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淄博男性包皮的医院飞度新闻动态新闻网

2018年05月22日 22:10:52 | 作者:飞度新闻养生医生 | 来源:新华社
Air pollution by sources ranging from cooking fires to auto fumes contributed to an estimated seven million deaths worldwide in 2012, the UN health agency has said.世界卫生组织表示,据估计由于油烟与汽车尾气引起的空气污染在2012年导致了全世界700万人死亡。;Air pollution, and we#39;re talking about both indoors and outdoors, is now the biggest environmental health problem, and it#39;s affecting everyone, both developed and developing countries,; said Maria Neira, the World Health Organisation#39;s public and environmental health chief.“空气污染,无论室内与室外的,都成为了当前最大的环境健康问题。它影响着每一个人,无论是发展中国家还是发达国家,”世界卫生组织公共环境健康主管Maria Neira说。Globally, pollution was linked to one death in eight in 2012, new WHO research found.世界卫生组织最新报告显示,2012年全球死去的每八个人中就有一名死因与污染有关。The biggest pollution-related killers were heart disease, stroke, pulmonary disease and lung cancer.与污染相关的最大杀手是心脏病、中风、呼吸疾病和肺癌。The hardest-hit regions of the globe were what the WHO labels Southeast Asia, which includes India and Indonesia, and the Western Pacific, ranging from China and South Korea to Japan and the Philippines.世界卫生组织认为最严重的地区是东南亚,包括印度、印度尼西亚,还有西太平洋地区,从中国、韩国一直到日本、菲律宾。Together, they accounted for 5.9 million deaths.据统计,该地区死亡人数达到590万人。The global death toll included 4.3 million deaths due to indoor air pollution, chiefly caused by cooking over coal, wood and biomass stoves.全世界有430万人死于室内空气污染,主要来源为煤炉、木头燃烧和生物质炉灶。The toll from outdoor pollution was 3.7 million, with sources ranging from coal heating fires to diesel engines.全世界死于户外污染的有370万人,污染源为工业用煤和柴油机。Many people are exposed to both indoor and outdoor pollution, the WHO said, and due to that overlap the separate death toll attributed to the two sources cannot simply be added together, hence the figure of seven million deaths.世界卫生组织说,有很多人同时暴露在室内污染与室外污染下,由于各自的死亡人数有相互交叠的部分,因此并不能简单相加,因此得出的数据为700万人。The new figure is ;shocking and worrying;, Ms Neira told reporters.Neira女士告诉记者,这个数字令人“震惊且忧虑”。When it last released an estimate for deaths related to air pollution, in 2008, the agency had put the figure related to outdoor pollution at 1.3 million, while the number blamed on indoor pollution was 1.9 million.2008年世界卫生组织发布空气污染导致的死亡人数预测数据时,室外污染死亡人数为130万,而室内污染死亡人数为190万人。But a change in research methods makes comparison difficult between the 2008 estimate and the 2012 figures, Neira said.Neira说由于调查方法的改变,难以对2008年与2012年的数据进行比对。In the past, for example, the WHO did not take into account the overlap between exposure to both forms, and only assessed urban pollution.例如,以前世界卫生组织并没有考虑室内室外交叉的部分,并且只统计了城市污染的部分。Satellite imagery has made it easier to assess rural pollution, and new knowledge about the health impact of exposure has enabled a better count.卫星图像使调查乡村的污染变得更加容易,并且关于影响健康的风险因素的新知识让我们可以做一个更好的统计。;The risks from air pollution are now far greater than previously thought or understood, particularly for heart disease and strokes,; said Neira.“空气污染的危害远远超过以前我们所知道的,尤其是对于心脏病与中风。”Neira说。;Few risks have a greater impact on global health today than air pollution. The evidence signals the need for concerted action to clean up the air we all breathe.;“没有什么会比空气污染给全球健康带来更大的危害。这些据说明我们必须采取行动净化我们的空气。”According to the WHO, some 2.9 billion people in poor nations live in homes that use fires as their principle method of cooking and heating.根据世界卫生组织调查,贫困国家中大概有29亿人在家里依旧使用柴火做饭取暖。Carlos Dora, the WHO#39;s public and environmental health coordinator, said that turned homes into ;combustion chambers;.WHO公共环境健康协调员Carlos Dora说这样会使家变成“燃烧的套房”。Simple measures to stem the impact include so-called ;clean cook stoves;, which are a low-tech option, as well as improved ventilation, he said.改善这种情况的简单办法是所谓的“清洁灶”,这是一种低科技含量的选择,也就是改进的通风设备,他说。Countries also need to rethink policies, Mr Dora said, pointing to the impact in the developed world of a shift to cleaner power sources, more efficient management of energy demand, and technical strides in the auto industry.Dora先生说各国需要反思各自的政策,他指出了发达国家转变为使用清洁的动力能源,对能源需求进行更高效的管理,以及自动工业技术的提升的影响。He also said transport policies needed a shake-up.他说运输政策也需要巨大的改变。With air pollution having sparked a recent scare in France, leading to restrictions on car use and the temporary scrapping of public transport fees in Paris, Mr Dora said such measures could be applied in the longer term.由于空气污染在法国近期引发的恐慌,导致汽车限行与巴黎公共运输费用的暂时废除,他说这些措施可以长久地实施。;You can#39;t buy clean air in a bottle,; he said.“你买不到一瓶干净的空气。”他说。;The air is a shared resource. In order to breathe clean air, we have to have interventions in the areas that pollute air.;“空气是共有的资源。为了呼吸干净的空气,我们需要对污染空气的地区采取措施。The WHO said it planned by the end of this year to release a ranking of the world#39;s 1,600 most polluted cities.世界卫生组织说计划在今年年底发布全球污染最严重的1600个城市名单。 /201404/284967President Barack Obama took a break from sorting out the shutdown of the federal government on Monday to make sandwiches for low-income and homeless families.美国总统奥巴马在应付联邦政府关门之际忙里偷闲,本周一亲临一家慈善机构,为低收入群体和无房家庭制作三明治。President Obama visited Martha’s Table in Washington D.C. Monday. The food bank helps low-income families. Dozens of photos were taken showing Obama smearing peanut butter and #39;sticky#39; jelly on what appears to be processed, white b. Menu option number two appeared to be stacks of processed meat, also on white b.奥巴马总统在周一光顾了华盛顿特区的一家非盈利机构“玛莎的餐桌”,这是一家旨在帮助低收入家庭的食品。奥巴马将花生奶油酱和“黏黏的”果酱涂在加工过的白面包上。另一种三明治是将加工熟肉放在白面包上。人们纷纷拍照记录下这一景象。“Can I just say just in the few moments I’ve been here I’m feeling a little sticky. I think I got some PBJ on my fingers,” Obama said.“我想说,我才刚做了一会儿,已经感觉手指有些黏黏的了。我想我的手指粘了些果酱。”This doesn#39;t exactly jibe with Michelle Obama#39;s primary initiative as first lady: healthy eating.这与米歇尔·奥巴马成为第一夫人后的第一项倡议:“健康饮食”似乎有些不符。Mrs. Obama started the #39;Let#39;s Move#39; movement, a program billed as #39;America#39;s move to raise a healthier generation of kids.奥巴马夫人发起了名为“行动起来”的倡议,这各项目旨在“培养更健康的下一代”。#39;In total, we are now eating 31 percent more calories than we were forty years ago–including 56 percent more fats and oils and 14 percent more sugars and sweeteners. The average American now eats fifteen more pounds of sugar a year than in 1970,#39; Mrs. Obama#39;s organization explains on its website.据奥巴马夫人这一项目的官方网站上称“总体上说,我们饮食中的热量比40年前多了30%——其中脂肪热量增长了56%,糖类和糖类添加剂热量增长了14%。现在美国人均每年比上世纪70年代多摄入15磅的糖分。”Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches have roughly 350 calories per sandwich, depending on the amount of peanut butter and jelly added to the sandwich, according to an online calorie counter.根据一个在线热量测评网站,每份花生酱奶油三明治的热量大约为350卡路里,依据三明治中花生酱和果酱分量多少而上下变动。To promote her initiative, Mrs. Obama even has written a book about the White House garden entitled #39;American Grown.#39;为了推广她的倡议,奥巴马夫人甚至写了一本关于白宫蔬菜种植园的书,题为“美国种植”。The situation might get even stickier when the president gets home and has to tell his wife that he#39;s been wrist-deep in peanut butter and jelly all day.试想总统回到家里,告诉夫人他一整天都在涂花生奶油和果酱,他可能会遇到比果酱更难对付的状况吧。 /201310/260835Let#39;s talk for a moment about the Olympic style, because style always matters at the Olympics, in particular the Winter Olympics, which is full of judgy-judgy, interpretive sports. But style counts everywhere. Even if you don#39;t think you#39;re being judged, you#39;re being judgy-judged. Trust me.让我们来谈一谈奥运会的“风格”。对奥运会来说,“风格”一直是个要紧问题。而对于裁判扮演重要角色、充斥着诠释性体育项目的冬奥会来说,“风格”尤其重要。但“风格”并不仅限于赛场上,它出现在奥运会的各个角落。即便你以为自己不会受到关注,但是你的风格也在被周围的人加以。相信我说的话。A twist on Sochi style, of course, has been the weather, specifically the lack of cold, and how this has impacted what people are wearing. Or rather, what they#39;re not. The other day a slopestyle skier skied in a T-shirt! A T-shirt! If you overstuffed your bags expecting the Winter Games to be a frigid, fur-lined glamour-in-Aspen blast, shoving thermal underwear upon thermal underwear into a side pocket, you overprepared. Hats are almost unnecessary, except at night. Gloves are overkill. I would suggest donating mittens to be used as sweaters for area cats, but area cats don#39;t need sweaters. Boots still have some purpose in the mountains, if only to trudge through the sunny mountain slush.对于索契冬奥会的风格,一个令人纠结的地方自然是天气问题,尤其是冬奥会举行期间缺乏寒冷天气,人们需要穿什么衣,或者更准确的说,人们不需要穿什么衣受到了很大影响。在前些天的花式滑雪比赛中,有一位参赛运动员竟然穿着T恤参加比赛!短袖T恤衫啊!如果你以为冬奥会举办地一定会像美国阿斯蓬(著名滑雪胜地)那般寒冷,人们都穿着毛皮衬里的冬,所以往自己的行李中塞了太多的东西、装进一件又一件保暖内衣,那么你就大错特错了。在索契,戴帽子是没有必要的,除了晚上。手套也没什么用。我建议你还是把毛线手套捐给当地的小猫当毛衣穿,不过当地的猫咪也不需要外套。但是,靴子在山地还是有些用的,尤其是在阳光灿烂的日子里,长途跋涉于泥泞的雪地里时靴子还是有帮助的。Still, some specific trends have emerged:不过,还是有一些独特的风尚在索契传播开来。Puffer jackets: It doesn#39;t matter if you are an athlete or just an attendee, you are behind the curve if you are not in Sochi with a super duper lightweight puffer jacket, which is the outerwear of choice here in both the coastal cluster and the mountain region. You have seen these jackets. Lightweight puffer jackets are simply puffer jackets that have been stripped of weighty frills, have smaller puff compartments and weigh as much as an issue of the New Republic. The best ones can be smooshed up into a compact ball and stuffed inside a backpack, or, better yet, another lightweight puffer jacket. This is something of a tweener winter fashion-it really works best with the temperature hovering between 45 and 55 Fahrenheit-but it#39;s perfect for Sochi.羽绒:不管你是运动员还是一般参与者,如果你在索契没有一套超轻款羽绒,那你就落伍了。无论是在沿海场馆地区,还是山地场馆地区,超轻款羽绒都是必备外套。这种外套并不是新生事物,它其实还是羽绒,不过省去了厚重的部分,充绒隔间较小,整件外套的重量和一本新闻杂志差不多。质量好的此种羽绒可以压扁卷成一个小球,然后装进背包里,甚至是塞进另一件超轻款羽绒中。虽然是冬季装,但是这种外套不太好归类,因为它比较适用于气温位于7-13摄氏度左右的时候,不过这倒是十分适合索契的天气。尽管这种羽绒看上去不像索契奥运会志愿者制那样色迷幻、令人印象深刻。不过各式各款羽绒却在索契大方异,彼此争艳。最为光滑的那些羽绒豪不含蓄的在面料上打上出产国或公司的标志。美国国家队的队由耐克公司(Nike)提供,这款超轻羽绒呈金属银色。耐克也为美国全国广播公司(N)提供了面料光滑的羽绒。由于N在索契奥运会媒体中心“秘密”地开了一家内部星巴克(Starbucks),所以有传言说耐克为N提供的羽绒里面还暗藏了一个星冰乐(Frappucino)口袋。Even if they#39;re nowhere near as daring or memorable as the psychedelic Sochi volunteer jackets-the true style statement of these Games-there is great puffer pride here, a competition within the competition. The slickest of puffers have their nation or company name emblazoned somewhere prominently on the material. Nike NKE +0.27% has sewn the puffers for the U.S. team, which come in metallic silver, chrome almost, giving the wearer the appearance of a bulging pan of Jiffy Pop. Nike also furnishes the slick puffer jackets for N, which, owing to the network#39;s clandestine internal Starbucks in Sochi, are rumored to come with hidden interior Secret Frappucino (SeFrapp) pockets.冰球:在冬奥会上,冰球是最受瞩目的运动,上周六的俄美之战更加精。美国男子冰球队以3:2的比分在预赛中战胜俄罗斯队,实现了赛前造势时的玩笑话。冰球通常尺码过大,根本就不合身,但冰球是在真正观看比赛的时候被冰球迷普遍接受的着装(这一点和橄榄球赛衣不同)。在俄罗斯还能看到一些漂亮的老式冰球,比如有几个球迷穿着苏联队,也有几个穿着美国队,一位球迷穿上了红翼队冰球,还有一个黑鹰队球迷穿着一件Ditka的球衣(没错,就是Ditka)。耐克设计的几款美国队有些让人失望,但周日对阵斯洛文尼亚(这个队的队像是哈特福捕鲸者的队跟酸橙派的混搭)的时候,美国队穿的怀旧款队则非常完美。Hockey jerseys: Hockey is the It Sport at these games, and got kicked with a supercharge on Saturday when the U.S. men#39;s team defeated Russia 3-2 in an epic preliminary throwdown that somehow lived up to the comical pregame hype. Oversized and not the slightest bit body-fitting, hockey jerseys are the most socially acceptable of jerseys for fans to wear to the actual game (unlike football jerseys, which are deployed as a license for your dentist to behave like a lunatic on Sundays).在这一波新浪潮中,其他胜出者还包括:俄罗斯的队(老式、印有双头鹰标志,非常好看)、拉脱维亚的队(深红色非常抢眼)和加拿大的队(简洁、典雅、印着枫叶图案)。最好看的大概要数斯洛伐克的队,他们把国歌横着印在队上,形成了一道道横条――洋基队应该借用这一手法,把国歌歌词换成工资数额和罗德里奎兹(Alex Rodriguez)的律师们的电话号码就行了。There are some beautiful oldies in sight here in Russia: some old CCCP, some old Team USA, a Red Wings Yzerman and a Blackhawks fan in a DITKA. (Yes, Ditka.) Nike took some grief for some of its U.S. team jerseys, but the retro USA ones they busted out on Sunday versus Slovenia (who dressed like the Hartford Whalers mixed with Key lime pie) were perfect. The new wave has other real standouts: Russia#39;s are old-fashioned, double-headed-eagled, spectacular; Latvia is rocking handsome crimson; Canada again keeps it simple, graceful, maple-leafed. The best are probably Slovakia#39;s, which have the national anthem scrolling across in horizontal pinstripes-a gimmick the Yankees should borrow, substituting lyrics for payroll figures and the telephone numbers of Alex Rodriguez#39;s attorneys.速滑:到现在为止,你可能已经听说过了美国速滑队的伤心故事。他们抱着极大的夺牌热望来到索契,但在紧张的时尚危机中梦想破裂。《华尔街日报》的记者Josh Robinson和Sara Germano在一系列黯淡无光的结果出炉后报道说,速滑队员对他们的Under Armour队感到厌恶,据说,队是在火星上由生活在未来的机器人手工缝制的。Skinsuits: By now you have probably heard about the style travails of the U.S. speedskating team, which arrived in Sochi with great medal ambitions, but has fallen apart amid an anxious fashion crisis. The Journal#39;s Josh Robinson and Sara Germano broke the news that after a string of lackluster results, the speed skaters were in revolt about their Under Armour skin suits, which were allegedly handcrafted on Mars by robots living in the future. On Saturday, the team went back to the old suits and...same lackluster performance. So was it the suits? Chaos abounds, but there#39;s a suspicion the suit-roversy injured team confidence, so even if the old suit was helping, it was undermined by all the rumpus. This has led to a conversation about the psychological benefits of style-if you are, in fact, what you wear-and you know this is all leading up to U.S. speedskating suits in Pyeongchang 2018 designed by Tom Ford, who is probably going to insist on cuff links, too.上周六,速滑队穿上了老款队,结果呢,成绩还是一样不尽人意。那么,这到底是是不是队的问题呢?虽然众说纷纭,但有人怀疑,因队而起的争议打击了团队的信心,所以,就算老款队能有所助益,也被这些口角完全抵消了。这还导致了一场有关着装风格带来的心理助益的对话――如果真是人靠衣衫马靠鞍的话,那么你就会知道,这样的对话将延续到2018年平昌冬奥会上汤姆#12539;福特(Tom Ford)设计的美国速滑队上,估计他很可能也会坚持用袖扣。Pants: Enough has aly been said about curling pants and the curling pants craze, in particular the daring curling pants of the Norwegian curling team, which everywhere else are simply known as oh-look-it#39;s-the-crazy-guy-at-a-barbecue pants. Pants in ice dancing are high-waisted, like Joaquin Phoenix and his buddies in #39;Her.#39; Then there was Henrik Harlaut, the Swedish freestyle skier who enjoys skiing with Dirk Nowitzki#39;s snowpants dangling from his knees.裤装:有关冰壶运动员的裤装以及人们对这种裤装的狂热,谈论的已经够多了,特别是挪威冰壶队大胆的裤装,这种裤装在世界任何其他地方都会被叫做“看呐那就是烧烤怪人穿的裤子”。冰上舞者穿的裤装腰线很高,就像华金#12539;菲尼克斯(Joaquin Phoenix)和他的伙伴们在电影《她》(Her)当中穿的那种裤子。还有亨里克#12539;哈劳特(Henrik Harlaut),这名瑞典自由滑雪运动员喜欢穿着诺维茨基(Dirk Nowitzki)式的长及膝盖的裤子滑雪。#39;It#39;s part of my style,#39; Harlaut said.哈劳特说,这是我个人风格的一部分。Harmless fun. Everybody loves a pant-based sport. In Sochi, and the rest of the world. It#39;s just a style truth.这是无伤大雅的趣事。所有人都喜欢某种穿裤装的运动。在索契,在全球其他地方都是如此。这就是冬奥会的时尚真相。ppointing activists who say the decision is likely to force more refugees into deeper poverty.香港最高法院周二拒绝给予香港难民工作权。这一决定令活动人士感到失望,他们表示,此决定可能导致更多难民变得更加贫困;香港的一些难民生活在类似贫民窟的环境中。The financial capital#39;s treatment of refugees has come under fierce criticism in recent years. Until a court ruling last year, Hong Kong refused to handle many asylum requests, effectively outsourcing them to the local office of the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees, which helped refugees find homes elsewhere. The city doesn#39;t allow recognized refugees to permanently settle inside its borders, instead requiring them to seek homes overseas.近年来,香港对待难民的方式受到猛烈抨击。在去年法院作出相关判决之前,香港一直拒绝受理许多避难申请,实际上相当于把这些申请推给了驻香港的联合国难民事务高级专员办事处(U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees)。该办事处帮助难民在其他地方寻找避难地。香港不允许被确定身份的难民在其境内永久定居,而是要求他们到境外寻找避难地。That process of resettlement can take a decade or more, and in the meantime, many refugees and asylum-seekers live in squalid shacks dotting the city#39;s periphery. Hong Kong technically allows refugees to work, but they must first seek approval from the immigration department, which rarely grants it, lawyers say. If they work without permission, they risk jail time.这一重新安置过程可能耗时10年或更长时间。与此同时,许多难民和寻求避难的人都住在分散于香港周边的简陋棚屋中。律师说,从技术上讲,香港允许难民工作,但他们必须首先获得入境事务处的批准,但后者准许难民工作的情况十分罕见。如果难民在没有获准的情况下工作,他们可能被监禁。On Tuesday, Cosmo Beatson of refugee-advocacy group Vision First lambasted the court#39;s decision, calling it #39;massively disappointing.#39; Other developed nations, he notes, such as the U.S., grant refugees the right to work.周二,难民权益维护组织Vision First的Cosmo Beatson严厉批评了法院的决定,称该决定非常令人失望。他说,美国等其他发达国家都给予难民工作权。#39;The right to work is a fundamental right,#39; he said. #39;The fact that we#39;ve had refugees who#39;ve been recognized 10 years ago and still can#39;t work is absolutely outrageous.#39;他说,工作权是基本的权利。香港有10年前就被确认身份的难民,但仍无法工作。这样的情况让人震惊。Advocates say allowing refugees to work would have a limited impact on society, given that there are currently only around 100 recognized claimants in the city.维权人士说,鉴于目前香港只有大约100名被确认身份的难民提出工作申请,允许难民工作对社会的影响有限。In its ruling, Hong Kong#39;s court unanimously dismissed the appeal of four applicants identified in the judgment by their initials. The applicants hail from Burundi, Sri Lanka and Pakistan and all resided in Hong Kong for around a decade without the ability to work.香港法院一致裁定驳回四名申请人的上诉。这四人的名字在判决中以首字母的方式出现。这些申请人来自布隆迪、斯里兰卡和巴基斯坦,且都是在没有工作权的情况下在香港居住了大约10年。According to Daly amp; Associates, the law firm representing them, three of the four applicants are suffering from major depression or schizophrenia because of both the terrors they have suffered in the past and as a consequence of their uncertain status in Hong Kong.代表这些申请人的律师事务所Daly amp; Associates说,四名申请人中有三人都出现严重的抑郁和精神分裂,诱因包括他们过去受到的恐吓以及他们在香港不确定的地位。#39;This is not a case about #39;immigrants#39; taking #39;our jobs,#39;#39; said the firm#39;s Mark Daly. #39;It is a case about basic human dignity.#39;该律所的戴利(Mark Daly)说:这无关于移民抢走我们工作机会的问题,这是关于人的基本尊严的问题。Though three of the applicants can now work, Mr. Daly notes, they were given temporary permission, which expires this year, only after filing their latest appeal with the court.戴利指出,虽然四名申请人中有三人目前可以工作,但他们只是在提出最新上诉后才获得了临时许可,而临时许可将在今年到期。A spokesman for city#39;s security bureau, meanwhile, said that it welcomed the court#39;s judgment, adding that the government had #39;been acting and will continue to act in accordance with the law in a fair and reasonable manner.#39;与此同时,香港保安局发言人说,对法院判决表示欢迎,并补充说,政府一直在行动,并将继续根据法律采取公平合理的行动。 /201402/276465Call it the New Girls#39; Network. At professional services firms in fields like law, accounting, and advertising, the partners who control the biggest share of revenues wield the most influence. For those on their way up, getting there has traditionally meant working closely with senior partners on key client accounts, with the aim of taking them over when the partner retires.姑且把它称为“新女生网络”(New Girls#39; Network)吧。在法律、会计和广告等领域的专业务公司,掌控最大份额收入的合伙人通常影响力最强。对于一心追求进步的专业人士来说,抵达职业高峰的传统途径是,与高级合伙人紧密合作,一起经营关键客户,目的是熬到高级合伙人退休后顺利接管这些资源。For women, that happens less often. So female fast-trackers have found a different strategy: rainmaking, or tapping their networks outside the firm to recruit new clients -- many of whom are women, too.对于女性来说,这种情况很少发生。不过,雄心勃勃的女性职员已经发现了一条全新的晋升策略:造雨(rainmaking),即利用她们在公司外的网络招募新客户——其中许多客户也是女性。That#39;s the finding of a new study co-authored by Forrest Briscoe, who teaches management and sociology at Penn State#39;s Smeal College of Business, and published in the current issue of the Journal of Professions and Organization. Firms that want more diversity at the senior partner level, the study says, can increase revenues at the same time by encouraging even more of the rainmaking that many female junior partners aly do.这是一项研究报告的最新发现,发表在本期《行业和组织》(Journal of Professions and Organization) 杂志上。其执笔人之一是宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Penn State)史密尔商学院(Smeal College of Business)管理学和社会学教授佛利斯特o布里斯科。报告指出,鼓励女性初级合伙人培养更多的客户,可以增强高级合伙人层级的多样性,同时还能够为公司带来更多的收入。The researchers analyzed detailed data from inside a major corporate law firm from 1993 to 2007. They found that both the inheritance and the rainmaking paths to senior partnership are risky. Hoping to inherit clients from a higher-up usually takes years of work on those accounts, with no guarantee of a payoff if the senior partner then decides to pass the baton to someone else.研究人员详细分析了一家大型律师事务所1993年至2007年的内部数据。他们发现,在通往高级合伙人的道路上,继承客户资源和培养新客户都是险招。要想从一位上司手中继承客户资源,往往需要花费数年来经营这些客户,而且不一定能够获得回报,因为这位高级合伙人可能会将接力棒传递给别人。Rainmaking is even riskier, the study says, in part because it takes just as much time and effort but isn#39;t billable unless and until a new client signs on. So a junior partner who invests in building and cultivating a strong outside network ;will risk appearing less productive and profitable; in the short run.培养新客户的风险更大,部分原因是它需要耗费同样多的时间和精力,但这些付出是不计费的,除非一位新客户愿意签约。所以说,如果一位初级合伙人竭尽全力构造和培育一个强大的外部网络,他(她)“在短期内的工作效率和盈利能力很可能面临下降风险。”Even so, for women, rainmaking is often the only option, for reasons that are familiar by now. Most senior partners, and their clients, are still white males who, left to their own devices, usually take other white males under their wing and groom them as successors.即便如此,出于众所周知的理由,培养新客户往往是女性唯一的选择。大多数高级合伙人和他们的客户依然是白人男性。如果让这些人自主行事,他们往往会庇护其他白人男性,并将其培养成自己的接班人。;It#39;s not a conscious decision based on discrimination,; Briscoe says. Rather, he says, it#39;s a question of what sociologists call homophily, or ;a matter of people#39;s #39;comfort zones,#39; where we tend to gravitate toward people who are more like us, or who remind us of our younger selves.;“这并非一种故意歧视女性的决定,”布里斯科说。相反,这是一个被社会学家称为同质性的问题,“事关人们的‘舒适区’(comfort zone)”,他说。这种理论认为,我们往往会被更像自己的人吸引,或是让你想起年轻时的自己的人。Luckily for women, homophily#39;s effects operate outside their firms as well as inside. ;There are many more women now who are in-house counsel at big companies, or who are in other roles where they#39;re choosing professional services firms for their companies,; Briscoe notes, and that often works in female rainmakers#39; favor.幸运的是,对于女性来说,同质性效应不单出现在公司内部,公司外部也一样。布里斯科指出,“现在有越来越多的女性担任大公司的内部顾问,或者为公司选择专业务机构之责的其他角色。”这种情况通常对致力于培养新客户的女性有利。For firms that want to shake things up and change, for example, how clients get passed down through the ranks, Briscoe has two suggestions. First, he says, ;big partnerships don#39;t always look at how clients are inherited. So taking a close look at exactly how those decisions are made would be a good first step.;布里斯科给那些试图革新(比如,改变客户资源沿公司等级阶梯的分配方式)的公司提供了两个建议。首先,他说,“大型合伙制公司并非总是关注客户资源如何被继承。所以,仔细观察公司如何做出这些决定,将是一个良好的开端。”Second, he says, firms might want to support the rainmaking path to senior partnership by allowing more time for networking outside the office. That may well mean recognizing that fewer billable hours now can mean higher revenues, and more women senior partners, down the road.第二,他说,公司可能会允许初级合伙人花费更多时间建立外部网络,以持培养新客户这条通向高级合伙人的路径。这可能意味着承认,现在更少的计费时间意味着未来能够获得更高的收入,更多的女性高级合伙人。 /201405/302093

Kathleen Wiederman is not staunchly against vaccines. She simply believes it is better for her child to naturally battle an illness than to be vaccinated against it.凯思琳·维德曼并非是疫苗的坚定反对者,她只是相信,她的孩子通过自身免疫对抗疾病,比接种疫苗要好得多。;Doctors don#39;t know everything,; said the 42-year-old recruiter, who prefers alternative medicine and gave birth at her home in the well-heeled Virginia suburbs without the aid of a pain-killing epidural.“医生并不了解所有的事,”42岁的招聘人员维德曼表示。她喜欢替代疗法,并在位于富饶的弗吉尼亚郊区的家中生孩子,全程不使用硬脊膜外注射麻醉来避免疼痛。At first, she and her husband agreed on the matter, but when their marriage ended, he pushed for their daughter to get some of her recommended vaccines and Wiederman relented.起初,她和丈夫同意这样的做法,但当他们离婚后,她丈夫让女儿接种了一些她所推荐的疫苗,这时,维德曼的态度有所软化。Now her daughter is five and has had a handful of shots, including against chicken pox and measles, but not polio.现在,她的女儿5岁了,已经注射了几种疫苗,包括水痘和麻疹疫苗,但没有接种小儿麻痹症的疫苗。And if her child gets sick?那么,如果她的孩子病了,该怎么办呢?;Then we treat it however you need to treat it and work through it,; she told AFP.“无论需要怎样的治疗,我们都会提供,来治好孩子的病,”她告诉法新社。Wiederman, who has a law degree, is among a growing number of Americans who oppose vaccines, raising concerns about a resurgence in contagious diseases like measles and whooping cough.反对疫苗接种的美国人数量不断增加,拥有法律学位的维德曼是其中一员,而她却担心像麻疹和百日咳这样的传染性疾病会再次出现。Vaccine hesitancy is increasingly common, and not only when it comes to infant and childhood immunizations, experts say.专家表示,对疫苗持观望态度的现象日益普遍,并不只局限于婴儿和儿童的免疫。Two in three working age adults refuse to get the annual flu vaccine and the same proportion of parents decline the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine for young adolescents, according to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.美国疾病控制和预防中心表示,在处于工作年龄的成年人当中,每三个人中就有两人拒绝接受每年的流感疫苗注射,同样比例的父母拒绝让年龄还小的青少年注射人类乳头状瘤病毒(HPV)疫苗。;The people we are concerned about are the people who are hesitant. The general demographic is well-educated and upper middle class,; said Barry Bloom, a professor of medicine at Harvard University.“我们所担心的是那些持观望态度的人们,他们一般接受过良好教育,属于中上层阶级,”哈佛大学医学教授巴里·布鲁姆说。;I think they are on the rise everywhere.;“我认为,他们的人数在每个地方都有增加。”In recent years, reports linking vaccines to autism have been debunked, but fears of adverse events -- which experts say are rare -- have proven difficult to erase.近年来,一些将疫苗同自闭症相联系的报告已被明是错误的,专家也表示注射疫苗后很少出现不良事件,但是,人们对此所产生的恐惧却很难消除。Some parents are troubled by the increasing number of vaccines children are given, which have risen from seven in 1985 to 14 today, a result of medical advances, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.疾病控制和预防中心表示,由于医学的进步,一些父母正受困于孩子可接种疫苗数量的不断增长,疫苗数量从1985年的7种增加到现在的14种。;I was stunned by the number of vaccines,; said Alina Scott, a 37-year-old project manager and mother of a two-year-old son.“我对疫苗的数量感到吃惊,”37岁的项目经理艾莉娜·斯科特说,她有一个2岁的儿子。Scott said she began ing everything she could find on the topic, even before her child was born, and decided that vaccines were not for them.斯科特表示,她开始阅读她能找到的关于这一主题的所有材料,甚至在她的孩子出生之前就开始了,并且她认为疫苗不适合他们。;This lasted until about a year ago, when I just felt like I wasn#39;t finding any new information. It#39;s like I hit the end of Internet,; she said. ;I don#39;t think we will be vaccinating any time soon.;“这一行为持续到了一年前,那时,我觉得我无法找到任何新的信息,就像是我已经到达了互联网的尽头,”她说,“我想,我们不会很快就接种疫苗。”- Religious exemptions -宗教豁免Nearly all US states require a standard list of immunizations before children can enter school, but they allow religious exemptions for vaccines. Some allow parents to opt out for personal reasons.几乎美国所有的州都要求,孩子进入学校前,要进行一系列规定的免疫接种,但是,他们允许对于疫苗的宗教豁免,一些州允许父母可以因个人原因,不让孩子接种疫苗。Some measles outbreaks in recent years, including in the Orthodox Jewish community in New York City, have been linked to parents refusing vaccines.近些年,一些水痘病例爆发,包括在纽约市传统犹太社区的出现,与父母拒绝为孩子接疫种苗密切相关。;Today you are allowed to have philosophical reasons not to vaccinate and I think that is crazy,; said Anne Gershon, director of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Disease at Columbia University Medical Center.“今天,你可以有合理的原因不接种疫苗,但我认为这是疯狂的举动,”哥伦比亚大学医学中心儿童传染性疾病部门的负责人安妮·格申说。;The reason is that it hurts many people. It is not just your child.;“原因在于,这会伤及很多人,不仅仅是你的孩子。”Some young people cannot get vaccines, including those with cancer or immune diseases, and very young infants are vulnerable to pertussis, or whooping cough, until the age of two months when they can get begin to get doses of the vaccine.一些年轻人不能接种疫苗,包括那些身患癌症或免疫疾病的人。很小的婴儿容易患百日咳,他们在两个月大的时候才能开始接种一些剂量的疫苗。Particularly with measles, one of the most contagious diseases, outbreaks will occur unless 94 percent or more of the population is vaccinated, according to Bloom.布鲁姆表示,特别需要注意的是水痘,它是最具传染性的疾病之一,除非94%或更多的人接种了疫苗才能避免大规模的爆发。Nationwide, vaccination rates among US kindergarteners have stayed high -- near 95 percent.就全国而言,在美国的幼儿园儿童当中,疫苗接种率很高,接近95%。But a 2011 poll in the journal Pediatrics found that one in 10 parents did not stick to the recommended schedule of vaccines for their child, and a quarter of parents had doubts about vaccine safety.然而,2011年儿科杂志的民意调查发现,1/10的父母没有坚持让孩子接种疫苗推荐计划表上的疫苗,而1/4的父母怀疑疫苗的安全性。The ed States typically sees about 60 cases of measles per year.美国每年通常有60例水痘病例。;We don#39;t have a crisis, but nonetheless the trend is going up and the number of immunizations is going down,; said Bloom.“我们没有这样的危机,但是即便如此,这一趋势正在上涨,而接受免疫的数量正在下降,”布鲁姆说。Another trend is resistance to vaccines like the annual flu shot, experts say.专家说,另一个趋势是对类似每年流感疫苗的抗拒。The CDC said in February that two-thirds of adults aged 18 to 65 had not had their seasonal shot, and that hospitalizations in this age group had doubled over last year. Deaths from flu complications were also far higher than usual.疾病控制中心(CDC)在二月曾表示,18到65岁的成年人当中,有2/3的人没有接受季节性疫苗注射,这个年龄群体的住院人数在去年增加了一倍,流感并发症引发的死亡人数也远高于平常。Doctors are also surprised at how many decline the three-dose shot to prevent HPV, a sexually transmitted infection which can lead to cervical cancer in women and cancers of the head, neck, penis and anus in men.注射预防HPV的三剂预防针数量大量减少,医生也对此感到惊讶。HPV通过性接触感染,会导致女性的宫颈癌,以及男性头部、颈部、生殖器和的癌症。The vaccine is recommended for school age boys and girls before they become sexually active, and can be given as early as age nine.这一疫苗建议在学龄儿童性征活跃前注射,也可以早在9岁时就接种。Just one in three women aged 19 to 26 had been vaccinated in 2012, and just 2.3 percent of men, the CDC has reported.CDC报告称,2012年,19到26岁的女性中,1/3接种了疫苗,而只有2.3%的男性接受了疫苗注射。;I think for physicians, the idea that vaccines could prevent cancers seems phenomenal,; said Anne Schuchat, Assistant Surgeon General and director of the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases.“我认为对内科医生而言,疫苗能够预防癌症似乎很惊人,”外科总医师助理及国家免疫和呼吸疾病中心负责人安妮·舒查特说。;It has been a surprise it has not been going like hotcakes.;“令人吃惊的是,它却没有那样畅销。”When it comes to how to communicate the benefits of vaccines to a skeptical public, experts are stumped.面对挑剔的公众,如何与他们交流疫苗的好处,这难倒了专家。In Bloom#39;s view, vaccines have fallen victim to their own success.;If they have never seen a kid blinded from measles, or mentally retarded from pertussis, it is very hard in this wonderful, happy, affluent world of kindergartens and first and second grades to see that there is a problem that vaccines are preventing.;在布鲁姆看来,疫苗已经成为了他们自身成功的受害者。 “如果他们从未见过一个孩子因水痘而致盲,或因百日咳而智力发展受阻,就很难在美好、快乐和丰富的幼儿时期和一二年级时发现这个问题,即疫苗正受到人们的抗拒。” /201404/289600

Stop for a second and notice the way you are sitting. Back curved, shoulders slumped, maybe legs crossed? For people who spend the day staring at a computer screen, this position is fairly typical. But what is it doing to your spine, if anything? Do we need to sit up straight to focus, like that mean math teacher once insisted? Here’s some straight talk from one expert, Mladen Golubic, medical director for the Center for Lifestyle Medicine at Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute.停下手里的事情,注意一下你的坐姿吧!驼背、缩肩,说不定还翘着二郎腿?对于整天盯着电脑屏幕的人来说,这个姿势相当典型。然而,如果这种坐姿会伤害你的脊柱呢?另外,我们真的必须坐直了才能集中精力吗,就像小时候严厉的数学老师要求的那样?克里夫兰诊所健康协会(Cleveland Clinic’s Wellness Institute)生活方式医疗中心(Center for Lifestyle Medicine)的医学主任穆雷登#8226;戈卢比奇(Mladen Golubic)就坐姿问题畅谈了自己的看法。Degrees of Comfort舒适的坐姿角度Little research has been done on the best way to sit upright. One American meta study in 1999 concluded that sitting at an angle of 110 to 130 degrees was optimal for spine comfort. A Scottish study published in 2007 found that leaning back at 135 degrees is ideal to prevent back strain. While interesting, this sort of precision may be impractical for most people, Dr. Golubic says.至今,围绕最佳坐姿的研究仍寥寥可数。美国的一项于1999年进行的整合分析研究指出,身体躯干和大腿呈100度至130度角的坐姿最能令脊柱放松。苏格兰的一项于2007年发表了论文的研究发现,角度为135度的后仰坐姿对防止背部酸痛最为有利。戈卢比奇士表示,虽然这些研究令人颇感兴趣,但对于大多数人来讲,如此精确地拿捏坐姿角度或许并不可行。Sitting to Death?久坐伤身His clinic sees patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Nearly all of them sit for long periods each day. The term Sedentary Death Syndrome was coined by the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 2002 to address the growing consequences of a seated lifestyle. ‘There are studies on Sedentary Death Syndrome that show that sitting for hours can cause anything from lower back pain to high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity,’ he says. In other words, no matter what position you’re sitting in all day, it is pretty bad for you.克里夫兰诊所治疗过患有多种慢性疾病的病人。几乎所有这类患者都是每天久坐不动。2002年,美国总统健康及运动委员会(President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports)为应对久坐的生活方式所带来的日益严峻的问题创造了一个新词──体力活动缺乏综合症(Sedentary Death Syndrome)。戈卢比奇士称:“有关体力活动缺乏综合症的研究表明,久坐数个小时可能引发腰痛、高胆固醇、糖尿病及肥胖症等多种疾病。”换句话说,不管用哪种坐姿整天坐着,对你的身体都颇为有害。The Perfect Pose最佳坐姿Body posture determines the efficiency of your breathing. ‘Relaxed, straight sitting’ — with the core strong, shoulder blades active but not tight and spine erect — ‘expands your chest, allowing you to take in a larger breath . . . and you’ll have more energy and focus,’ Dr. Golubic says. To achieve this, sit away from the back of your chair so you don’t slump, with your feet placed firmly on the ground. He sometimes sends patients home with a blue dot to put on their computer screens as a reminder to sit up straight and stretch and take a deep breath when they feel pain. There is also an app called PostureTrack that alerts users when they’re slumping.身体姿势是对呼吸效果起决定性作用的因素。戈卢比奇士说,“放松,坐直”──保持身体核心稳定、打开但别绷紧肩胛骨并挺直脊柱──“挺胸,深呼吸……你会感觉到更有活力,更能集中精力”。为保持这样的坐姿,你需要和椅背保持一定距离,以防止自己瘫靠在椅子上,同时你的双脚应该稳稳地踩在地上。有些时候,他会让患者把一个蓝色的圆点贴纸带回家贴到电脑上,以此提醒患者在感觉到酸痛时,应该坐直、舒展身体并深呼吸。另外,有一款名为PostureTrack的应用程序可以在用户弯腰驼背时发出警报。Slump to a Hump弯腰驼背的害处It’s not as though slouching will give you a hunchback in a day, but ‘if you do this day after day, and your muscles are not strong, the whole skeleton changes,’ Dr. Golubic says. ‘I’m not aware of any studies that look at the changes in the volume of organs like the liver and spleen when you sit straight or slump forward. But we do know that when you slouch, you project an attitude of depression and low motivation.’ When you sit up straight, he adds, ‘psychologically, your attitude is better.’并不是说坐没坐相会让你在一天之内变成驼背,但戈卢比奇士称:“如果长此以往,你的肌肉又不够强壮,你全身的骨骼就会变形。据我所知,还没有哪项课题就人坐直时和驼背时内脏(如肝脏和脾脏)的体积变化进行过研究。但是我们知道的是,当你驼背时,你会传递出令人感觉你萎靡不振和情绪低落的信号。”他补充道,当你坐直时,“给人感觉你的心理状态比较好”。Core Message腰痛发出的信号If you’re not used to sitting up straight, you may feel lower back pain — an indicator that you need to strengthen your core and work on general fitness. Dr. Golubic almost always advises his patients to start yoga: ‘The first thing we learn in yoga is how to sit properly.’如果你还不习惯于直坐,你可能会感觉到腰痛──这说明你需要进行核心力量训练并提高身体的综合素质。基本上,戈卢比奇会建议所有的患者开始练习瑜伽:“在瑜伽课上,我们最先学习的就是正确的坐姿。”Walk, Don’t Sit多走并避免久坐The bottom line: How you sit is less important than how long you sit, Dr. Golubic says. He tries to get up from his desk often, doing ‘walking meetings’ with colleagues and taking phone calls outdoors. ‘If you cannot walk,’ he says, ‘At least stand.’底线:戈卢比奇士称,坐姿如何远不及坐的时间长短对身体的影响大。他本人会尽可能频繁地离开书桌,和同事们“边走路边开会”,并到室外接打电话。他说:“如果你没有条件走动,至少该多站站。” /201311/262934

Editor#39;s note: You are mistaken if you think that Westerners do not believe in superstitions. The superstitions might be different, but pretty much every country around the world has them.We compiled a list of some of the common superstitions followed in the West to help you get a better insight into their cultures and customs.要是你认为西方人不迷信,那你就大错特错了。不同国家迷信内容或许不同,但几乎所有国家都存在迷信。我们整理了一份西方共有迷信清单,以方便大家深入了解西方文化与风俗。 /201407/309846

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