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2018年11月18日 03:47:30来源:飞度技术四川新闻网

It turns out that nodding off in class may not be such a bad idea after all, as a new study has shown that going to sleep shortly after learning new material is the best way to remember it.看来在课堂上打瞌睡也许并不是坏事。一项新研究显示,学完新知识后马上打个小盹是最佳的记忆方法。According to US lead author Jessica Payne, a psychologist at the University of Notre Dame in Indiana, nodding off after learning something new is like ;telling; the sleeping brain what to retain.该研究的主要作者、美国印第安纳州诺特丹大学的心理学家杰西卡bull;佩恩认为,在学完新东西后打个盹就像把要记住的东西;告诉;睡眠中的大脑。Along with colleagues, she studied 207 students who habitually slept for at least six hours per night.她和同事一起对207名学生进行了研究,这些学生习惯每晚至少睡六个小时。Participants were randomly assigned to study declarative, semantically related or unrelated word pairs at 9am or 9pm, and returned for testing 30 minutes, 12 hours or 24 hours later.参与者被随机分配到几个学习小组,学习内容是陈述性知识,包括语义相连或不相连的词组。学习时间在早上9点或晚上9点。学完后他们在30分钟、12小时或24小时后回来做测试。Declarative memory refers to the ability to consciously remember facts and events, and can be broken down into episodic memory (memory for events) and semantic memory (memory for facts about the world).陈述性记忆指的是有意识地记忆事实和事件的能力,可以分为情节记忆(对事件的记忆)和语义记忆(对事实类知识的记忆)。People routinely use both types of memory every day ; recalling where we parked today or learning how a colleague prefers to be addressed.人们每天都会例行运用这两种记忆;;回想今天我们把车停在了哪里或了解一个同事喜欢别人怎么称呼他。At the 12-hour retest, memory overall was superior following a night of sleep compared to a day of wakefulness.在12小时后再次进行测试时,总体来看睡了一夜的人相比还没睡觉的人记忆效果更好。At the 24-hour retest, with all subjects having received both a full night of sleep and a full day of wakefulness, subjects#39; memories were superior when sleep occurred shortly after learning, rather than following a full day of wakefulness.在24小时后再度测试时,所有的实验对象都睡了一整夜,也在清醒中度过了一个白天。这次,那些在学习后不久就入睡的人比那些学习后过了一整个白天才睡觉的人记忆效果更好。;Our study confirms that sleeping directly after learning something new is beneficial for memory. What#39;s novel about this study is that we tried to shine light on sleep#39;s influence on both types of declarative memory by studying semantically unrelated and related word pairs,; Payne said.佩恩说:;我们的研究实,在学习新东西后马上睡觉对记忆有帮助。这项研究的创新之处在于,我们试图通过对语义相连和不相连的词组的记忆研究来揭示睡眠对于两种陈述性记忆的影响。;;Since we found that sleeping soon after learning benefited both types of memory, this means that it would be a good thing to rehearse any information you need to remember just prior to going to bed. In some sense, you may be #39;telling#39; the sleeping brain what to consolidate.;;我们发现在学习之后很快就睡觉对两种记忆都有帮助,这意味着在上床睡觉前温习你要记忆的东西将很有好处。在某种意义上,你可能在lsquo;告诉rsquo;睡眠中的大脑需要巩固强化的记忆。;Results of the study were published on March 22 in PLOS One.该研究的结果于3月22日发表在《科学公共图书馆;综合》期刊上。 /201203/175619。

  • In the home of the future, you can skip the keys. Just tap your phone, and presto, your door swings open.在未来的家中,你不再需要钥匙了。只需轻点手机,转眼间就能打开家门。A new company with a high-powered designer is the latest one hoping to take that vision to the masses. That company, August, introduced its version of the so-called smart-lock to the public last week.一家名叫August,拥有超强设计师的新公司正希望把这幅愿景带给大众。上周,该公司向公众推出了自己的智能锁产品。The lock is the brainchild of CEO Jason Johnson and renowned designer Yves Béhar, who also designed the Jawbone fitness tracker and led the design for the One Laptop Per Child project. August hopes to win the hearts of early adaptors and bring more people to the smart home market, with a design that emphasizes sleek aesthetics and ease-of-use.这种智能锁是首席执行官杰森o约翰逊和知名设计师伊夫o贝哈尔的杰作,后者还设计过Jawbone健身追踪器,也是“每个孩子一台笔记本”(One Laptop Per Child)项目的总设计师。公司希望凭借这款造型优美,使用便利的产品,赢得早期用户的青睐,并带动更多人进入智能家居市场。While people may like the idea of smart homes, according to research firm IHS, only 5.6 million smart platforms have been installed globally. But the number is expected to rise to 44.6 million by 2018.研究公司IHS表示,尽管人们可能喜欢智能家居这个理念,但全球目前只安装了560万套智能平台。不过到2018年,这个数字有望升至4460万。Smooth and round, August’s lock has the heft of a medallion or a gilded hockey puck and allows users to unlock their doors by using their phones. Customers can also let in a babysitter or a maid by issuing them a temporary wireless key.August智能锁光滑圆润,重量相当于一枚奖章或一个镀金冰球,用户可以通过手机开门,还能给保姆或家政人员一把临时的无线钥匙。“We’re approaching it as a consumer product rather than a piece of technology” says Béhar.贝哈尔称:“我们将其作为消费产品而不是一项技术来开发的。”The lock, which uses Bluetooth, fits smoothly over an old-fashioned door with the help of two screws and some wing flaps so customers can retrofit their doors without altering the appearance. Users open the door by holding their phone app up to the lock or tapping a button on their phone screen.只需两颗螺丝和几个合页,就能轻松地这把使用蓝牙技术的锁安装在老式门上,而无需改变房门外观。用户把手机上的应用对准这把锁,或是按一下屏幕上的按键就能开门。Skeptics have raised concerns about how well August locks, which cost 9, can hold up under security attacks. Registering for the app requires two layer authentication. But during a recent product demo, the process was slightly buggy and difficult to enter email addresses for Android phones. Johnson defended the company’s security by pointing out there’s also two layers of encryption on the lock.对于这款售价249美元的锁,持怀疑态度的人担心它能否很好地抵挡安全攻击。注册这款应用需要两层认。但在近期举办的一个样机展示会上,这个注册流程并不那么顺畅,而且在安卓手机上输入电子邮件地址时颇有困难。约翰逊则大力夸赞产品的安全性能,指出该锁还有两层加密系统。August has raised over million in venture capital funding for their lock, one of the early forays into the world of smart home security. It faces a lot of competition from both well-established brands and start-ups. Yale has its own line of smart locks while Kwikset released its smart-lock, Kevo, last year. Meanwhile, start-up Goji plans to release a sleekly designed smart-lock that will take pictures of people who knock on your door and sends it to your door. This lock is August’s first product, but they don’t seem too worried about the competition.作为智能家居安全领域的早期产品,August公司已为这款智能锁募集了超过1000万美元风投。不过它正面临来自知名品牌和初创企业的激烈竞争。耶鲁公司(Yale)就有自己的智能锁产品线,Kwikset公司去年也推出了自己的智能锁Kevo。同时,初创公司Goji正计划推出一款设计时尚的智能锁,它能拍下敲门人的照片再发到用户手机上。本文开篇所提到的这款锁是August公司的首款产品,但该公司似乎并不太担心激烈的市场竞争态势。“We’d love to see other people enter this market,” says Johnson. “It helps us if more people start using smart locks.”约翰逊称:“我们很乐意看到其它公司进入这个市场。如果更多人开始用智能锁,这对我们来说是件好事。”Johnson envisions a world where keys are unnecessary, and speaks of them as jagged and ugly.约翰逊希望未来世界不再需要钥匙,在他看来,锯齿状的钥匙十分丑陋。“We’re about changing the way you interact with your home.,” he says. “We have keyless cars, why not keyless homes?”他说:“我们会改变你和家互动的方式。已经有无钥匙汽车了,为什么不能有无钥匙之家呢?”Johnson won’t go into further specifics about August’s long-term vision, but he did say in less than 90 days, August will be unveiling and shipping a new and complementary product.约翰逊不愿进一步透露公司的长期愿景,但他表示,在不到90天后,该公司就将向市场推出一款全新的补充产品。 /201411/341200。
  • The Ache: In presbyopia, the eye#39;s lens loses elasticity with age. The ability to focus on near objects deteriorates, resulting in the need for ing glasses.病痛:老花眼的成因是,眼睛的晶状体随年龄增长而失去弹性,聚焦近处物体的能力减弱,因此需要佩戴老花镜。The Claim: A 12-week, scientifically tested training program, newly available as an iPhone app, uses a technique called perceptual learning to reduce -- or even eliminate -- the need for ing glasses.主张:一项为期12周、经过科学检验的训练项目最近以iPhone应用的形式面市,该项目使用一种名为“知觉学习”(perceptual learning)的技术来减少(甚至消除)佩戴老花镜的必要性。The Verdict: A 30-person study published in February 2012 in the journal Scientific Reports found that after trying the program -- now on sale as an iPhone app called Glasses-Off -- participants on average could letters 1.6 times smaller than they could previously. The program is much more likely to show improvement in adults 40 to 60 years old, scientists say.定论:2012年2月份刊登在《科学报告》(Scientific Reports)上的一项覆盖30人的研究的论文指出,在试用该项目(目前作为一个名为“摘掉眼镜”(Glasses-Off)的iPhone应用销售)之后,参与者平均能够阅读比之前小1.6倍的字母。科学家们表示,该项目为40至60岁的成年人带来改善的可能性要比其他人群大得多。The self-guided app, launched this week by GlassesOff Inc., starts with a vision test, followed by a personalized training program users employ three times a week for 12 to 15 minutes per session. In one test, users must decide whether an E is facing up, down, right or left. The test gets harder when the E becomes smaller or lower-contrast. At the end of the session, users receive a personalized assessment of how much the app is likely to help them in various tasks, such as ing an article.该自助式应用由GlassesOff Inc.于近期推出,该公司在以色列和纽约设有办公室。该应用一开始是一项视力测试,之后是个性化训练项目,用户一周接受三次训练,每次12到15分钟。在一项测试中,用户要判断字母E是朝上、朝下、朝右还是朝左。随着字母E尺寸缩小或对比度降低,测试难度会加大。在训练的最后,用户会接受一项个性化评估,看看该应用能在多大程度上帮助他们改进在各项任务中的表现,比如阅读文章。The training consists of identifying fuzzy, striped images called Gabor patches, which can be hard to see against a similarly colored backdrop.该训练内容包括辨认名为“加尔视标”(Gabor patch)的条纹状模糊图案,在颜色相近的背景下,这些图案辨认起来会有难度。The app is free for two or three weeks after a user signs up. To continue using it after that costs for four months. The company, which has offices in Israel and New York, is offering a temporary promotional price. After the initial program, the company offers a personalized maintenance program of one or two sessions per week at extra cost.该应用在用户注册两周或三周之内可免费使用。之后若想继续使用,费用为59美元,可使用四个月,目前促销价为10美元。最初的训练项目完成之后,该公司会提供一项个性化保持项目,每周安排一次或两次训练,须额外交费。The app isn#39;t a cure for presbyopia, but makes the brain #39;better able to interpret#39; the poor information it gets from aging eyes, says Dennis M. Levi, dean of University of California Berkeley#39;s School of Optometry and co-author of the study. Dr. Levi is a scientific adviser to GlassesOff and has been promised stock options as compensation.加州大学伯克利分校(University of California Berkeley)眼科视光学学院(School of Optometry)主任、此项研究作者之一丹尼斯#12539;M.利瓦伊(Dennis M. Levi)表示,该应用并不能治愈老花,但能使大脑“更好地诠释”通过老化的眼睛所获得的贫乏信息。利瓦伊士是GlassesOff的科学顾问,该公司承诺授予他股票期权作为报酬。Anyone can use the product, says GlassesOff Chief Executive Nimrod Madar. But people over 70 likely still will need ing glasses for extended ing and low-light tasks.GlassesOff首席执行长尼姆罗德#12539;马达尔(Nimrod Madar)表示,任何人都可以使用该产品。但70岁以上的人如果长时间阅读或在光线较暗的环境中做事情,可能还是需要佩戴老花镜。Using the new app #39;might help people to better recognize slightly blurry images, but it isn#39;t going to change the elasticity of the lens,#39; says James Salz, a clinical professor of ophthalmology at the University of Southern California.南加州大学(University of Southern California)眼科学临床教授詹姆斯#12539;萨尔斯(James Salz)表示,使用这款新应用“或许能帮助人们更好地辨认略显模糊的图像,但不会改变晶状体的弹性”。The idea of using perceptual learning for vision difficulties has scientific merit, says Peter J. Bex, a neuroscientist at Schepens Eye Research Institute in Boston, part of Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. Using perceptual learning to improve vision has proved viable in several scientific studies, including in people with lazy eye. Still, more research is needed on the GlassesOff program -- particularly comparing the test group to a group that got an ersatz training exercise, scientists say.波士顿舍彭斯眼科研究所(Schepens Eye Research Institute,属于马萨诸塞州眼科和耳科医院(Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute))神经学家彼得#12539;J.贝克斯(Peter J. Bex)称,通过知觉学习来缓解视觉困难这一做法是有科学道理的。通过知觉学习来改善视力的可行性已得到几项科学研究的明,其中包括针对弱视者的研究。但科学家称,还需要对GlassesOff的项目展开更多研究――尤其是将受试组与接受替代训练的组别进行对照的研究。Another issue, Dr. Bex says, is that the results of perceptual learning sometimes apply only very narrowly to the tasks practiced in training. The ability to small print may improve, but it#39;s unclear how much difference that makes for people in a wider range of daily tasks.贝克斯士表示,另一个问题是知觉学习的效果有时仅仅局限于在训练中练习过的任务。阅读小字的能力可能会有所提高,但目前还不清楚这项训练能在多大程度上提高人们完成更广泛日常任务的能力。A study, presented in July at the Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision in China, found that the GlassesOff program improved performance on measures including contrast sensitivity -- suggesting the improvement will apply to a wide range of daily tasks, Mr. Madar says.马达尔说,7月份在中国举行的亚太视觉会议(Asia-Pacific Conference on Vision)上宣读的一项研究成果显示,GlassesOff的项目改善了对比敏感度等指标――暗示该应用能改善人们完成广泛日常任务的能力。 /201312/269901。
  • Ryan Hoover is the envy of entrepreneurs around the country. Many startups toil for years, burning through millions of investment dollars, to get the kind of recognition Hoover’s startup has garnered in just nine months. What’s worse, he’s done it with a flimsy Reddit knock-off website his team built in less than a week. That site, called Product Hunt, has captured the attention, and as of today, the investment dollars, of Silicon Valley’s most influential power brokers.莱恩·胡佛是全美所有企业家艳羡的对象。许多初创公司摸爬滚打数年、烧掉数百万美元的投资才能得到的认可度,胡佛的初创公司却在短短九个月内就已牢牢在握。更让人不忿的是,他做到这一切所凭借的,不过是一个抄袭社交新闻网站Reddit创意的粗劣网站,而且他的团队只用了不到一个星期就搭建起了这个网站。但是这个名为Product Hunt的网站却得到了硅谷最有影响力的权力掮客们的关注,最近更是从他们那里获得了真金白银的投资。Venture investors like Hunter Walk, Dave McClure, David Tisch, and Mashable founder Pete Cashmore use Product Hunt to discover new products, and founders like Dennis Crowley (Foursquare), Dave Morin (Path), and Mark Cuban (AXS TV) have jumped in to discuss their products. The site has 250,000 monthly unique visitors and has sent 1.7 million visits to products in the last month. More than 51,000 people the site’s newsletter with a 41% open rate.像亨特o沃克、戴夫o麦克卢尔、大卫o蒂希、互联网新闻客Mashable创始人皮特o卡什莫尔等,这些风险投资人会利用Product Hunt来发现新产品;而丹尼斯o克罗利(Foursquare)、大卫o莫林(Path)、马克o库班(AXS TV)等创始人则会参与其中,讨论自己的产品。该网站每月的绝对访客达到了25万人,并在过去一个月里,为各类产品总共输送了170万次的访问量。网站推送的新闻通讯邮件读者逾5.1万人,点击率达41%。Anecdotally, the purveyors of the top products of each day report they’ve been flooded with inbound interest from investors and potential partners. Aly dozens of members have hacked together Web tools based on the site’s API. The site grows by 70% each month. Founders are whispering that placement on Product Hunt has replaced TechCrunch as their preferred method of announcing their launch.有意思的是,那些每日精选的顶尖产品的出品方们纷纷表示,投资者和潜在合作伙伴纷沓而来,对他们倾注的兴趣简直足以将他们淹没。已有数十名该网站的用户利用该网站的API做成了各式各样的衍生网络工具。网站以每个月70%的速度保持着增长。各方创始人私下表示,在Product Hunt上发布消息已经取代科技客TechCrunch,成为了他们更为青睐的公布产品上线的方式。So how did Hoover do it? Good timing, mixed with some email hustle and community-building prowess, topped off with a master class in positivity.那么胡佛是怎么做到这一切的?就是:好的时机加上若干电子邮件推送技巧,以及出色的社区建设能力,最后再借助一批形象正面的大师级人物的帮助。As it turns out, the tech community was hungry for a new gathering place, and Product Hunt played directly into its desire. Hacker News, the message board of accelerator program Y Combinator, has long been the de facto online community for Silicon Valley startups. Earlier this year, Y Combinator’s president, Sam Altman, said he thought the message board might be with 0 million.事实表明,科技界亟需一处新的聚集地,而Product Hunt的出现正好满足了这一需求。长久以来,企业孵化器Y Combinator设立的网络留言板Hacker News一直是硅谷各初创公司实际上的线上社区。今年上半年,Y Combinator的总裁萨姆o阿尔特曼就曾说过,他估计这个留言板上的用户群体整体价值可能有5亿美元。But in recent years, the community has devolved into petty negativity and occasionally hostile commentary. Last month, the prominent venture capitalist Marc Andreessen took to the message board to ask how it had evolved from a Y Combinator discussion board to “the discussion board where the first comment on any post involving a YC company is reliably someone crapping on it.”但是近几年来,这处线上社区已经沦落为一处充斥着负面情绪的地方,不时还会出现一些带有敌意的。上个月,知名风险投资家马克o安德里森在这处留言板上诘问道,这里怎么从Y Combinator的讨论板演变成了“任何YC公司相关帖下的第一条一定是有人在对该公司狂喷的讨论板”。“What an amazing shift,” he wrote.“这实在是种很神奇的转变。”他写道。Product Hunt did not intend to be the anti-Hacker News, but in many ways that’s what it has become. It is hardly a freewheeling anonymous community. The site has grown very carefully, by inviting a group of Valley influencers curated by Hoover and his team to join and comment. Outsiders can up-vote products, but only invitees can comment. Because the commenters are mostly public-facing figures like investors, journalists, and prominent founders in the tech community, they’re more likely to keep negative comments to themselves rather than trash something. That doesn’t scale well, so Hoover has decided the best way to grow is to let commenters invite friends into the commenting pool.Product Hunt并没有打算在各方面与Hacker News反其道而行,但是就很多方面而言,它现在所扮演的却正是这样的角色。这里基本不是一个自由自在的匿名社区。该网站发展得十分谨慎,在胡佛及其团队的精心策划下,邀请了一批硅谷的影响力人士成为用户并发表。其他人可以投票赞同某产品,但只有受邀用户才能发表。由于者多为投资者、记者和科技界知名创始人这样的公众人物,他们更愿意收起自己的负面,而不是随意乱喷。但是这种模式并不利于网站的拓展,因此胡佛决定,最佳的发展方式就是允许这些者邀请自己的朋友参与。The infectious positive attitude of Hoover and his nine-person team comes through on the site and in its community. They chime in frequently with positive feedback, curate themed newsletters, host personal, jokey podcasts, and gather influencers together for brunch events. You can tell they genuinely love apps, and in turn, they’ve attracted a community of app-lovers.胡佛及其9人团队的积极态度成功地感染了整个网站和社区。他们经常在讨论中插入一些正面的回应,策划不同主题的新闻通讯,主持轻松幽默的个人播客,还召集影响力人士聚餐。你可以看出他们是发自真心地热爱应用程序,并因此吸引了另一批应用程序的爱好者。Product Hunt hasn’t gone without notice on Hacker News. A post on Hacker News announcing the site was met with criticism of its design. When the company joined Y Combinator, the top comment on Hacker News asked, “How is Product Hunt even a business?” calling the decision “another disappointing move.”Product Hunt的发展也在Hacker News上引起了关注。Hacker News上一个公布Product Hunt上线消息的帖子里,者们对其网站设计进行了抨击。在公司在加入Y Combinator时,Hacker News上被顶到首位的质问道:“Product Hunt竟然也能算得上是一项业务?”并称这一决策为“又一次令人失望的行动”。Ever positive, Hoover says the business question is “a valid piece of criticism.” He acknowledges that a business catering to the small tech and startup community doesn’t seem like a billion-dollar idea. Further, “[Hacker News members] might see Product Hunt as a copycat,” he says. “We’re not solving a clear, obvious need, like ‘This saves lives,’ or, ‘This has X million in revenue per month.’ Obviously there is skepticism.” But he counters that any investment in a consumer-facing tech startup, including Facebook and Twitter, is less obvious in the beginning. “It’s very much based on emotions,” he says.永远保持积极态度的胡佛表示,大家提到的业务问题是“一条有意义的批评”。他承认,Product Hunt只是为科技界和初创界的小规模社区提供务,这听起来确实不像一个价值百万美元的创意。不仅如此,“(Hacker News的用户)可能把Product Hunt看作是山寨货,”他说,“我们并不是在解决一项清晰明确的需求,类似于‘这能拯救生命’或者‘这能在每个月创收几百万’等等。这自然会引发外界的质疑。”但是他反驳道,包括Facebook和Twitter在内,任何投给面向消费者的科技初创公司的投资,在最初都是比较盲目的。“这是很受情感驱使的决定。”他说。He has plans to expand Product Hunt into other categories, including gaming, an industry he’s familiar with as a consumer and as director of product at PlayHaven. As for the business model, Hoover imagines Product Hunt will monetize with a fairly straightforward advertising model. Today the site makes opportunistic revenue through job postings. Eventually, Hoover says he’d like to see Product Hunt own the transaction part of its recommendations, allowing people to directly buy the digital products they find on the site.他计划进一步拓展Product Hunt,涉足其他数个领域,其中也包括游戏。作为一名消费者和手游平台PlayHaven的产品总监,他对这个行业十分熟悉。至于具体的商业模式,胡佛的设想是,Product Hunt会通过相当直接的广告模式来实现货币化。目前,该网站是通过发布招聘信息获取投机收入的。胡佛表示,他希望Product Hunt到最后能够实现站内推荐产品的交易环节,让人们能在站内直接购买他们在这里找到的数码产品。But Hoover doesn’t have to worry about money just yet. Today, he will reveal that Product Hunt has raised million in venture funding from A-Grade Investments (the investment fund of Ashton Kutcher), Cowboy Ventures, CrunchFund, Google Ventures, Greylock Discovery Fund, Slow Ventures, SV Angel, betaworks, Tradecraft, Vayner RSE, and Ludlow Ventures as well as angel investors Abdur Chowdhury, Andrew Chen, Brenden Mulligan, Jack Altman, Naval Ravikant, NirEyal and Y Combinator (summer 2014 batch; its sum includes the standard YC investment.) The company also announced an iPhone app, built by iOS developer David McKinney, which adapts the site’s functions for mobile devices.不过胡佛目前还不必为钱的事发愁。他在8月21日公开宣布,Product Hunt已经募得了100万美元的资金,投资方有A级投资(A-Grade Investments,阿什顿o库彻创立的投资基金)、牛仔风投(Cowboy Ventures)、CrunchFund、谷歌风投(Google Ventures)、格雷洛克发现基金(Greylock Discovery Fund)、慢风投(Slow Ventures)、天使投资公司SV Angel、创业工厂兼风投公司Betaworks、Tradecraft、Vayner RSE和勒德洛风投(Ludlow Ventures),此外还有天使投资方阿卜杜勒o乔杜里、陈春、布伦登o穆里根、杰克o奥尔特曼、纳瓦尔o拉维坎特、尼尔o厄雅和Y Combinator(2014年夏季入驻;总额中包括标准的YC投资额)。该公司还发布了一款iPhone应用,开发方为iOS开发人员戴维o麦金尼,让该网站的功能在移动设备上也能正常使用。Product Hunt’s beauty is in its simplicity, which means the site can easily be copied. Hoover believes its real value is in the high-quality community he’s attracted. Keeping the community’s quality high as he attempts to break into the mainstream may be his greatest challenge. He believes Product Hunt can tap into a market of app-lovers who don’t consider themselves early adopters but are anyway. Given how pervasive smartphones are today, “the early adopter thing is shrinking,” he says.Product Hunt之美在于一切从简,而这意味着该网站很容易遭到复制。胡佛认为,Product Hunt的真正价值在于他所吸引来的高质量用户社区。在试图打入主流领域的同时继续保持社区的高质量水准,这或许就是他所面对的最大挑战。他相信Product Hunt能够打入应用爱好者的市场,这些爱好者并不把自己视作早期采用者(译注:指具有冒险精神、喜欢尝试新产品的人),但不管怎样他们的确就是。鉴于智能手机如今已是如此无处不在,“所谓的早期采用者已经越来越少了,”他说道。 /201408/323611。
  • ;IF Thomas Crapper were around today, he would find our toilets quite familiar,; says Bill Gates, referring to the Victorian manufacturer of sanitary ware whose name has become attached to one of the body#39;s most fundamental functions. ;They haven#39;t seen many advances apart from handles and paper toilet rolls.; In fact, with the exception of S-traps to contain odours, flush toilets have changed little since Sir John Harington installed one in Richmond Palace for Queen Elizabeth I.比尔盖茨提起卫生洁具制造商维多利亚时说道:;如果今天汤马斯·克拉普在这里,他一定会发现我们的马桶很熟悉。;一谈起维多利亚时代汤马斯·克拉普这个名字,就很容易联想到身体的最基本功能之一。比尔盖茨还谈到:;与汤马斯·克拉普时代相比,这些马桶除了在把手和厕纸卷筒上有所改进,其他并没有太多改进。;事实上,除了应用s形下水管存水弯存储臭气,抽水马桶自约翰·哈灵顿爵士为女王伊丽莎白一世在里士满宫安装了抽水马桶起几乎未发生改变。Mr Gates considers it time for a change. On August 14th his charitable institution, the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation, announced the gold-, silver- and bronze-medal winners in its Reinvent The Toilet Challenge, which aims to bring safe, affordable and ;sustainable; loos to the 40% of the world#39;s population who lack access to basic sanitation, thus preventing many of the 1.5m childhood deaths from diarrhoea that now occur each year.盖茨先生认为现在是时候做一些改变了。8月14日,他的慈善机构--比尔与梅琳达.盖茨基金会宣布举行彻底改造马桶挑战的活动,并设立金牌、银牌、铜牌的奖项。该活动意在为世界40%缺乏基本卫生设备的人口提供安全、实惠、耐用的厕所。现今,每年因腹泻死亡的儿童人数为150万。而这样的举措能防止很多这样的孩子死亡。The Challenge is nothing if not ambitious. It seeks a toilet that costs less than five cents per user per day to operate, that requires neither a supply of clean water nor sewerage infrastructure to take the waste away, and that will generate energy and recover salts, water and other nutrients. Remarkably, despite the challenge being little more than a year old, the award winners claim to be on track to achieve all of these goals.这样的挑战是极其雄心勃勃的。它致力于建造一个每天每次不超过5分的厕所。这样的厕所不依靠清洁的水也不依靠排水设备来排污,在产生能量的同时还能提取盐分、水分和其他营养物质。更引人注目的是,这项挑战在一年内就完成了,而且奖项的获得者都如之前所定的那样达到了所有的目标。In third place is a toilet designed by researchers at the University of Toronto. This treats urine and faeces separately, using a material freely available in many of the world#39;s poorest regions: sand. Urine is filtered through sand, and the resulting liquor is exposed to ultraviolet light to sterilise it. Faeces are dried slowly within the toilet before being fed into a smouldering sand-filled reactor. The system can sanitise the waste of ten people in two hours, leaving only sand and fresh(ish) water behind.位列第三名的厕所设计者为多伦多大学的研究员们。该厕所将尿液和排泄物分开处理。所使用的材料即使很多最贫穷的地区也能大量的获得,这种材料就是沙子。尿液经过沙子过滤,所产生的液体再经过紫外线杀菌。排泄物则在厕所里慢慢的变干,填充进一个装满沙子的低温干馏反应器。这个系统能在两个小时内给十个人的排泄物进行卫生处理,最后只留下沙子和干净的水。The runner-up, from Loughborough University in Britain, brings chemical-engineering principles to bear. A tank feeds mixed urine and faeces through a rig that heats it to 200°C under high pressure, killing pathogens. Returning the superheated mixture suddenly to atmospheric pressure causes it to separate into its liquid and gaseous components. The gas is used to heat the feed tank. The liquid is fed into a digester that produces enough methane to power the entire system—and some to spare.亚军来自英国的拉夫堡大学,他们应用的是化学工程原理。尿液和排泄物都存储在一个容器中,在高压下利用一个仪器将它加热到200°C,这样就能杀死致病菌。将高温处理的混合物迅速置于大气压下,使之分离成液体和气态颗粒。气体用来加热最初的供给容器,而液体则加入蒸炼器中产生的沼气除了足够为整个系统供能外,还有剩余。The winning toilet, however, is smarter still. It has been developed by Michael Hoffman of the California Institute of Technology, and has earned him the 0,000 first prize. Dr Hoffman#39;s toilet uses solar panels to power an electrochemical system that produces two things. One is hydrogen. The other is a compound which oxidises the salts in urine to generate chlorine. This creates a mildly disinfecting solution that can be used to flush the toilet. The hydrogen is suitable for cooking or for powering a fuel cell to produce electricity. The solid residue from the process can be employed as fertiliser.冠军厕所也更为智能。它是由加州理工学院的迈克尔·霍夫曼开发的,并未它的开发者赚入了10万美元的一等奖奖金。霍夫曼士的厕所是由太阳能电池板为一个电化学系统供能的。这样一来会产生两种物质:一种是氢气,另一种是化合物能氧化尿液中的盐分,产生氯。它能产生一种温和的消毒液来冲洗厕所。而氢气则能够被用来烹饪或给燃料电池充电产生电能。而整个过程产生的固体残渣则可以用做化肥。The Gates Foundation will now pay for prototypes to be tested in the field, probably of all three winners and possibly of some other ideas, and Mr Gates hopes that the foundation#39;s reinvented toilets will start being deployed for real in as little as two years. They will thus be able to contribute to achieving what is the most off-track of the ed Nations#39; Millennium Development Goals, to halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to basic sanitation. As the chairman of the UN Secretary-General#39;s Advisory Board on Water and Sanitation, the Prince of Orange, observes, ;politicians and leaders worldwide don#39;t like to be associated with toilets, even state-of-the-art toilets. This sanitation stigma distorts international and national development agendas.;现在,盖茨的基金会就会为这些技术雏形付以报酬来进行该领域的试验,这些技术雏形有可能是前三甲,也有可能是其他的设计。盖茨先生希望由基金会彻底改造的厕所会在两年内正式投产。他们也能因此为联合国千年发展目标做出最不寻常(最离经叛道?)的贡献,在2015年使不能持续享受基本卫生设备的人口减少一半。联合国秘书长顾问委员会水与卫生部主席奥伦治公评价道:;全世界的政治家和领导人并不愿意让自己和厕所联系在一起,即使是最先进的厕所。正是这样一种关于卫生的特性让国际和国家的发展计划都产生了扭曲。;Dr Hoffman agrees that sanitation is insufficiently sexy. He says the technology behind his winning solar-powered toilet had been sitting on the shelf since he demonstrated it to NASA, America#39;s space agency, in the early 1990s, for use on the International Space Station. ;It is,; as he puts it, ;hard to get a scientific grant for treating faeces.;霍夫曼士也认为卫生事业不是那么吸引人。他表示,他曾于1990年初将他的太阳能供能厕所向美国宇航局,美国国家航空和宇宙航行局进行展示以供他们在国际空间站中使用,但是这样的技术之后就被搁置了。他表示:;要在处理排泄物上得到科学基金是很难的。;Even the Gates Foundation itself, which hands out around billion each year, has so far devoted just .5m to its Reinventing The Toilet Challenge. But that will change as the project goes from conception to delivery. The foundation now intends to spend up to m a year on sanitation, an investment that the World Health Organisation estimates will produce a return of 900% in the form of social and economic benefits coming from increased productivity and reduced health care costs.即使是盖茨基金会本身至今也尽投入了650万美元用于彻底改造厕所的挑战,而基金会每年的慈善基金花费在30亿元左右。但是这个项目从一个观念到实际交付,这样的的情况就会改观。当前,该基金会意欲每年在卫生上的投资加大至八千万美元。投资后,预计国际卫生组织会在社会和经济效益方面获得9倍的收益,不仅它的生产能力会提高,它的卫生保健成本也会下降。 /201209/197635。
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