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2018年05月22日 22:02:54 | 作者:飞度四川新闻网 | 来源:新华社
Five dynasties were the five kingdoms established on the Central Plain and the ten states were all in the south of the Qinling Rang and Huihe River except the Northern Han. Meanwhile, there were other parallel administrations established by minorities tribes like Liao and the West Xia.五代是中原上的五个王朝,先后与之并存的十国除北汉外都在秦岭——淮河以南,其它与之并存的还有辽和西夏。Liao was a regime dominated by the Khitan. Its capital was Linhuangfu in Shangjing( south of present-day Bairin Left Banner in Inner Mongolia), and its founder was a man called Yelu Abaoji(the Han name was Yi).辽国是中国历史上以契丹族为主体建立的王朝,都城上京临潢府(今内蒙古巴林左旗南),其创建者为耶律阿保机(汉名亿)。The Liao Dynasty had nine emperors and ruled for 210 years.辽国共历九帝,前后210年。Its territory reached the coast of the Northern Sea, the Eastern Sea, the Yellow Sea and the Bohai Sea in the east, the Jinshan (now the A#39;ertai Mountain) and Liusha (now the Bailongdui Desert in Xinjiang) in the west, the Kelulun, the E’erkun and the Selun’ge Rivers in the north, the southern side of the Outer Xing^nling Mountains in the northeast, the northern part bordered the Northern Shanxi, Baigou in Hebei Province and the northern part of Gansu in the south.其疆域东临北海、东海、黄海、渤海,西 至金山(今阿尔泰山)、流沙(今新疆白龙堆沙漠),北至克鲁伦河、鄂尔昆河、色楞格河流域,东北迄外兴安岭南麓,南接山西北部、河北白沟河及今甘肃北界。The Rising and Development of Liao:The Khitan Tartars were an old normadic nationality from the northern China.辽的兴起和发展:契丹族是中国古代北方地区的一个游牧民族,以放牧、打猎为生。They were first mentioned in historical records dating from the 4th year of Dengguo(389) in the Northern Wei period.历史文献上有关契丹族的确实记载,始于北魏登国四年(389)。They were located in Huang River(the Xar Moron River) valley and lived a nomadic life. The tribe was increasingly grown.主要活动在潢河(今西拉木伦河)一带。By the early Tang Dynasty, the then existing eight Khitan tribes formed an ally, having an army of 40 000 and was under the control of the Tang regime.唐朝初年,契丹8个部落组成部落联盟,拥兵四万,接受唐朝统辖。After the decline of the Tang, the Khitan Tartars frequently attacked its neighbours, captured people from other states and rapidly increased in power.唐朝衰落后,契丹族不断向外扩张,俘掠外族人口,实力大增。In the 2nd year of Zhenming of the Later Liang (916), Yelu Abaoji, the chief of the Khitan Tartars, declared himself emperor and named his state Khitan, after having defeated other tribes like Cige and Died.后梁贞明二年(916),契丹族首领耶律阿保机凭借强大的军事力量,击败了的剌葛、迭剌等人,在龙化州称天皇帝,国号契丹。Two years later, Yelu Abaoji, who was known as Emperor Taizu(the first emperor) of the Liao, set up his capital north of the Xar Moron River and named it Huangdu (imperial capital ; later called Shangjing).神册三年(918),辽太祖耶律阿保机在潢河以北正式建都城,称为皇都(后改称上京)。Before long, he conquered the Uygurs in Ganzhou and captured the Bohai.随后,降甘州回鹘,灭渤海国。In the 1st year of Huitong (947), Emperor Taizong of the Liao defeated the Later Jin and changed the name of his dynasty to the “Great Liao”.会同元年(947),辽太宗灭后晋,改国号大辽。In the 1st year of Tonghe (983), the Liao Emperor Shengzong, Yelu Longxu, revived the name Khitan.统和元年(983),辽圣宗耶律隆绪曾改国号契丹。Later in the 2nd year of Xianyong (1066), Emperor Daozong restored the name the “Great Liao”.以后辽道宗咸雍二年(1066),又恢复大辽国号。During the reign of Taizong of Liao, Liao acquired sixteen cities of Yanyun from Shi Jingtang and started from which it began to extend to the Central Plain.辽太宗耶律德光统治时期,辽国从石敬塘的手中得到了燕云十六州。以此为基础,辽开始了对中原地区的扩张。Yelu Deguang launched several attacks to conquer the Central Plain but had to retreat in facing the severe counterattacks from the people there.耶律德光数次对中原进兵,希望征整个中国,但因中原人民的反抗,使其计划搁浅下来。After Taizong of Liao, from Ruan, the Shizong(947 ?950) of Liao to Jing, AAuzong (951 ?969),the period witnessed the conflicts from within and the rulers did not turn their head to the Cen-tral Plain. The conflicts were settled till Xian,Jingzong (969 ?982) of Liao.在太宗之后,经历世宗阮(947 ~ 950)和穆宗璟(951 ~ 969)两代,辽的统治内部出现了激烈的纷争,直到景宗贤 (969 ~ 982)时,其统治才渐渐稳定下来。Jingzong was succeeded by his 12-year-old son, known as Shengzong, who co-ruled Liao with his mother, Empress Xiao. Xiao was an outstanding female statesman in history. In the fourth year of Shengzong (987), Liao launched war against Song and won the battle.景宗死后,其子12岁的耶律隆绪即位,是为辽圣宗。由于圣宗年龄尚小,所以由其母萧太后摄政,萧太后是辽历史上著名的女政治家,于圣宗统和四年(987)进 兵攻宋,大败宋军。From then on , Liao started their attack on the Song every year till the 22nd year of Shengzong , Liao army threatened the Chanzhou city and was offered to sign a compromise with Zhenzong of Song according to which the Song was forced to contribute to Liao silver and goods annually in return of the peace.此后,辽国连年发兵攻宋,至圣宗二十二年,辽国攻至澶州城下,与宋真宗签定了“澶渊之盟”,迫使宋朝年年向辽国进贡“岁币”,辽宋两国从此相对安定下来。Therefore a temporary peace was bought, and with the tributes from the Song, Liao became rich and strong and attained the height of power and splendor.辽圣宗依靠宋国的进贡,使辽的经济发展起来,此时辽国达到了历史上的鼎盛时期。Liao reached a stage of decline after Shengzong and Xingzong( 1031 ?1055).经过圣宗、兴宗(1031 ~1055)的盛世之后,辽国开始走向衰亡。In 1101, when Emperor of Tian Zuo came into power, Liao was progressively threatened by Jin of Nuzhen, their rising neighbor.公元1101年, 辽天柞帝即位,此时随着女真族的兴起,辽国的统治逐渐受到威胁。In 1115 Jin captured Huang Longfu, an important city of Liao. At the same time, Jin reached an agreement with Song, namely the “Haishang Agreement” to form a joint force to fight against Liao.公元1115年, 金兵攻占辽国重镇黄龙府,随后又与宋朝订立“海上之盟”,共同攻辽。In several years, Jin seized most of Liao’s territory including Uaoyangfu in Dongjing. In the 5th year of Baoda (1125), Emperor Tianzuo was captured by the Jin army, which brought the Liao Dynasty to an end.金兵在几年的时间里,占领了包括东京辽阳府在内的大部分辽国土地,保大五年(1125),辽天祚帝被金军俘虏,辽国自此灭亡。In the 9th year of Tianhui (1131) of the Jin, Yelu Dashi, a minister of the former Liao, reestablished the Liao in the Chuhe valley which became known as the Western Liao.金天会九年(1131),原辽国大臣耶律大石在楚河 流域重建国家,仍沿用辽国号,史称西辽。The Economy and Political System of Liao : In politics, the Liao adopted a differential ruling system. That is, different systems were applied to people from different cultures and economies in different areas.辽的社会经济和政治:辽国采用“因俗而治”的统治制度,其特点是根据不同地域、各民族不同的发展水平,而制定独特的统治制度。The important ones were the tribal system, the slavery system, the Bohai system, and the feudal system of the Han people. Officials were divided into two groups according to where they came from (the north or the south).Corresponding administration systems were set up for each area.其内容包括有部族制、奴隶制、渤海制和汉族封建制,采用南、北两套官制进行管理。“官分南、北,以国制治契丹,以汉制待汉人”(《辽史?百官志》)。The Khitan administrative system, called the orthodox system, was applied to Khitan officials who were called northern officials, while the Han administrative system was applied to the Han officials, who were called southern officials.“国制”是指契丹官制,统称北面官,汉制官职统称南面官。北面官地位优于南面官。北南两面官的区别还在于管理的范围不同。Because of different customs and levels of economic development, the northern officials mainly governed the Khitan Tartars and other nomadic peoples while the southern officials took charge of agriculture mainly in areas where the Han people resided.北面官主要管理北面的契丹人和其他游牧民族,南面官主管南面从事农业经济的汉族等。As the Liao Dynasty was founded by the Khitan, the northern officials were superior in status to their southern counterparts. But the southern administrative system was actually the feudal system used to be practiced in the Central Plain states.北面官制是在契丹氏族部落制基础上发展来的一套官制。因此,北面官职多保留部落联盟制的痕迹。辽南面官制实际上是从中原王朝移植过来的制度。The northern administration system embodied the old trace of tribe influence, while the southern administrative of Liao was an imitation after the Tang system although it was not so perfect as the latter.最初,辽太祖仿唐制在中央设立三省,但是当时还未完全具备后来南面官三省的职能。In particular it included a department “Han,er Si”,which was in charge of the Han affairs with Han officials.朝中另设汉儿司,主管汉人事务,官员为总知汉儿司事,由汉族大臣担任。After the Liao conquered the sixteen prefectures in the Yanyun area, this system was further improved with the assimilation to the Chinese governing system.辽朝得燕云十六州后,对中原制度进一步吸收,汉制逐渐完备。The Liao Dynasty went through different stages of economic development. In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and robbery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽代社会经济的发展经过几个不同的阶段,前期由于国力主要用于向外扩张, 采取奴隶制的掠夺式经济,使辽初经济发展较为缓慢,甚至对某些地区的经济造成破坏。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong that the Liao managed to institute feudal reform.直到辽圣宗时期,辽朝的经济才有一个较大的发展,这无疑是封建化改革的结果。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝统治者管理经济的办法与政治制度相同,也采取“因俗而治”的方针。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area due to its adaptation to the reality.由于这一方针适应当时社会经济的发展,因此北方社会经济在这一时期处于上升阶段。The Liao economy was divided into three zones: the fishing-hunting zone, the nomadic zone and the agricultural zone.从生产性质上划分,辽代经济大体可划分为三大区域:渔猎区、牧区和农区。The fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan Tartars9 area between the Huang River(Xar Moron) and Tuhe rivers, and the Nuzhen peopled area in the northeast and so on.以渔猎为基本生产方式的是居住在潢河(西拉木仑河)、土河之间的契丹族以及东北部女真族等。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities.以畜牧业为基本生产方式的是北方草原各民族。The agricultural zone referred to the southern area where the Han lived and the eastern area where the Bohai people lived.以农业为主要生产方式的是南部地区的汉族以及东部渤海人。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between different nationalities and promoted a higher level of economic development.三个地区的社会组织形态融为一体,加速了相互之间的交流,推动了辽代经济的发展。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy and directed other economic zones to step into the feudal economic system with different paces.早已进人封建社会的南部汉族地区经济,在辽代起主导作用,使牧区、渔猎区在不同的基础上,以不同的步伐向封建经济过渡。 /201602/421851The graying of the population could shrink the number of working-age adults by more than 10 percent in China by 2040, a report from the World Bank said on Wednesday.世界在周三的一则报告中称,人口的老龄化将会使中国在2040年时劳动力人口缩减至少10%。It means a net loss of 90 million workers in the country until that time, according to the report named ;Live Long and Prosper: Aging in East Asia and Pacific;.据世界的题为《福寿延年:东亚与太平洋地区的人口老龄化》的报告,它认为中国的劳动力到2040年将净损失9千万。;Developing middle-income countries in East Asia, such as China, are aly aging quickly and face some of the most pressing challenges in managing aging,; it said.“东亚的中等收入发展中国家,比如中国,人口老龄化在逐步加剧,并正在面临老龄化问题带来的最严重挑战。”报告称。East Asia, as the Word Bank#39;s research showed, is aging faster than any other region in history. Nearly 36 percent of the world#39;s population aged 65 and over, or 211 million people, live in this region, which is the largest share among all regions in the world.正如世界的报告显示,东亚地区的人口老龄化速度比史上其他地区要快。全世界65岁及以上的人口中有36%分布在东亚,人数达到2.11亿,在世界所有地区中占比最大。The bank warned that the rapid pace and sheer scale of aging in East Asia raises policy challenges, economic and fiscal pressure, as well as social risks. ;Without reforms, for example, pension spending in the region is projected to increase by eight to 10 percent of GDP by 2070.;世界警告说,东亚地区如此快的老龄化速度及其庞大的规模带来了政策的挑战、经济和财政压力,以及社会潜在威胁。“如果不改革,比如仅就养老金来说,到2070年该地区养老金出可能提高到占GDP的8%到10%。”Axel van Trotsenburg, regional vice-president of the World Bank#39;s East Asia and Pacific Region, said on Wednesday that ;East Asia Pacific has undergone the most dramatic demographic transition we have ever seen, and all developing countries in the region risk getting old before getting rich.;世界东亚太平洋地区区域副总裁阿克塞尔·冯·托森伯格在周三说,“在东亚太平洋地区我们亲历了最严重的人口巨变,本区域所有的发展中国家未老先衰。”He suggested a comprehensive policy approach across the life cycle to enhance labor-force participation and encourage healthy lifestyle through structural reforms in childcare, education, healthcare, pensions, long-term care and more.他建议通过对育儿、教育、医疗、养老金、长期保健等方面的结构性改革,制定覆盖整个生命周期的全面政策方案来提高劳动力的参与,激励形成健康的生活方式。The report also recommends a range of pressing reforms in China, including removing incentives in pension systems that have encouraged some workers, especially urban women, to retire too early.报告还推荐一系列的改革,包括取消养老金体系中的激励措施,比如曾鼓励一些工人,尤其是城市女性提早退休。Developing countries in the region can take steps to reform their existing pension schemes, including considering gradual increase in retirement age, it said.本区域中的发展中国家可以采取措施改革现有的养老金体系,包括考虑逐渐推迟退休年龄。 /201512/415325

After the Qing army entered the Shanhai Gate, the surrendered general from Ming, Wu Sangui was conferred the title of Pingxiwang and stationed in Yunnan ; Shang Kexi Pingnanwang in Guangdong, Geng Jingzhong Jing-puwang in Fujian.清人关后,封明朝降将吴三桂为平西王,驻云南;尚可喜为平南王驻广东;耿精忠为靖甫王,驻福建。They were called uThree FeudatoriesThe Three Feudatories had their armies and set up their own separatist regime, acting like the independent kingdoms and spending a great deal of military expenditure, which made half of the national wealth be spent on them ”.称为“三藩”。三藩挑兵割据,形同独立王国,耗费了庞大的军费开,致使“天下财赋,半耗三藩”。The Three Feudatories were arrogant and domineering,becoming the barriers for the Qing Government to stablize the national political power and strengthen the frontiers.他们飞扬跋扈,成为清朝稳定全国政权和巩固边疆的障碍。When Kangxi came to theign, he took it as the task of top priority to cut down to state the Three ries. His suppression of the Three Feudatories was helpful to the integration of the nation.康熙帝亲政后,将削藩列为当务之急,其平定 “三藩”有利于全国的统一。The Qing Dynasty unified Taiwan, strengthened the communication between Taiwan and the inland, improved the development of Taiwan and consolidated the Southeast.清朝时期统一了台湾,加强了台湾同内地的联系,促进了台湾的开发,巩固了东南。Qing also enforced its control over Mongol and Xinjiang, suppressed the rebellion of the entry of Huijiang and enhanced the management in Tibet.加强对蒙古和新疆的统治,平定回疆贵族的叛乱,加强对西藏的管理。All of these provided the favorable conditions for the development of the economy.所有这些都为国民经济的发展提供了有利条件。From the mid-time of Kangxi, the agricultural production had restored and developed gradually. The handicrafts in the Qing Dynasty were more prosperous than that in the Ming Dynasty.从康熙中期起,农业生产逐步恢复和发展。清朝的手工业比明朝更加发达。 /201603/428569

China confirmed a second imported Zika case Monday, six days after the first was detected, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) said.本周一,中国国家质量监督检验检疫总局发布声明称,中国确诊了第二例输入性寨卡病例,距第一例被发现病例仅有6天。The AQSIQ#39;s Guangdong provincial branch found a passenger with fever at Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport on Friday before the patient was confirmed with Zika virus by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention on Monday.上周五的时候,中国国家质量监督检验检疫总局广东分局发现广州白云国际机场的一名乘客有发烧症状,随后于本周一,中国疾控中心确诊该乘客携带寨卡病毒。The patient was exposed to an infected person in Venezuela days before returning to Guangzhou on Feb. 9 via the Netherlands and Russia, the AQSIQ said in a statement.中国国家质量监督检验检疫总局在一份声明中称,病人在2月9号从委内瑞拉回国时,途径荷兰和俄罗斯,与一名感染者有接触。The 28-year-old quarantined patient has shown signs of recovery with temperature back to normal, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) said late Monday.而在周一的晚些时候,国家计生委宣布,这名28岁的被隔离患者体温渐渐恢复正常。Disease prevention experts said the risk of any sp of the virus from this case is low due to timely quarantine, and the current low temperature which inhibits mosquito activity.疾病防治专家指出,及时隔离可以有效防止病毒传播,目前的低温天气并不利于蚊子活动。Symptoms of the Zika virus, which sps to people through mosquito bites, include fever, joint pain, a rash, conjunctivitis, headache and muscle pain.寨卡病毒都是通过蚊子叮咬传播的,常见症状包括发烧、关节痛、皮疹、结膜炎、头痛和肌肉酸痛。 /201602/426946

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