是取代它们。Indeed, the Frightful Five are so well-protected against start-ups that in most scenarios, the rise of new companies only solidifies their lead.的确,面对初创公司,“五恶人”被保护得非常好,以至在大部分情况下,新公司的崛起只会巩固它们的领导地位。Consider that Netflix hosts its movies on Amazon’s cloud, and Google’s venture capital arm has a huge investment in Uber. Or consider all the in-app payments that Apple and Google get from their app stores, and all the marketing dollars that Google and Facebook reap from start-ups looking to get you to download their stuff.考虑一下,Netflix把其电影存放在了亚马逊的云上,而谷歌的风险投资部门则在Uber投入了巨资。或者想想苹果和谷歌从各自的应用商店里获取的应用内付费,以及谷歌和Facebook从很多希望用户下载自己的内容的初创公司那里收取的营销费用。This gets to the core of the Frightful Five’s indomitability. They have each built several enormous technologies that are central to just about everything we do with computers. In tech jargon, they own many of the world’s most valuable “platforms” — the basic building blocks on which every other business, even would-be competitors, depend.这就说到了“五恶人”地位不可撼动的核心。有些强大的技术,对我们使用电脑时的几乎方方面面都起着核心作用。而五巨头中的每一个都开发出了多项这样的技术。用科技行业的术语来说,他们在世界范围内拥有很多极其重要的“平台”。这些平台是其他所有企业,乃至未来的竞争对手所仰仗的基础。These platforms are inescapable; you may opt out of one or two of them, but together, they form a gilded mesh blanketing the entire economy.这些平台是避不开的。人们可能会选择不使用其中的一两个,但它们合起来构成了一张如同金子般熠熠生辉的网,涵盖了整个经济。The Big Five’s platforms span so-called old tech — Windows is still the king of desktops, Google rules web search — and new tech, with Google and Apple controlling mobile phone operating systems and the apps that run on them; Facebook and Google controlling the Internet advertising business; and Amazon, Microsoft and Google controlling the cloud infrastructure on which many start-ups run.五巨头的平台涵盖了所谓的老科技——Windows在台式机领域的地位依然至高无上,谷歌统治着网络搜索——和新科技领域,谷歌和苹果掌控着移动电话操作系统和搭载在它们上面的应用;Facebook和谷歌控制着互联网广告业务;亚马逊、微软和谷歌控制着云基础设施。而很多创业公司都是在云基础设施上运营的。Amazon has a shopping and shipping infrastructure that is becoming central to retailing, while Facebook keeps amassing greater power in that most fundamental of platforms: human social relationships.亚马逊拥有一个购物和货运基础设施体系,它正在成为零售业里至关重要的部分。而Facebook一直在积聚人际社交领域的强大力量。人际社交是所有平台中最重要的。Many of these platforms generate what economists call “network effects” — as more people use them, they keep getting more indispensable. Why do you chat using Facebook Messenger or WhatsApp, also owned by Facebook? Because that’s where everyone else is.这些平台中,很多都产生了经济学家所说的“网络效应”。随着用户增加,它们变得更加不可或缺。为什么要用Facebook Messenger或同样隶属于Facebook的WhatsApp聊天呢?因为其他人都在用。Their platforms also give each of the five an enormous advantage when pursuing new markets. Look how Apple’s late-to-market subscription streaming music service managed to attract 10 million subscribers in its first six months of operation, or how Facebook leveraged the popularity of its main app to push users to download its stand-alone Messenger app.五巨头的平台也让它们各自在开拓新市场时拥有巨大的优势。看看苹果最近推向市场的订购流音乐务是如何设法在运营的前六个月里吸引到了1000万订户,或Facebook是如何利用自己的主要应用广受欢迎这一点,推动用户下载其独立应用Messenger的吧。Then there’s the data buried in the platforms, also a rich source for new business. This can happen directly — for instance, Google can tap everything it learns about how we use our phones to create an artificial intelligence engine that improves our phones — and in more circuitous ways. By watching what’s popular in its app store, Apple can get insight into what features to add to the iPhone.还有蕴藏于这些平台之中的数据。对于新业务来说,这也是一个丰富的数据来源。这种数据的提取可能是直接的——比如谷歌可以利用它从我们的电话使用方式中了解到的一切信息,来开发一款可以改善我们的电话的人工智能引擎——也可能是更间接的。通过观察应用商店里的受欢迎产品,苹果便能获悉应该在iPhone上添加什么功能。“In a way, a lot of the research and development costs are being borne by companies out of their four walls, which allows them to do better product development,” Mr. Parker said.“在某种程度上,很多研发成本是由这五个公司之外的其他公司承担的,这让它们能够更好地进行产品研发,”帕克说。This explains why these companies’ visions are so expansive. In various small and large ways, the Frightful Five are pushing into the news and entertainment industries; they’re making waves in health care and finance; they’re building cars, drones, robots and immersive virtual-reality worlds. Why do all this? Because their platforms — the users, the data, and all the money they generate — make these far-flung realms seem within their grasp.这就解释了这些公司的愿景为何如此广阔。“五恶人”正在通过大大小小的各种方式进军新闻和行业;搅动医疗保健和金融领域;建造汽车、无人机、机器人和沉浸式拟真世界。为什么要这么做?因为它们的平台——用户、数据和它们带来的收入——让这些距离遥远的领域看上去像是近在咫尺。Which isn’t to say these companies can’t die. Not long ago people thought IBM, Cisco Systems, Intel and Oracle were unbeatable in tech; they’re all still large companies, but they’re far less influential than they once were.但并不是说这些公司不会灭亡。不久前,人们以为国际商业机器公司(IBM)、思科系统(Cisco Systems)、英特尔(Intel)和甲骨文(Oracle)在科技领域是不可打败的。现在,虽然它们依然是大公司,但其影响力远不及从前。And a skeptic might come up with significant threats to the five giants. One possibility might be growing competition from abroad, especially Chinese hardware and software companies that are amassing equally important platforms. Then there’s the threat of regulation or other forms of government intervention. European regulators are aly pursuing several of the Frightful Five on antitrust and privacy grounds.持怀疑态度的人可能会认为五巨头面临着重大威胁。其中一个或许是来自海外的竞争日益激烈,特别是正在积累同等重要的平台的中国硬件和软件公司。然后还有监管威胁和其他形式的政府干预。欧洲监管机构已经在以反垄断和隐私为由追查“五恶人”中的多家公司了。Even with these difficulties, it’s unclear if the larger dynamic may change much. Let’s say that Alibaba, the Chinese e-commerce company, eclipses Amazon’s retail business in India — well, O.K., so then it satisfies itself with the rest of the world.即便存在这些困难,我们还是不清楚整体格局是否可能大变。比如说中国电商企业阿里巴巴超越亚马逊在印度的零售业务——这是有可能的——然后再用世界其他市场来满足自己的胃口。Government intervention often limits one giant in favor of another: If the European Commission decides to fight Android on antitrust grounds, Apple and Microsoft could be the beneficiaries. When the Justice Department charged Apple with orchestrating a conspiracy to raise e-book prices, who won? Amazon.政府干预通常会持一方,限制另一方:如果欧盟委员会(European Commission)决定以反垄断的理由打击Android,那么苹果和微软便可能受益。司法部控告苹果密谋提高电子书价格时,赢家是谁?亚马逊。So get used to these five. Based on their stock prices this month, the giants are among the top 10 most valuable American companies of any kind. Apple, Alphabet and Microsoft are the top three; Facebook is No. 7, and Amazon is No. 9. Wall Street gives each high marks for management; and three of them — Alphabet, Amazon and Facebook — are controlled by founders who don’t have to bow to the whims of potential activist investors.因此,习惯这五家巨头吧。从本月的股价来看,不管怎么分类,美国市值最高的十大公司榜单中始终有五巨头的身影。苹果、Alphabet和微软包揽了前三甲,Facebook名列第七位,亚马逊则位居第九。在管理方面,五巨头均获得了华尔街的好评。其中三家,即Alphabet、亚马逊和Facebook,由创始人掌控。这些创始人不用屈从于潜在的激进投资者心血来潮的意见。So who’s losing? Not one of them, not anytime soon.那么,谁在走下坡路呢?它们中谁都没有,近期谁都不会。 /201602/424113双辽妇女儿童医院院长榆树市医院引产多少钱

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