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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年05月21日 02:41:23
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Elon Musk has held out the prospect of Tesla achieving “a few million” in annual car sales by 2025, even as reports of a slowdown in China sales sent shares in the electric car company down more than 7 per cent in after-hours trading.报告显示特斯拉在华销量增长放缓,导致这家电动汽车公司股价在盘后交易中下跌逾7%。尽管如此,这家加州集团的共同创始人埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)仍然预期,在2025年以前,特斯拉年度汽车销量或将达到“几百万辆”。Speaking at an event on the sidelines of the Detroit motor show, the co-founder of the Californian group also said that he believed Tesla could achieve profitability by the end of the decade, as it seeks to prove that the economics behind electric vehicles can work.在底特律车展会场外的一次活动中,马斯克还表示他相信特斯拉会在2019年底以前盈利。目前,特斯拉一直试图明电动汽车背后的经济模式是有效的。“Our mission is fundamentally to transition the world to electric cars,” said Mr Musk. “So if we don’t make a lot of cars, we’re not doing the best that we can.”马斯克表示:“我们的使命是从根本上让世界转向电动汽车。因此,如果我们不生产大量车辆,我们就未尽全力。”But the bullish outlook — which pitches Tesla as a company achieving sales on a par with BMW — was overshadowed after Mr Musk told reporters in Detroit that the carmaker’s sales in China were “unexpectedly weak” during the fourth quarter.这一信心十足的展望将特斯拉定位为销量可与宝马(BMW)匹敌的企业。然而,就在底特律,马斯克告诉记者,去年第四季度特斯拉在华销量“出乎意料地低迷”,这一消息令上述展望蒙上了一层阴影。He said that while there had been “significant” increases in European and North American demand, China had suffered because of “some misperception issues” on the subject of home charging.他说,尽管欧洲和北美的需求曾“大幅增长”,由于在家用充电问题上的“某些误解问题”,特斯拉在中国却遭遇困境。Tesla’s shares were down 7 per cent in after-hours trading at 9.95.消息传来,在盘后交易中,特斯拉股票下跌7%,跌至每股189.95美元。Tesla is working hard to bring a mass market equivalent of its Model S premium saloon to market. Mr Musk said that once the ,000 vehicle, known as the Model 3, was up to full production by 2020, the lossmaking company would be in the black.目前,特斯拉正在努力将其S型豪华轿车的大众版推向市场。马斯克表示,一旦这款售价3.5万美元、被称为3型轿车的产品在2020年以前全面投产,处于亏损状态的特斯拉将会盈利。“I think we will at some point start showing a profit,” he said. “We feel pretty comfortable saying 2020.”他说:“我认为,从某一时刻起,公司将开始盈利。对此,十分保守的估计是2020年。”That vision depends on wider adoption of electric vehicles. The category is expected to still make up only about 1 per cent of vehicles by the end of the decade.这一图景有赖于电动汽车的更广泛应用。不过,到这个十年结束前,预计电动汽车占所有汽车的比例仍将只有大约1%。But there are signs that mainstream carmakers are ramping up efforts to produce affordable and practical electric vehicles as they seek to meet stringent CO2 emissions targets.然而,多种迹象表明,为满足苛刻的二氧化碳排放目标,主流汽车制造商都加大了研发力度,生产廉价而实用的电动汽车。Mr Musk was speaking a day after General Motors stole a march on rivals at the Detroit motor show by unveiling a battery electric concept car with a targeted price tag of ,000.就在马斯克发表这番讲话一天前,在底特律车展上,通用汽车(General Motors)悄然抢占先机,披露了一款以电池电力推动的概念车,其目标价位定为3万美元。“Musk continues to show optimism in the electric car market, paired with his ongoing encouragement for other automakers to join him in replacing the internal combustion engine with battery power,” said Karl Brauer, senior analyst at Kelley Blue Book’s KBB.com. “Now it looks like he’s getting his wish.”凯利蓝皮书旗下kbb.com网站资深分析师卡尔#8226;布劳尔(Karl Brauer)表示:“对于电力汽车市场,马斯克依然表现得十分乐观。与此同时,他也在不断鼓励其他汽车制造商加入他的行列,以电池动力取代内燃机。如今,他似乎正在实现他的愿望。”Mr Musk used the appearance late on Tuesday to urge mainstream carmakers to speed up the development of electric vehicles to get the industry to a point where widesp adoption was possible.此外,马斯克还把周二晚些时候的现身作为契机,敦促主流汽车制造商加快开发电动汽车,以便令该行业达到有可能被人们广泛接受的临界点。“It’s only going to go there if the big carmakers make risky decisions to make electric vehicles#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;which is sort of counter-intuitive, because, why do we want all these competitors?”“只有大型汽车制造商决心冒着风险生产电动汽车,整个行业才能到达这一临界点……这有些违背直觉,原因是,我们为何会盼望出现这么多竞争者?”He added that the need for zero-emission technology was ever more important, given the sharp fall in the oil price that has pushed US consumers towards heavy-duty pick-up trucks and sport utility vehicles.他补充说,考虑到油价大幅下跌将大量美国消费者推向重型皮卡和运动型多功能车,零排放技术的必要性正变得前所未有地重要。“The need for sustainable transport is incredibly high. Even in the face of massively declining oil prices, I think it actually becomes more urgent that [we make that] transition to electric,” said Mr Musk, who is also co-founder of space flight company SpaceX. “I think that all transport, with the ironic exception of rockets, will go fully electric.”马斯克表示:“可持续性运输的必要性之高令人难以置信。我认为,尽管正面临油价暴跌,(我们)向电动汽车的转型其实更紧迫了。我认为,所有运输方式都应该完全使用电力——除了火箭这样的所谓特例之外。”之所以会这么说,因为马斯克也是太空飞行公司SpaceX的共同创始人。 /201501/354490

SoftBank Corp. said Wednesday its Pepper humanoid robots will staff a cellphone store in Tokyo for a week this spring.日本软银公司周三表示,将在东京开设以人形机器人Pepper为员工的手机店,在一周时间里限期营业。The firm said the static, talking machines will run the store from March 28 to April 3 in the city#39;s upscale Omotesando shopping district. SoftBank aly operates a separate store in the neighborhood.该公司表示,这款静态的,说话的机器将会于3月28日至4月3日在东京的高级商业区表参道营业。软银公司已经在附近开设了一家分店。;I don#39;t know how this will turn out, but it should be a quite interesting experiment,; said SoftBank CEO Ken Miyauchi during a two-day exhibition called Pepper World.软银公司的董事宫内谦在一次为期两天的名为“Pepper World”的展示会上说道;“我不知道结果会怎样,但它应该是一个很有趣的实验。”The telecoms giant said it will deploy five to six Peppers at the shop. Customers will be able to ask the robots for explanations of the various cellphone options, and for those that decide to buy, the robot will attempt to complete the sales process.这家电信巨头表示,店内将配备5、6台Pepper机器人。顾客可以要求机器人讲解各种手机的选项设置,机器人也会尝试着为那些决定购买手机的顾客完成整个销售手续。However, SoftBank says it is difficult for the robots to check people#39;s IDs when signing a contract, so humans will be on hand to intervene.但是,软银公司也表示,由于签约时,机器人很难核实顾客的身份,因此店员将介入这项工作。Pepper made its commercial debut in June last year. Miyauchi said the device had acquired quite a following aly, as more than 500 firms were now using it.去年六月,Pepper完成了它的商业处女秀。宫内谦表示,该设备已经获得了相当的认可,有超过500家公司正在使用它。He said the machine may represent a labor-saving solution to companies short of manpower.他说道,这台机器将可能是一种解决公司人手短缺问题的省力方案。 /201602/425093

PayPal is on the hunt for international acquisitions to drive growth and fend off predators, as it prepares to separate from eBay and become an independent company in the first of several big technology split-ups this year.PayPal正在物色国际收购目标以推动增长并防止自己被收购。该公司眼下正准备脱离eBay成为一家独立的公司——这将拉开今年数家大型科技公司分拆的序幕。Chief executive Dan Schulmantold the Financial Times that acquisitions would be a priority, as PayPal uses the bn war chest that is a legacy of the split.PayPal首席执行官丹#8226;舒尔曼(Dan Schulman)向英国《金融时报》表示,收购将会是公司的优先考虑事项,因为此次分拆给它带来60亿美元的现金储备。“The balance sheet affords us the opportunity to look opportunistically where it makes sense to acquire,” he said. “I think there is a tremendous opportunity to look across the world.”他说:“当前的财务状况给我们带来了物色有价值的收购标的的机会。纵观全球,我们有着巨大的收购机遇。”The strong balance sheet would also support PayPal’s lending programmes, he noted.舒尔曼指出,强劲的资产负债表也将持PayPal的贷款项目。PayPal will pass a milestone towards independence today as pricing begins for its shares. Shareholders of eBay will get one share in PayPal per share they hold when the formal split takes place on July 17.今日PayPal将会启动股票定价,从而向成为一家独立公司跨出里程碑意义的一步。7月17日正式分拆时,eBay的股东每持有1股eBay股票将获得1股PayPal股票。The company’s enterprise value could be about bn, roughly two-thirds of eBay’s valuation, analysts at Wedbush estimated.Wedbush的分析师估计,PayPal的企业价值大约为400亿美元,大约是eBay估值的三分之二。PayPal’s rapid growth — revenues were up 19 per cent last year, with customers rising 13 per cent — has come increasingly from outside the eBay empire.PayPal的迅速增长——去年收入增长19%,客户增长13%——越来越来自eBay帝国的外部。Last week PayPal announced it would spend nearly bn to purchase Xoom, a growing international remittances company, which will leave about bn in net cash on its balance sheet.PayPal上周宣布,将斥资近10亿美元收购Xoom,这将让公司资产负债表上剩下约50亿美元现金。Xoom是一家正在成长中的国际汇兑公司。Other recent acquisitions include Braintree, which bolstered PayPal’s presence in processing software used in mobile apps. That deal included Venmo, a money transfer app for splitting the cost of meals or paying rent, which has seen total payment volumes quadruple in the past year.PayPal最近的收购还包括Braintree公司,后者让PayPal加大进军移动应用中的处理软件。该交易包括了Braintree旗下转账应用Venmo,该应用可用于分担餐费或者付租金。Venmo在过去一年里的付总额增长了3倍。Even as PayPal looks for acquisitions, it is considered a takeover target itself, particularly when cashed-up companies such as Apple and Google are trying to bolster their own payments businesses.就在PayPal寻求收购目标之际,它本身也被视为收购目标,尤其是在苹果(Apple)和谷歌(Google)等资金充沛的公司努力提升自己的付业务之际。 /201507/384363

  

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  Smartphone maker HTC reported a quarterly rise in turnover for the first time since 2011, as new mid-range phones and a tablet produced with Google helped slow the erosion of its market share.智能手机制造商宏达电(HTC)报出2011年以来的首次季度营业额上升,原因是新型中档手机和与谷歌(Google)合作生产的平板电脑帮助延缓了其市场份额的流失。In preliminary results yesterday, the Taiwanese group reported revenue of NT.9bn (.5bn) in the final three months of 2014, up from NT.9bn a year earlier. This was ahead of forecasts, as was a modest operating profit of NT0m, which helped it to avoid a repeat of its first annual loss in 2013.根据昨天发布的初步结果,这家台湾集团在2014年的最后三个月实现479亿元新台币(合15亿美元)的营收,高于一年前的429亿元新台币。这一数据超出了人们的预期,而同样超出预期的还有1.8亿元新台币的少量运营利润,这帮助该公司避免重演2013年出现的首次年度亏损。HTC was quick to launch a smartphone using Google’s Android platform after Apple’s launch of the iPhone, and became the biggest smartphone producer by volume in 2011. But that position was soon captured by Samsung .在苹果公司(Apple)推出iPhone之后,HTC用谷歌的Android平台迅速推出了一款智能手机,并在2011年成为销量最大的智能手机生产商。不过,这一称号很快就被三星(Samsung)夺走。“It’s still too early to call a recovery or turnround,” said Jeff Pu, at Yuanta Securities. He noted that sales had received a boost from November’s release of the Nexus 9 tablet, produced for Google, and that the US company is expected to turn to Asus for the next iteration.元大宝来券(Yuanta Securities)的Jeff Pu表示:“目前称HTC复苏或扭亏为盈还为时尚早。”他指出,11月份HTC为谷歌生产的Nexus 9平板电脑大大提升了该公司的销售额,而谷歌这家美国企业预计会将下一代产品的制造业务交给华硕(Asus)。Other launches included two smartphones in its mid-market Desire range, helping to ease reliance on the One line.该公司推出的其他产品包括两款面向中端市场的Desire系列智能手机。这两款手机帮助HTC减轻了对One系列产品的依赖。HTC’s net profit was NT0m, up from NT0m a year before. Its shares closed down 1.4 per cent yesterday.HTC的净利润达到4.7亿元新台币,高于一年前的3.1亿元新台币。昨天,该公司股价收盘跌1.4%。 /201501/352647MENLO PARK, Calif. — Facebook’s long-rumored plan to directly host articles from news organizations will start on Wednesday, concluding months of delicate negotiations between the Internet giant and publishers that covet its huge audience but fear its growing power.加利福尼亚门洛帕克——市场早有传闻称,Facebook计划直接发布来自新闻机构的文章。随着这一互联网巨头与出版商之间为期数月的棘手谈判告一段落,这一计划将于周三启动。出版商们垂涎于Facebook上的大批受众,但却对Facebook与日俱增的影响力心怀忌惮。Nine media companies, including N News and The New York Times, have agreed to the deal, despite concerns that their participation could eventually undermine their own businesses.包括N新闻(N News)、《纽约时报》在内的九家媒体公司已经同意了这项交易,尽管它们担心,参与其中到头来会导致自身业务受损。The program will begin with a few articles but is expected to expand quickly. Users of iPhones will see glossy cover s and photos tagged with map coordinates. Most important for impatient smartphone users, the company says, the so-called instant articles will load up to 10 times faster than they normally would since ers stay on Facebook rather than follow a link to another site.直接发布在Facebook上的文章起初不会太多,但其数量应该会迅速多。iPhone用户即将看到精的主体视频和标记有地图位置的封面图片。该公司称,对没什么耐心的智能手机用户而言,最重要的是这些所谓的“即时文章”,会让文章的加载速度比平常快10倍,因为读者可以待在Facebook上,而不必点击链接、登录另一个网站。Facebook has gone to unusual lengths to court the publishers participating in the project, some details of which were previously published by The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal.为了拉拢出版商参与该项目,Facebook可谓竭尽全力。时报和《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)对相关细节均有过报道。The news publishers can either sell and embed advertisements in the articles, keeping all of the revenue, or allow Facebook to sell ads, with the social network getting 30 percent of the proceeds. Facebook is also permitting the news companies to collect data about the people ing the articles with the same tools they use to track visitors to their own sites.这些新闻出版商可以将各自销售的广告嵌入文章所在页面,并保留全部收入;也可以让Facebook出售广告,Facebook将抽走30%的收入。新闻公司会在自营网站上追踪网站访客,Facebook还允许这些公司使用同样的工具来收集读者数据。For publishers, the Facebook initiative represents the latest in a series of existential balancing acts. The social network, which has more than 1.4 billion active users worldwide, captures more attention of mobile users — and prompts more visits to news sites — than virtually any other service.对出版商而言,Facebook的这一创举同它以往兼顾各方的举措一脉相承。Facebook在全世界有超过14亿活跃用户,它受到的手机用户的关注,以及向新闻网站带去的访问量,都超过了其他社交网络务。Publishers have little choice but to cooperate with Facebook, said Vivian Schiller, a former executive at N, The New York Times and Twitter who now advises media companies and brands. “That’s where the audience is,” Ms. Schiller said. “It’s too massive to ignore.”曾在N、《纽约时报》和Twitter担任高管,目前为媒体公司以及各品牌提供咨询务的维维安·席勒(Vivian Schiller)表示,除了与Facebook合作,出版商几乎别无选择。“受众都在Facebook上,”席勒说,“规模太庞大,不容忽视。”But Facebook’s role as a powerful distributor of news makes many people in the industry uneasy. The fear is that it could become more of a destination than their own sites for the work they produce, drawing away ers and advertising.但Facebook变身为强大的新闻发行商,让许多新闻从业者感到不安。他们担心,他们制作的内容会更多地以Facebook为目的地,而不是自身的网站,导致读者和广告业务的分流。James Bennet, editor in chief of The Atlantic, one of the project’s initial publications, said that publishing pieces through instant articles means “losing control over the means of your distribution.” On the other hand, he said, “we’re trying to get out stories to as many people as possible, and at the same time, continue to build a core, loyal, enthusiastic audience.”《大西洋月刊》(The Atlantic)总编辑詹姆斯·班内特(James Bennet)称,使用即时文章功能发布新闻报道,意味着“失去对发行渠道的控制权”。另一方面,他说,“我们也在一边努力地让更到人看到我们的报道,一边继续构筑忠诚、热情的核心受众群。”Facebook has a long history of changing the algorithm that determines what people see in their feeds. Zynga, the mobile gaming company, built its business on Facebook only to lose much of its traffic when the company changed the rules to make a user’s game activity less visible to friends.长期以来,Facebook一直不断更改用以决定用户会在信息流中看到哪些内容的算法。Zynga是一家依赖Facebook的手机游戏公司。Facebook更改算法后,用户的游戏活动呈现给朋友的频率降低了,这一举动曾让Zynga的流量大幅下降。Last year, Facebook decided to downgrade the prominence of viral content like cat s and promote “high quality” news content. A month ago, it changed course again to highlight personal posts by users’ friends and family.去年,Facebook决定改变病毒式传播内容(如猫咪视频等)满目皆是的局面,要推广“高品质”的新闻内容。一个月前,它再次更改算法,突出了用户的朋友和家人发布的私人帖子。Chris Cox, Facebook’s chief product officer, was unapologetic about the shifting rules. In an interview at the company’s Silicon Valley headquarters, he said that Facebook’s mission was to give its users what they wanted most.Facebook首席产品官克里斯·考克斯(Chris Cox)并未因为算法变来变去而感到抱歉。他在位于硅谷的Facebook总部接受采访时表示,该公司的使命是为用户提供他们最想要的东西。“We see ourselves as first helping people connect with friends and family,” Mr. Cox said. “And second, helping people be informed about the world around them.”“我们认为自己首先要帮助人们与朋友和家人相联系,”考克斯说。“其次才是帮助人们了解身边的世界。”The Atlantic is going into the Facebook deal with its eyes open, Mr. Bennett said, referring to the prospect that Facebook might be in a position to dictate less favorable terms if its importance to publishers increases.班内特表示,《大西洋月刊》会在参与Facebook这个项目时保持警惕。他提到,在Facebook对出版商越来越重要时,它可能就会借势强加不利于出版商的条款。Five American organizations are initially participating in the instant articles project and will publish one item each on Wednesday in the new format: BuzzFeed, National Geographic, The Atlantic, N News and The Times.最初将有五家美国机构参与即时文章项目,分别是BuzzFeed、《国家地理》(National Geographic)杂志、《大西洋月刊》、N新闻和《纽约时报》。每周三,它们各自都将以新的格式发布一篇文章。Four European outlets are also joining: The Guardian, B News, Bild and Spiegel Online. Over time, Facebook expects to add other publishers to the project, which is officially a test, and expand it beyond the iPhone version.还有四家欧洲媒体参与:《卫报》(The Guardian)、B新闻(B News)、《图片报》(Bild)和明镜在线(Spiegel Online)。Facebook也希望,其他出版商也能逐步加入该项目,并将其扩大到iPhone版本之外的设备上。该项目的正式状态还是测试。For The Times, Facebook represents from 14 to 16 percent of its web traffic — a figure that has doubled in recent months, according to Mark Thompson, chief executive of The New York Times Company.对时报来说,Facebook代表了14%到16%的网络流量。据纽约时报公司首席执行官马克·汤普森(Mark Thompson)介绍,这个数字在最近几个月翻了一番。“This is a chance to expand and explore whether Facebook can become an even bigger part,” Mr. Thompson said. On balance, the company felt that it was an experiment worth taking part in, he added. Articles on Facebook will not initially count against the 10 free items people who are not Times subscribers are allowed to each month.汤普森说,“这是一个扩大和探索Facebook能不能为我们带来更多流量的机会。”他接着表示,总的来说公司认为这个尝试值得参加。起初,Facebook上的文章不会算在非时报订阅用户每月可以免费阅读的10篇文章之内。Facebook is offering publishers new tools to showcase their work, including interactive maps and the ability to post high-resolution photos that ers can zoom into and view from any angle.Facebook正在向出版商提供展示内容的新工具,包括交互式地图,以及发布高清图片的功能。这种照片读者可以从任何角度查看和放大。“We’re not trying to position Facebook as a replacement for a newspaper, or a radio show that you love, or TV, at all,” Mr. Cox said. “We can be complementary.”“我们完全不是在试图将Facebook定位成报纸,或者你喜欢的广播或电视节目的替代品,”考克斯说。“我们可以互补。”Facebook clearly plays an important role as a gatekeeper to news. Nearly half of American Internet users said they got news about politics and government on Facebook during the course of a week, almost as many as got such news from local television, according to a survey last year by the Pew Research Center.Facebook明显扮演着新闻守门人的重要角色。从皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)去年的一项调查来看,近一半的美国网络用户表示,一周之中会在Facebook上获取有关政治和政府的新闻,几乎与从地方电视台上收看这类新闻的人一样多。Jonah Peretti, chief executive of BuzzFeed, said the instant articles format enhances the current approach of simply posting links.BuzzFeed的首席执行官乔纳·佩雷蒂(Jonah Peretti)表示,与目前只是发布链接的方式相比,即时文章的格式是一种改进。“The look and feel of this feels more like an app,” Mr. Peretti said in an interview. “I think that our bundle of content will get even more compelling when it loads faster.”“这样的外观和操作感受更像是一款应用,”佩雷蒂在接受采访时说。“我觉得,如果加载速度更快,我们输出的内容也会更有吸引力。”Declan Moore, chief media officer of the National Geographic Society, said the appeal of instant articles was the speed with which items, even those with complex and interactive maps, loaded once a mobile Facebook user clicked on them. “The No. 1 thing on mobile is it has to be fast,” he said.国家地理学会(National Geographic Society)的首席媒体官德克兰·穆尔(Declan Moore)表示,即时文章的吸引力在于Facebook用户在移动端点击之后,新闻的加载速度,哪怕是那些配有复杂视频和交互式地图的新闻。“在移动设备上第一位的是必须要快,”他说。National Geographic, which gets about 25 percent of its traffic from Facebook, is one of the most popular news outlets on the service, with 35 million fans. Mr. Moore said that National Geographic had a long history of putting its content on as many platforms as possible.《国家地理》有大约25%的流量来自Facebook,也是该平台上最受欢迎的新闻媒体之一,有3500万名粉丝。穆尔表示,长期以来,国家地理一直都在把自己的内容,输出到尽可能多的平台上。It intends to use Facebook as a way to encourage more people to sign up for membership, he said. Indeed, its first instant article, about bees, will include two ads encouraging people to join.他说,《国家地理》打算把Facebook当成一个鼓励更多人成为会员的途径。实际上,它的第一篇即时文章,就将包含两条鼓励人们成为会员的广告,那篇文章是关于蜜蜂的。The New York Times has been cautious about the Facebook program, viewing it as an experiment that could help it learn more about subscribers and potential subscribers who are ing its articles on Facebook.时报一直对Facebook的项目持谨慎态度,认为这种新尝试会帮助Facebook更多地了解在其平台上阅读时报文章的订户和潜在订户。Unlike many news publishers, The Times generates significant revenue from digital subscriptions as well as online advertising, and the company is keenly interested in finding new ways to convert casual visitors to paid subscribers.与许多新闻出版商不同,时报的数字订阅和在线广告业务创造了大量营收,公司迫切希望找到新的方法,把偶尔访问的读者转变为付费的订户。The publishers said they did not plan to put more than a few articles a week into the new format, at least at first.参加项目的出版商说,它们每周只会以这种新格式发布几篇文章,至少一开始是这样。Facebook says it wants to be a good partner to news organizations. It began discussing its idea with around 20 publishers last August and tried to address the concerns they raised.Facebook表示,它想要成为新闻机构的好伙伴。该公司从去年8月开始与大约20家出版商讨论这个想法,并试图解决他们提出的关切。“We’re starting with something that we think is going to work for some publishers for some articles and for some business models,” Mr. Cox said. “We’re not trying to go, like, suck in and devour everything.”“我们一开始只打算做我们认为对某些出版商的某些文章和某些商业模式管用的东西,”考克斯说。“我们不打算一张嘴吞掉一切。” /201505/375051

  The sophisticated encryption software that now comes as standard with many electronic gadgets is, in many ways, just another instrument of modern life. Like air travel, international banking and mobile telephones, it contributes to all kinds of productive human endeavour — and also presents new security risks. But there is a difference. Its rapid and organic growth left little scope for regulatory control and balance.从许多方面来说,那些如今已成为许多电子设备标准配置的精密加密软件,不过是现代生活中的又一个工具而已。和航空旅行、国际结算以及移动电话一样,这种软件也在为人类的各种生产活动作出贡献——同时也带来了新的安全隐患。不过不同的是,加密软件迅速而有机的增长,几乎没有为监管控制和平衡留下多少余地。The police are sometimes characterised as despotic agents of digital repression. That is wrong. I have never believed that encryption should be banned; it is a fundamental part of how the internet works. But its utility and effectiveness, like that of the internet as a whole, also creates significant criminal opportunity by masking identity and hiding communication.有的时候,警方会被描述为进行数字镇压的专制机构。这种说法是错误的。我从来不认为应该禁止加密技术的使用,它是确保互联网运转的基础之一。但是,通过屏蔽身份和隐藏通信内容,对加密技术的运用及其有效性也催生了巨大的犯罪机会——这一点和互联网整体的情况类似。Other innovations that have multiplied the freedoms of modern life were the product of democratic deliberation, and incorporated security by design. When telephones were introduced, a set of balanced legal instruments gave police the power to intercept them. Financial institutions have become more complex, but they are compelled to operate strong anti-money laundering controls.相比之下,其他成倍扩大现代生活自由的创新都是民主深思的成果,从设计之初就植入了安全方面的考虑。当电话进入人类生活的时候,一系列相应的法律文件赋予了警方拦截电话的权力。同样,金融机构也已变得更加复杂,但是它们被强制要求实施了严密的反洗钱控制。When Europe’s Schengen agreement abolished internal border controls in the 1990s, measures designed to increase cross-border police co-operation were adopted at the same time, so the system would not be undermined by enterprising drug traffickers and terrorists. The development of the internet has been different.上世纪90年代,当欧洲《申根协定》(Schengen Agreement)废除欧洲内部的边境管控之时,多种旨在加强警方跨境合作的举措也同时引入。这样,整个系统就不会因胆大妄为的毒品贩子和恐怖分子而遭到削弱。相比之下,互联网的发展则与上述情况不同。This is not really about privacy. People accept the imposition of reasonable controls on the way they drive, take flights, and conduct banking transactions.这个问题实际上与隐私无关。比如,在如何开车、乘坐飞机及开展交易的问题上,人们对实行合理管控是接受的。Why should the internet, alone in the territories in which we live our lives, be one in which rules do not apply. It should not, of course. We have to craft rules that will operate in a balanced way.那么,同样是在我们生活的领域内,为何单单互联网应成为法外之地?显然不应该。我们必须精心设计法律法规,让它们平衡地起作用。That has proved to be a challenge. The European Court of Justice last year struck down a law that would have required telecommunications companies to store data on the use of their networks. Yet it accepted that police should have access to communications data. It decided that the safeguards, as drafted, were not enough to ensure police did not overstep the mark. This is just a matter of technical design. It will be fixed.事实已经明,要做到这一点是一大挑战。去年,欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)驳回了一条法规,该法规要求电信公司将自己网络使用情况的数据存储起来。不过,该法院承认警方应有权访问通信数据。该法院裁定,这个法规草案中的保护性条款不足以确保警方不过线。这个问题其实只是个技术层面的问题,它应该会得到解决。There are promising signs that technology companies are willing to work in partnership with the police. Some leading companies are helping us to set up a system for removing terrorist content online. But at the same time, the industry’s most recent innovations on encryption have made the task of the security services harder. They may not be deliberately making police work more difficult, but they are not showing much appetite for accommodation either.许多令人充满信心的据显示,高科技企业愿意与警方合作。部分主要企业正在帮助我们建立在线删除恐怖主义内容的系统。然而,与此同时,信息产业内加密技术上的最新创新已经令安保任务变得更加困难。这些技术创新的用意也许不是要故意加大警方的工作难度,但它们也没有显示出太多配合警方的意愿。Some argue that technology companies should be required to give the authorities a backdoor key, to allow encryption to be broken. Clearly, engineering deliberate security vulnerabilities in our digital systems has some serious downsides.有的人声称,应该要求高科技企业向当局提交后门秘钥,以便让当局能够破解相关加密技术。显然,在数字化系统中故意留下安全漏洞,会带来某些严重的不利影响。And it is a principle implacably opposed by most in the tech sector. The divide on the issue is symptomatic of a serious decline in the level of trust between government and industry partners, fuelled in particular by the revelations of Edward Snowden about National Security Agency surveillance. This does not serve public interest well.不过,高科技产业中的多数人对这一原则抱持的是毫不妥协的反对态度。围绕这个问题的分歧,体现出政府与业界合作伙伴间的信任程度严重下降。而爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)有关美国国家安全局(NSA)监控活动的爆料,更是令双方信任的下滑进一步加剧。这种局面对公众的利益并没有太大好处。The digital age has changed our way of life but police teams are still in the same business of preventing crime, tracking offenders and securing evidence with which to convict them. It is just that, these days, much of the information needed to do that is in the hands of the private companies that run online services. To do our job, we need to earn their trust. Together, we can keep the internet both a free and safe part of our lives.数字化时代改变了我们的生活方式,然而警方团队的职责依然是阻止犯罪、跟踪罪犯并获取用来指控罪犯的据。问题在于,如今在履行上述职责时所需的许多信息,掌握在运营网络务的私有企业手中。为履行职责,我们必须赢得他们的信任。通过双方通力合作,我们将能确保互联网成为人们生活中自由而又安全的一部分。 /201505/373442Coffee plants belonging to growers on the edges of the Peruvian Amazon basin have been infected with a fungus said to have originated in Kenya more than a century ago. 在秘鲁亚马逊盆地边上,种植户的咖啡树感染了一种真菌,据说这种真菌起源于一个多世纪以前的肯尼亚。 For many smallholders, advice from African growers on how to cope would be as welcome as water in the desert. But, as many do not have internet access, it can be just as hard to come by. 对于很多小农户而言,来自非洲种植户有关如何应对这种真菌的建议如同沙漠中的水一样珍贵。然而,由于很多种植户无法上网,他们很难获得这种建议。 That is what WeFarm, a London-based start-up, is aiming to achieve for the more than 43,000 smallholders signed up to its services, who use simple mobile phone text messages to share advice and information. For Arianna Valentini, WeFarm’s Peru-based Latin America co-ordinator, the service is “creating a social network of farmers”. 这就是总部位于伦敦的初创企业WeFarm计划为签约其务的逾4.3万小农户实现的目标,他们利用简单的手机短信共享建议和信息。对于WeFarm驻秘鲁的拉美协调员阿里安娜#8226;瓦伦蒂尼(Arianna Valentini)而言,这种务“为农户创建了一个社交网络”。 With established programmes in Peru, Kenya and Uganda, and pilots in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, it offers a peer-to-peer service that lets farmers ask questions and receive crowdsourced responses. WeFarm is now looking to move into Colombia, Brazil, Ivory Coast, Tanzania and India. 该公司在秘鲁、肯尼亚和乌干达已实施项目,在海地和多米尼加实施了试点项目,他们为农户提供对等网络务,让他们提问并获得众人推荐的答复。WeFarm正计划进军哥伦比亚、巴西、科特迪瓦、坦桑尼亚和印度。 “This has been useful to coffee farmers here, especially because many like me do not have internet at home but do have mobile phones,” says Celia Aysana, part of a co-operative of coffee growers near San Martín de Pangoa in Peru. “You can get quick answers from Andean as well as African farmers.” “这对这里的咖啡农户很有用,特别是因为很多像我这样的人家里无法上网,但有手机,”秘鲁San Martín de Pangoa附近的咖啡树种植户合作社中的塞莉娅#8226;阿伊桑那(Celia Aysana)表示,“你可以从安地斯山和非洲农户那里快速获得解答。” Even if most smallholders do not have access to a computer or a smartphone, many at least do have basic phones. According to Peru’s statistics agency, 85 per cent of households have at least one mobile, while just 40 per cent of the country’s population uses the internet. Moreover, a report in January by the World Bank says that “nearly 70 per cent of the bottom fifth of the population in developing countries own a mobile phone”. 即便多数小农户没有电脑或智能手机,但很多人至少拥有普通手机。根据秘鲁统计机构的数据,85%的家庭至少拥有一部手机,同时该国仅有40%的人口可以上网。另外,世界(World Bank) 1月发布的一份报告称,“在发展中国家收入最低的五分之一人口中,近70%拥有手机。” Carolina Trivelli, an economist and Peru’s former minister of development and social inclusion, who now runs a nationwide mobile money initiative, says: “There is huge potential in trying to squeeze as much as possible out of these basic mobile phones, particularly in rural areas.” 经济学家、秘鲁发展和社会融合部前部长卡罗丽娜#8226;特里维利(Carolina Trivelli)表示:“充分利用这些基础手机有着巨大潜力,特别是在农村地区。”特里维利现在执掌一个全国移动货币计划。 Kenny Ewan, WeFarm’s chief executive, developed the service following experience working in Latin America with Cafédirect Producers’ Foundation, a UK-based charity, and other non-governmental bodies. It was launched last year with £500,000 seed funding from tech company Google through the Google Impact Challenge, and Wayra, the incubation hub of Telefónica, a telecommunications company. WeFarm首席执行官肯尼#8226;埃万(Kenny Ewan)开发了这项务,此前他曾供职于总部位于英国的慈善组织Cafédirect Producers’ Foundation以及其他非政府组织,其间在拉美工作过。去年,WeFarm借助科技公司谷歌(Google)(通过谷歌Impact Challenge)和西班牙电信(Telefónica)的创新孵化中心Wayra的50万英镑种子基金成立。 Mr Ewan says he wanted to challenge the traditional model of how information is shared. “In international development, the power usually resides with the people who are ‘experts’, but in reality farming communities aly have lots of expertise,” he says. “We’re giving farmers a voice and showing them that their knowledge is valuable, and I think that that’s a very powerful message.” 埃万表示,他希望挑战传统的信息共享模式。“在国际发展领域,权力通常掌握在‘专家’手中,但实际上,农业社区已具备大量专长,”他表示,“我们正赋予农户话语权,并向他们展示知识是宝贵的,我认为,这是一个非常强大的信息。” WeFarm now hopes to raise £2.3m so it can grow its service to reach 1m farmers around the world by the end of 2016. WeFarm现在希望筹集230万英镑,使其能在2016年底之前将其务覆盖全球100万农户。 Smallholders using WeFarm send texts to an in-country shortcode for free. The message is then processed and filtered automatically by the organisation’s online system. An algorithm determines who are the most relevant people to receive each question and WeFarm forwards the answers. 利用WeFarm的小农户免费向一个国内短代码发送文本信息。该信息由WeFarm的在线系统自动处理并过滤。算法决定了谁是接到每一个问题的最相关人士,WeFarm会转发。 For instance, answers to coffee questions are directed to coffee farmers. The farmer who asks the question receives a handful of messages from local, national or international peers. Ms Aysana has aly had tips on how to deal with rust, a fungal disease affecting coffee plants. 例如,咖啡问题的会发送给咖啡农户。提问的农户会从当地、全国或国际同业那里获得几条信息。阿伊桑那已获得有关如何应对影响咖啡树叶的锈病(一种真菌病害)的建议。 WeFarm has a network of volunteer translators for international answers — say from a Kenyan farmer replying in English or Swahili to a Spanish-speaking one in Peru — and can also provide answers in French and Haitian Creole. WeFarm拥有一个翻译国际的志愿者网络,例如从一位用英文或斯瓦希里语答复的肯尼亚农户到一位说西班牙语的秘鲁农户,还可以提供法语和海地克里奥尔语的解答。 Ms Valentini says WeFarm is also looking at providing translations in Quechua, which is widely spoken in Bolivia, Peru and Ecuador. 瓦伦蒂尼表示,WeFarm也在考虑提供克丘亚语翻译,这种语言在玻利维亚、秘鲁和厄瓜多尔广泛使用。 In Peru, Ms Valentini first started sping the word through coffee and cocoa co-operatives and appearances on local and national radio shows. 在秘鲁,瓦伦蒂尼最初开始通过咖啡和可可豆合作社,以及现身地方和全国广播节目来推广这种务。 What started as an advice service for coffee and cocoa growers now deals with problems related to banana, cotton and other crops. 最初的建议务是针对咖啡和可可豆种植户,如今应对的问题涉及香蕉、棉花和其他农作物。 Increasingly, says Ms Valentini, there are questions about animal husbandry. For example, a coffee farmer from Kenya’s Meru district has boosted his income by rearing rabbits. 瓦伦蒂尼表示,现在有关畜牧业的问题越来越多。例如,来自肯尼亚梅鲁区的一位咖啡农户通过饲养兔子增加了收入。 After sending a text message, he started receiving answers from a woman who had bred rabbits for more than 20 years in Peru’s region of Cajamarca. She offered advice on the best rabbit breeds, how to raise them and what to feed them. Six months later, the Kenyan farmer had sold 50 rabbits. 在发送短信后,他开始从一位在秘鲁卡哈马卡(Cajamarca)地区饲养了20多年兔子的女士那里获得解答。她提供了内行的建议,涵盖最佳兔子品种、如何饲养以及饲料。6个月后,那位肯尼亚农户卖掉了50只兔子。 /201603/430556

  While you were running Saturday errands, the world’s biggest software company celebrated its 40th birthday. Yes, seriously.上周六,当你正享受周末时,全球最大的软件公司正在庆祝自己的40岁生日。In a letter sent to employees, Microsoft co-founder Bill Gates (still a technical advisor) predicts computing will evolve more quickly over the next decade than ever but is still too far out of reach for many people.在一封致员工的公开信中,微软联合创始人、目前仍担任该公司技术顾问的比尔o盖茨预计,计算机技术在今后十年的发展速度将比以往任何时候更快,但仍有许多人无法接触到它们。“So I hope you will think about what you can do to make the power of technology accessible to everyone, to connect people to each other, and make personal computing available everywhere even as the very notion of what a PC delivers makes its way into all devices,” he wrote.盖茨写道:“所以我希望你们想想自己能做些什么,来让科技的力量惠及每一个人,将人们互联起来,使个人计算普及到世界各地,正如个人电脑传达的观念影响了所有设备一样。”Of course, there are literally dozens if not hundreds of other companies—both large and small—that would love to solve that problem at Microsoft’s expense.显然,只要微软不在乎损失,抢着想解决这个问题的大大小小的公司大有人在。Mere toddlers like collaboration software upstart Slack, flirting with a billion valuation, are challenging its dominance in productivity software.最年轻一代中的有刚成立几年的团队协作软件公司Slack,其估值已经迅速达到20亿美元,以它为代表的这些新生力量正在挑战微软在生产力软件上的统治地位。Twenty-something Amazon Web Services and teenager Google are making things tough in the data center realm. And despite itsexpensive Nokia investment, Microsoft can’t seem to get more people to trade in their Apple and Samsung smartphones.年纪大一些的有“20多岁”的亚马逊网络务和“十几岁”的谷歌,它们让微软在数据中心业务上的处境日益艰难。尽管微软在诺基亚上投资不菲,但却无力阻止越来越多的人购买苹果和三星智能手机。As it enters its fifth decade, does Microsoft have the energy to combat competition on so many different fronts? That’s up to company’s third CEO, Satya Nadella. After spending his early days rightsizing the company (the last round of Microsoft’s biggest layoff ever was apparently completed last week), he is busy acting as different from his immediate predecessor, Steve Ballmer, as possible.随着微软进入第5个十年,它是否还有精力多线作战,在这么多的领域展开竞争?这取决于该公司第三任首席执行官萨蒂亚o纳德拉。他上任之初便开始优化公司规模(微软史上最大规模的裁员刚刚在上周完成最后一轮),如今他正忙着推行改革,竭力彰显自己跟前任史蒂夫o鲍尔默的不同之处。That’s evidenced in Microsoft’s relationship with Box. “We’re seeing a different Microsoft, and customers are seeking a different Microsoft,” Box CEO Aaron Levie said during Fortune’s Brainstorm Tech conference last July.微软与Box的关系就体现了这一点。Box公司首席执行官阿隆o列维在去年7月的《财富》科技头脑风暴大会上表示:“我们看到的是一个不同的微软,顾客也期待着一个不同的微软。”Nadella has aly pulled off a few refreshing surprises. Consider the company’s .5 billion buyout of the wildly successful Minecraft developer last September or the January sneak peek at the company’s virtual reality interface, HoloLens.纳德拉已经带来了一些令人眼前一亮的惊喜。微软在去年9月以25亿美元的价格收购了大获成功的游戏《我的世界》的开发商,又在今年1月发布了虚拟现实产品HoloLens。Officially speaking, the upcoming Windows 10 launch, which will be sold under a new subscription mode, will be the first big test of Nadella’s leadership. But in my mind, attracting and retaining the talent to keep Microsoft relevant throughout its fifth decade could be his biggest challenge as CEO. There’s a reason so many people are interested in the new book from Google’s human resources chief.根据官方说法,即将以全新订阅模式发售的Window 10将会是纳德拉领导能力面临的第一次大考。不过在我看来,在第五个十年里,如何吸引和留住人才,进而保持微软的竞争力,才是纳德拉作为首席执行官面对的最大挑战。如此多的人对谷歌人力资源主管的新书感兴趣,是有原因的。Nadella’s misguided comments last fall about women in technology didn’t help. That’s why one of the most important strategic decisions early in his tenure came in November, when Nadella promoted Kathleen Hogan from a customer-facing role to run human resources.纳德拉去年秋天对科技界女性的不当言论,可帮不了他(他建议女性不要主动要求加薪)。这也是他为什么要在任期之初的11月就做出一项最为重要的战略决定——将负责客户公关的凯瑟琳o霍根提拔至人力资源部门担任领导。Hogan’s resume includes leading the Microsoft services organization; she also was a developer at Oracle and a partner at consulting firm McKinsey. Her mandate: lead Microsoft’s cultural transformation and ensure “Microsoft remains the best, most inclusive place to work.”霍根曾是微软务部门的负责人,还担任过甲骨文的开发人员以及咨询公司麦肯锡的合伙人。她的任务是:领导微软的文化转型,保“微软仍是最好、最具包容性的工作场所”。 /201504/369364

  

  

  The battle between Apple and law enforcement officials over unlocking a terrorist’s smartphone is the culmination of a slow turning of the tables between the technology industry and the ed States government.苹果公司与执法官员就破解一部恐怖分子用过的智能手机展开的战斗,意味着技术行业与美国政府之间发生缓慢改变的局面进入高潮。After revelations by the former National Security Agency contractor Edward J. Snowden in 2013 that the government both cozied up to certain tech companies and hacked into others to gain access to private data on an enormous scale, tech giants began to recognize the ed States government as a hostile actor.美国国家安全局前承包商雇员爱德华·J·斯诺登(Edward J. Snowden)2013年披露政府通过拉拢某些技术公司,并侵入其他公司来获取规模巨大的私人数据之后,技术行业巨头们开始形成了把美国政府作为一个敌对方的认识。But if the confrontation has crystallized in this latest battle, it may aly be heading toward a predictable conclusion: In the long run, the tech companies are destined to emerge victorious.但是,如果说双方的对抗在这场最新战斗中变明确的话,战斗可能已经在走向一个可预测的结局:从长远来看,技术公司注定会取得胜利。It may not seem that way at the moment. On the one side, you have the ed States government’s mighty legal and security apparatus fighting for data of the most sympathetic sort: the secrets buried in a dead mass murderer’s phone. The action stems from a federal court order issued on Tuesday requiring Apple to help the F.B.I. unlock an iPhone used by one of the two attackers who killed 14 people in San Bernardino, Calif., in December.此时此刻,结局可能看起来不是那样。对手中,一方是美国政府强大的法律和安全机器,它争夺的是那种最能赢得同情的数据:藏在死了的制造群体谋杀的人手机里的秘密。政府的行动源于联邦法院周二的命令,命令要求苹果公司帮助联邦调查局破解去年12月在加利福尼亚州圣贝纳迪诺杀死14人的两名袭击者之一用过的iPhone。In the other corner is the world’s most valuable company, whose chief executive, Timothy D. Cook, has said he will appeal the court’s order. Apple argues that it is fighting to preserve a principle that most of us who are addicted to our smartphones can defend: Weaken a single iPhone so that its contents can be viewed by the American government and you risk weakening all iPhones for any government intruder, anywhere.另一方是世界上市值最高的公司,其首席执行官蒂莫西·D·库克(Timothy D. Cook)表示,他将对法院的命令提出上诉。苹果公司认为,它在为保护一个原则而战,而我们中间那些痴迷于智能手机的大多数人会持这个原则:削弱一部iPhone,使其内容能被美国政府检查,你将面临一种为任何地方的任何政府削弱所有iPhone的风险。There will probably be months of legal tussling, and it is not at all clear which side will prevail in court, nor in the battle for public opinion and legislative favor.可能会有好几个月的法律角逐,哪一方会在法庭占上风还完全不可知,谁会赢得公众舆论和立法者的青睐也不清楚。Yet underlying all of this is a simple dynamic: Apple, Google, Facebook and other companies hold most of the cards in this confrontation. They have our data, and their businesses depend on the global public’s collective belief that they will do everything they can to protect that data.然而,这一切的背后有一个简单的动力:苹果、谷歌、Facebook等公司掌握着控制这场争夺战局势的大部分主动权。它们拥有我们的数据,它们的业务依赖于全球公众的集体信念,那就是公司将尽一切可能来保护这些数据。Any crack in that front could be fatal for tech companies that must operate worldwide. If Apple is forced to open up an iPhone for an American law enforcement investigation, what’s to prevent it from doing so for a request from the Chinese or the Iranians? If Apple is forced to write code that lets the F.B.I. get into the Phone 5c used by Syed Rizwan Farook, the male attacker in the San Bernardino attack, who would be responsible if some hacker got hold of that code and broke into its other devices?这种信念的任何裂纹,对必须在全世界开展业务的技术公司来说,都可能是致命的。如果苹果被迫为美国执法机构的调查破解了一部iPhone的话,有什么能阻止它在中国或者伊朗的要求下这样做呢?如果苹果被迫编写代码、让联邦调查局进入制造圣贝纳迪诺袭击的男子赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克(Syed Rizwan Farook)用过的iPhone 5c的话,如果某个黑客获得了这些代码、用其闯入其他设备,那会由谁来负责呢?Apple’s stance on these issues emerged post-Snowden, when the company started putting in place a series of technologies that, by default, make use of encryption to limit access to people’s data. More than that, Apple — and, in different ways, other tech companies, including Google, Facebook, Twitter and Microsoft — have made their opposition to the government’s claims a point of corporate pride.苹果在这些问题上的立场是在斯诺登出现后形成的,那之后,公司开始采用一系列的技术,这些技术在默认情况下将使用者的数据加密以限制他人访问。不仅如此,苹果、以及包括谷歌、Facebook、Twitter和微软在内的其他公司以不同的方式,都把它们反对政府的主张作为企业的一种骄傲。Apple’s emerging global brand is privacy; it has staked its corporate reputation, not to mention invested its considerable technical and financial resources, on limiting the sort of mass surveillance that was uncovered by Mr. Snowden. So now, for many cases involving governmental intrusions into data, once-lonely privacy advocates find themselves fighting alongside the most powerful company in the world.苹果正在全球显露的新品牌是隐私;它已经把公司的信誉押在限制那种被斯诺登披露的大规模监听监视上,更不用提在这方面投入了公司可观的技术和财务资源。所以在目前,就许多涉及政府侵入数据的案子而言,曾经孤独的隐私倡导者们发现他们正在与世界上最强大的公司一起作战。“A comparison point is in the 1990s battles over encryption,” said Kurt Opsahl, general counsel of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, a privacy watchdog group. “Then you had a few companies involved, but not one of the largest companies in the world coming out with a lengthy and impassioned post, like we saw yesterday from Tim Cook. The profile has really been raised.”“可作为比较的事情是20世纪90年代有关加密的争夺战,”隐私监督组织电子前沿基金会(Electronic Frontier Foundation)的法律总顾问库尔特·奥普萨尔(Kurt Opsahl)说。“那时,有几家公司参与其中,但没有世界上最大的公司,用一篇充满的长文站出来表态,就像我们昨天看到的蒂姆·库克所做的那样。现在的确是高调得多了。”Apple and other tech companies hold another ace: the technical means to keep making their devices more and more inaccessible. Note that Apple’s public opposition to the government’s request is itself a hindrance to mass government intrusion. And to get at the contents of a single iPhone, the government says it needs a court order and Apple’s help to write new code; in earlier versions of the iPhone, ones that were created before Apple found religion on privacy, the F.B.I. may have been able to break into the device by itself.苹果及其他科技公司还握有一张王牌:使设备越来越难以侵入的技术手段。需要注意的是,苹果公开回绝政府要求,本身就是对政府大规模侵扰的一种阻碍。政府表示,为了获取这一部iPhone的内容,政府需要获得法庭命令,在苹果的帮助下编写新代码;对于早期版本的iPhone,也就是苹果在隐私保护方面产生执着追求之前的版本,FBI或许自己就能进入这些设备。You can expect that noose to continue to tighten. Experts said that whether or not Apple loses this specific case, measures that it could put into place in the future will almost certainly be able to further limit the government’s reach.预计套索会继续收紧。专家们表示,无论苹果是否输掉这起官司,苹果未来采取的举措几乎肯定会进一步限制政府的影响范围。That’s not to say that the outcome of the San Bernardino case is insignificant. As Apple and several security experts have argued, an order compelling Apple to write software that gives the F.B.I. access to the iPhone in question would establish an unsettling precedent. The order essentially asks Apple to hack its own devices, and once it is in place, the precedent could be used to justify law enforcement efforts to get around encryption technologies in other investigations far removed from national security threats.这不是说圣贝纳迪诺袭击案件的结果不重要。就像苹果及几名安全专家说的那样,下令强迫苹果编写软件,使得FBI可以进入相关的iPhone,会创下一个令人不安的先例。这项命令基本上是要求苹果入侵自己的设备,一旦这么做了,那么在其他远未涉及国家安全威胁的调查中,这个先例就会为绕过加密技术的执法行动提供正当理由。Once armed with a method for gaining access to iPhones, the government could ask to use it proactively, before a suspected terrorist attack — leaving Apple in a bind as to whether to comply or risk an attack and suffer a public-relations nightmare.一旦获得进入iPhone的方法,政府就可以要求在潜在恐怖袭击爆发前主动使用它,致使苹果陷入困境——是遵从命令,还是冒着袭击发生、遭遇公关噩梦的风险。“This is a brand new salvo in the war against encryption,” Mr. Opsahl said. “We’ve had plenty of debates in Congress and the media over whether the government should have a backdoor, and this is an end run around that — here they come with an order to create that backdoor.”“这是反加密一方发起的一场全新的攻击,”奥普萨尔说。“国会和媒体已经就政府是否应该拥有后门的问题展开了很多辩论,现在他们要绕过辩论——直接下令开设后门。”Yet it’s worth noting that even if Apple ultimately loses this case, it has plenty of technical means to close a backdoor over time. “If they’re anywhere near worth their salt as engineers, I bet they’re rethinking their threat model as we speak,” said Jonathan Zdziarski, a digital forensic expert who studies the iPhone and its vulnerabilities.但值得注意的是,即便苹果最终输掉官司,该公司掌握很多可以最终关闭后门的技术。“如果他们是称职的工程师,我打赌此时此刻他们正在重新考虑他们的威胁模型,”研究iPhone及其安全缺陷的数字取专家乔纳森·兹阿尔斯基(Jonathan Zdziarski)说。One relatively simple fix, Mr. Zdziarski said, would be for Apple to modify future versions of the iPhone to require a user to enter a passcode before the phone will accept the sort of modified operating system that the F.B.I. wants Apple to create. That way, Apple could not unilaterally introduce a code that weakens the iPhone — a user would have to consent to it.兹阿尔斯基表示,对于苹果来说,一种相对简单的补救方式就是改变未来推出的iPhone,在手机接受苹果根据FBI的意愿改动过的操作系统前,用户要输入密码来确认。如此一来,苹果不能单方面引入削弱iPhone防护的代码,需要获得用户的同意。“Nothing is 100 percent hacker-proof,” Mr. Zdziarski said, but he pointed out that the judge’s order in this case required Apple to provide “reasonable security assistance” to unlock Mr. Farook’s phone. If Apple alters the security model of future iPhones so that even its own engineers’ “reasonable assistance” will not be able to crack a given device when compelled by the government, a precedent set in this case might lose its lasting force.“没有什么能百分之百防黑客,”兹阿尔斯基说,但他指出法官在这起案件中下令要求苹果提供“合乎情理的安全协助”,破解法鲁克的手机。如果苹果更改未来推出的iPhone的安全模式,以至于政府强迫苹果破解相关设备时,其工程师的‘合乎情理的协助’也无济于事,该案件创下的先例可能也会失去持久力。In other words, even if the F.B.I. wins this case, in the long run, it loses.换句话说,即便FBI赢了这场官司,从长远来看,他们还是会输。 /201602/427271

  

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