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That tired truism about wanting only a healthy baby and not caring about gender? Puh-leeze. Women want daughters, and men crave sons, finds research in the journal Open Anthropology.还在老生常谈“不管性别如何,只要一个健康的宝宝”吗?呀,别提了!《开放人类学》杂志(Open Anthropology)近来研究发现女性实际上更喜欢生女孩而男性对儿子情有独钟。The results surprised even the researchers, from Queen’s University in Ontario, Canada, who’d surveyed more than 2, 000 students, staff and faculty at the college about gender preference in offspring. They’d assumed that respondents would show little or no preference, but they found that — no matter how they worded the question — there was a “significant offspring gender preference” along gender lines.这一结果让研究人员也震惊不已,来自加拿大安大略省(Ontario,Canada)皇后大学(Queen#39;s University)的研究人员们通过对在校2000多名学生,职工和教师进行后代偏好问题的调查,得出这一惊人结论。起初他们臆测,受访者基本没有或很少有性别偏好,但是后来发现——无论他们用怎样的方式提出问题,在性别方面总是呈现出“明显的后代性别偏好选择”。Respondents answered the following questions:受访者需要回答下述问题:1. What gender would you prefer your firstborn child to be (or did you hope for if you aly have a child)?1. 你希望你的第一个孩子是男是女?(即使你已经有了孩子,你是否考虑过这个问题?)2. If you were to have (or do have) more than one child, would you prefer the majority to be male or female?2. 如果你将至少生育几个孩子的话,你希望他们大多数是男孩还是女孩?3. If you were to have only one child, what gender would you prefer it to be?3. 如果你只打算生一个孩子的话,那么你更希望是男孩还是女孩?“Today, offspring gender preference conflicts with the ongoing mission in many nations, especially in Western Europe and North America, to pursue social and political agendas aimed at eliminating all discrimination on the basis of gender, ” write the authors.调查人员记录道:“如今,子女偏好与许多国家的当下社会任务产生了冲突,这尤其体现在西欧和北美等追求社会和政治议程旨在消除所有基于性别因素导致歧视的国家。”And yet, it persists. What gives?然而,性别偏好的现象依旧存在。什么是导致这一切的根源呢?Men’s preference for sons is pretty easy to explain in terms of evolution. Males have a greater chance of perpetuating the family genes by fathering far more children than a woman could ever bear. Women’s preference for daughters is more nuanced. Maybe it’s a maternal desire to have a shared experience of pregnancy, or maybe women are subscribing to visions of perceived mom-daughter emotional bonds. Call it a “legacy drive, ” say the authors, and consider that modern women are so infused with pride over their social and financial empowerment that they want to share the good life with their girls. “There is currently a tendency in North American society to place a high degree of emphasis on realizing one’s own ‘success’ through the success of one’s children, ” write the authors. “The present data suggest that this opportunity for legacy is envisioned for males generally through sons, but for females generally through daughters.”从进化的角度来看,很容易便能解释男人对儿子的偏爱。男性往往比女性拥有更多机会来通过养育孩子延续家族基因。女性对女儿的偏爱之情就更为微妙了,或许是一种母性的期待母女二人能够分享妊娠的经历,或者是女性更认同这种称为情感纽带的物质。作者写道:“将之称为遗产的驱使吧”,考虑到现代女性在社会和财政权力方面“掌握大权”并如此沾沾自喜,使得她们想同女儿分享这一美好的生活。对此,作者继续记录道:“在北美社会,目前的趋势是高度强调通过孩子的成功来实现自己的成功之梦,当下的数据也表明遗产继承一般都由父辈传至儿子,而母亲往往是传至女儿。”The study didn’t look at thornier questions of whether would-be parents are so committed to the idea of having a child of the same sex that they would practice gender selection to achieve their dreams. But an editorial published in the current edition of the Canadian Medical Association Journal makes the case that parents shouldn’t learn their baby-to-be’s sex until after 30 weeks of pregnancy when abortions are no longer permitted. Female feticide — aborting girls — isn’t unusual in countries including India and China, but it’s apparently also happening in some ethnic groups in Canada and the US.该项学术研究并没有关注这一更为棘手的问题——“准爸爸妈妈”们是否会通过性别选择手段统一孩子的性别来实现自身的梦想。但是最新一期的《加拿大医学协会杂志》上发表的一篇社论表示父母不应当在妊娠30周之内便知晓胎儿的性别情况,这个30周的时间过后便不再允许堕胎行为的发生。在中国和印度等国家女性堕胎流产胎儿的案例屡见不鲜,但在美国和加拿大某些种族群体中,也明显存在着堕胎现象。“This evil devalues women, ” writes Dr. Rajendra Kale, the journal’s interim editor-in-chief. “How can it be curbed? The solution is to postpone the disclosure of medically irrelevant information to women until after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.”杂志临时主编拉金德·卡勒(Rajendra Kale)写道:“堕胎这个恶魔贬低了女性的地位。”“怎样才能禁止堕胎呢?解决方法便是延期告知时间,在怀30周之后再告知当事人这些无关痛痒的具体信息。”That probably wouldn’t go over well stateside, where pregnant women have become accustomed to learning their baby’s sex courtesy of an ultrasound wand before 20 weeks.这一提议在美国本土并不会收获良好效果,在美国,妇们在20周之前通过超声波检测仪了解腹中胎儿的性别已成惯例。“A pregnant woman being told the sex of the fetus at ultrasonography at a time when an unquestioned abortion is possible is the starting point of female feticide from a health care perspective, ” writes Dr. Kale. Although a woman has a right to information about herself that relates to her health and medical care, “the sex of the fetus is medically irrelevant information (except when managing rare sex-linked illnesses) and does not affect care.”卡勒士写道:“从医疗保健的角度来看,妇一旦下定决心堕胎时,通过超声波得知胎儿的性别情况将是执行堕胎手术的起点。”尽管女性有权力知晓自身健康和医疗保健情况,但是“除了能够检测到罕见的伴性疾病时,胎儿的性别着实是无关信息,它也不会影响到妇的日常护理。” /201408/320984。

Date:日期:Source:来源:Center for BrainHealth大脑健康中心Summary:概述:New research illustrates how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images. This novel study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal.新研究阐述了大脑在人们看到威胁影像时如何产生恐惧情绪。这个新奇的研究首次通过控制唤醒的维度将威胁与情感分割开来。An estimated 8% of Americans will suffer from post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) at some point during their lifetime. Brought on by an overwhelming or stressful event or events, PTSD is the result of altered chemistry and physiology of the brain. Understanding how threat is processed in a normal brain versus one altered by PTSD is essential to developing effective interventions.据估计约8%的的美国人在他们的某个时段会遭受创伤后应激障碍(PTSD)的折磨。由强悍而令人难以应对的或紧张的一个或多个事件所引发,PTSD是大脑化学上和生理上改变的结果。理解恐惧在一个正常的脑部活动中被PTSD改变对采取有效的干预是至关重要的。New research from the Center for BrainHealth at The University of Texas at Dallas published online today in Brain and Cognition illustrates how fear arises in the brain when individuals are exposed to threatening images. This novel study is the first to separate emotion from threat by controlling for the dimension of arousal, the emotional reaction provoked, whether positive or negative, in response to stimuli. Building on previous animal and human research, the study identifies an electrophysiological marker for threat in the brain.达拉斯德州大学的大脑健康中心今天在大脑和认知论坛上发布了新研究,阐明了当人们看到威胁影像时,如何产生恐惧情绪。这个新奇的研究首次通过控制唤醒的维度将威胁与情感分割开来,无论是积极的还是消极的,情绪反应都是响应于刺激。基于之前对动物和人类的研究,该研究确定了一个反映大脑中威胁的电生理指标。;We are trying to find where thought exists in the mind,; explained John Hart, Jr., M.D., Medical Science Director at the Center for BrainHealth. ;We know that groups of neurons firing on and off create a frequency and pattern that tell other areas of the brain what to do. By identifying these rhythms, we can correlate them with a cognitive unit such as fear.;“我们试图发现想法存在于大脑中的位置,”大脑健康中心的医学科学主任、医学士John Hart, Jr解释道。“我们知道组神经元放电和停电时,会创建一个频率和模式,告诉大脑的其他区域该做什么。通过识别这些节律,我们能把它们与恐惧等认知单元相联系。”Utilizing electroencephalography (EEG), Dr. Hart#39;s research team identified theta and beta wave activity that signifies the brain#39;s reaction to visually threatening images.利用脑电图(EEG),哈特士的研究小组发现了表示大脑对视觉威胁影响反应的θ和β波活动。;We have known for a long time that the brain prioritizes threatening information over other cognitive processes,; explained Bambi DeLaRosa, study lead author. ;These findings show us how this happens. Theta wave activity starts in the back of the brain, in it#39;s fear center -- the amygdala -- and then interacts with brain#39;s memory center -- the hippocampus -- before traveling to the frontal lobe where thought processing areas are engaged. At the same time, beta wave activity indicates that the motor cortex is revving up in case the feet need to move to avoid the perceived threat.;“我们很早就知道大脑对威胁信息的敏感度要高于其他认知过程,”该研究的首席作者Bambi DeLaRosa解释道。“这些发现向我们展示了它是如果发生的。θ波活动开始于位于大脑后部的恐惧中心——杏仁核——然后在前往思维加工区域,大脑额叶之前,与大脑记忆中心——海马体——相互作用。同时,β波活动表明,在需要移动位置以避免威胁时,运动皮层加速加速运转。”For the study, 26 adults (19 female, 7 male), ages 19-30 were shown 224 randomized images that were either unidentifiably scrambled or real pictures. Real pictures were separated into two categories: threatening (weapons, combat, nature or animals) and non-threatening (pleasant situations, food, nature or animals).在这项研究中,给予年龄在19岁到30岁之间的26个成年人(19个女性,7个男性) 224随机影像,要么是无法辨认的乱码,要么是真实的图片。真实的图片被分为两类:具有威胁性的(武器、战斗、自然或动物)和的不具有威胁性的(愉快的场景、食品、自然或动物)。While wearing an EEG cap, participants were asked to push a button with their right index finger for real items and another button with their right middle finger for nonreal/scrambled items. Shorter response times were recorded for scrambled images than the real images. There was no difference in reaction time for threatening versus non-threatening images.在戴着脑电图帽的同时,参与者被要求用右手食指按下按钮以看到真实图片,另用右手中指按另一个按钮以看到不真实的图片或乱码。乱码图像比真正的图像记录的响应时间更短。威胁性图片和不具威胁性的图片在反应时间上没有差别。EEG results revealed that threatening images evoked an early increase in theta activity in the occipital lobe (the area in the brain where visual information is processed), followed by a later increase in theta power in the frontal lobe (where higher mental functions such as thinking, decision-making, and planning occur). A left lateralized desynchronization of the beta band, the wave pattern associated with motor behavior (like the impulse to run), also consistently appeared in the threatening condition.脑电图结果表明威胁图片诱发枕叶(大脑中处理视觉信息的区域)中的θ波活动早期增加,紧随其后的是枕叶区域(更高级的心理机能,如思考、决策和计划,在这里发生)θ波的增加。β波左单侧性的去同步化,与运动行为(如脉冲运行)相关的波动行为,也一再出现在威胁情况下。This study will serve as a foundation for future work that will explore normal versus abnormal fear associated with an object in other atypical populations including individuals with PTSD.本研究将成为未来研究工作的基础,将在其他非典型人群中,包括在患有创伤后应激障碍的人群中,探索与一个对象相联系的正常和不正常的恐惧。This work was supported by the Berman Laboratory of Learning and Memory at The University of Texas at Dallas and the Jane and Bud Smith Distinguished Chair.这项工作是达拉斯德州大学的学习和记忆伯曼实验室、Jane和Bud Smith特聘教授提供持。 /201409/332012。

*(7t[m1m2USeveral years ago, that is since singer Rihanna and fashion icon Victoria Beckham made their haircuts as Bob, GFwuDZzGFx几年前自歌手蕾哈娜和時尚偶像维多利亚·贝克汉姆剪了个不对称波波头后,KPIxFDXS#Q,Rw+z-)vYv~@q7Q7jrX([[Bob cut soon became popular among people.;(3WdHeb~I|%E立即掀起了一阵不对称波波头的风潮LeezA344gjvi79M5Edv.。U!6SI-1XB4;LPh*BFHJaGu7Q[.^iQe+.FgAjFK#ouBS.S%,TNri(MtkH[MLCUFTBnHBLA1P]g]LZQ /201410/335407。

For college grads with an offer from a British university, August marks the final month of preparing to emerge into a whole new linguistic and cultural context. Apart from routine tasks such as applying for a visa and buying flight tickets, there are some other important tasks that students need to finish before setting off in order to have a smooth ride in their host country.对于收到英国大学录取通知的大学毕业生来说,刚刚过去的八月,他们正抓紧时间为进入一个全新的语言文化环境做最后的准备。为了保在异国他乡一切顺利,出国之前,除了申请签和购买机票这样的例行公事之外,留学生们还有其他的一些重要“功课”要做。Finance资金方面Currency differences and related regulation mean it’s important to consider how to bring money into the destination country. The most common solutions are taking cash, or using bank drafts, traveler’s cheques, wire transfers and credit cards.货币不同以及相关规定,意味着你要着重考虑如何把钱带到目的国。最常见的方法就是携带现金或者使用汇票、旅行票、电汇和信用卡。 /201309/257203。

KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia — When he organized a get-together for dog lovers and their canine-averse neighbors, Syed Azmi Alhabshi thought he was doing a public service.吉隆坡,马来西亚——赛义德·阿兹米·阿拉巴什(Syed Azmi Alhabshi)组织喜欢的人和他们讨厌的邻居们进行聚会,他觉得自己是在组织一场公益活动。But after hundreds of people showed up to the event, billed as “I Want to Touch a Dog” on Facebook, and when pictures started circulating on the Internet of Muslim women in head scarves happily hugging dogs, Mr. Syed Azmi became an unwitting protagonist in the latest chapter of Malaysia’s culture wars.但是没想到上千人参加了那个活动,他们在Facebook上打出“我想摸”的宣传语,戴头巾的穆斯林女人开心拥抱小的照片开始在网上流传,赛义德·阿兹米无意中成了马来西亚文化斗争最新篇章的主角。In the week since the event, Mr. Syed Azmi, a pharmacist, has received more than 3,000 messages on his phone, many of them hateful and a dozen of them threatening physical harm. The police advised him to stay at home.赛义德·阿兹米是个药剂师。在那个活动之后的一周里,他收到了3000多条短信,其中很多是表达仇恨情绪,有十几条是威胁对他进行人身伤害。警察建议他待在家里。Malaysia’s Muslim leaders, who cite Islamic scriptures stating that dogs are unclean, lashed out at him in the news media. “I feel the anger, and it is real,” he said in an interview.马来西亚的穆斯林领袖们引用伊斯兰经文称,是不干净的,在新闻媒体上猛烈抨击他。“我非常真切地感受到他们的愤怒,”他在一次采访中说。Over the past two weeks, Muslim leaders in Malaysia have denounced Halloween as a “planned attack” on Islam and Oktoberfest parties as a public vice “the same as mass-promoted adultery.”在过去两周里,马来西亚的穆斯林领袖们将万圣节斥为对伊斯兰教“有计划的攻击”,称慕尼黑啤酒节是聚众淫乱,“和大肆鼓动通奸是一样的”。The culture wars have waxed and waned in multicultural Malaysia in recent years as conservative Muslim groups have pushed back against what they describe as libidinous and ungodly Western influences in a country that has rapidly modernized and become more cosmopolitan.近些年,在具有多元文化的马来西亚,这样的文化之争此起彼伏,因为保守的穆斯林团体开始反抗他们所谓的淫荡、邪恶的西方文化对这个国家的影响。这个国家正在快速现代化,变得更具世界性。The dispute over touching dogs has underlined the fault lines in what has increasingly become a country polarized between members of the Malay majority, who are overwhelmingly Muslim, and ethnic Chinese, Indians and other minorities, who are typically Christian, Hindu, Sikh and Buddhist.摸争议突显了这个国家占主体的马来人和华裔、印度裔等少数民族之间的分裂,前者大多是穆斯林,后者大多信奉基督教、印度教、锡克教或佛教。The dog controversy joins the decades-old disputes over the availability of pork, the imbibing of alcohol and the pressure on Muslim women to wear conservative clothing.几十年来,在围绕供应猪肉、饮酒以及迫使穆斯林女人穿保守装等争议之后,成为最新的争议对象。Although many Muslims in other countries do not view touching dogs as forbidden, conservative Islamic groups here say the Shafie school of Islamic jurisprudence that they follow views dogs as unclean and requires the faithful to undergo a ritualistic wash if they come into contact with canines.虽然其他国家的很多穆斯林并不把摸视为禁忌,但是马来西亚的保守伊斯兰团体称,他们追随的伊斯兰法系沙菲派(Shafie school)认为不干净,要求信徒与犬类接触后进行仪式清洗。The Malaysian authorities described the “I Want to Touch a Dog” event as an offense to Islam. Othman Mustapha, the director general of the federal Islamic Development Department, which has the official mission of protecting the “purity of faith,” said the event was a challenge to the authority of religious leaders.马来西亚当局把“我想摸”活动称为对伊斯兰教的冒犯。马来西亚联邦伊斯兰发展局(Islamic Development Department)局长奥斯曼·穆斯塔法(Othman Mustapha)说,这个活动是对宗教领袖权威的挑战。该局的官方使命是保护“信仰的纯洁性”。The religious authorities in Malaysia have the power to crack down on practices they view as going against Islam, but Muslim law is selectively enforced and highly politicized. Many Malaysian Muslims own dogs, drink alcohol in public and have very westernized lifestyles.马来西亚的官方宗教机构有权打击他们认为反伊斯兰教的行为,但是穆斯林法律只是被选择性执行,具有强烈的政治性。在马来西亚,很多穆斯林养,公开饮酒,生活方式很西化。Criticism of the dog event has led to a backlash by a small but vocal group of moderate Muslims in the country who view the strictures of the religious authorities as oppressive.对摸事件的批评导致该国虽小而有话语权的现代穆斯林群体进行强烈反击。他们认为宗教当局的苛责是一种迫害。“All we are getting these days is how to hate an ever-growing list of people and things,” Marina Mahathir, the daughter of a former prime minister and a leading liberal voice, wrote in a newspaper column published last week. “How much energy are we to spend on hate? And how does hating anything and everything make us happy and better Muslims?”“如今我们听到的都是如何去憎恨越来越多的人和事,”前总理的女儿、自由主义倡导者玛丽娜·马哈迪(Marina Mahathir)上周在报纸专栏上写道,“我们还要在仇恨上花多少精力?仇恨一切怎么可能让我们变成快乐的、更好的穆斯林?”Mr. Syed Azmi, the pharmacist, said he thought he had his bases covered. Before the event, he contacted and received acknowledgment from the state religious authorities.赛义德·阿兹米说,他本以为自己已经考虑得很周到了。在举办活动之前,他与国家宗教官方机构取得联系并获得许可。He also invited an Islamic scholar who showed Muslims how to conduct the ritual washing after they had touched the dogs.他还邀请一位伊斯兰学者向穆斯林们演示摸之后如何进行仪式清洗。“I expected it to be in the news, but not to the point where people would get so angry,” said Mr. Syed Azmi, who is Muslim.“我当时是期望这个活动能上新闻,但我没想到人们会如此愤怒,”赛义德·阿兹米说。他也是一位穆斯林。 /201411/341219。