2018年11月22日 19:40:30|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度新闻医院排名
During the past few weeks in the FT, the ;Right Thinking; warriors of the Republican party have laid out their manifesto in broadly appealing principles rendered so gauzily as to nearly erase from history the hard-edged specifics that some of these same authors have sworn allegiance to. 在过去几周的英国《金融时报》上,美国共和党的;右翼思想;斗士们发表了自己的宣言。他们的宣言涵盖了一些具有广泛吸引力的原则,但他们对这些原则阐述得极其模糊,仿佛这些原则的冷酷无情的细节根本不曾在历史上出现过。在这些作者中,有些人曾宣誓拥护这些原则细节。 But then the memories of GOP dogma kick in: vast, unaffordable tax cuts; evisceration of social welfare programmes; deep cuts in spending on practically everything else, from food stamps to national parks; steadfast opposition to gay marriage; intimations of harsh treatment of the US#39;s 11m illegal immigrants. 但随后人们慢慢记起了共和党的政策主张:推行财政上难以负担的大规模减税;砍掉社会福利计划;大幅削减几乎所有其他出,从食品券到国家公园拨款;坚决反对同性恋婚姻;暗示要严厉对待美国的1100万非法移民。 And on and on. The contrast between the high-minded commentary that appeared in these pages and pre-existing policy proposals could not be starker. 这样的主张还有很多。报纸上那些占领道德高地的与这些早已存在的政策主张形成了再鲜明不过的对比。 Proving that his silver tongue is matched by a silver pen, Congressman Paul Ryan issued a call to ;restructure; entitlements so ;important programmes can succeed well into the 21st century;. 国会议员保罗#8226;瑞安(Paul Ryan)呼吁对福利进行;重组;,以使;重要的计划能在21世纪晚些时候取得成功;。这明他的出色口才与非凡文笔不相上下。 In fact, what he has proposed in his draft budget is to transform Medicare from an entitlement programme in which seniors receive the care that they need into a voucher plan in which the elderly would receive a fixed allotment to buy their own insurance. If that amount proves insufficient or the insurance does not deliver adequate coverage, well, tough luck! 实际上,他在自己起草的预算案中提议的是,将联邦医疗保险计划(Medicare)从一个为老年人提供其所需的医疗务的福利计划,改为一个为老年人提供固定金额补助以让他们自行购买保险的医疗券计划。如果这些补助不够或保险承保范围不够全,那就自认倒霉吧! Medicaid, healthcare for the poor, would suffer a different, but equally disabling fate. It would be turned over to cash-starved states, the fiscal equivalent of being sent to the knacker for execution. 为穷人提供医疗务的联邦医疗补助计划(Medicaid)的命运虽与联邦医疗保险计划不同,但它同样会受到严重削弱。它将被交到资金紧张的各州手中,这在财政上等于被判了死刑。 Meanwhile, Glenn Hubbard says the US needs to fix its riddled tax code and get its fiscal house in order. Well, of course it does; every sentient American knows that. But Mr Hubbard blithely ignores the plan put forth by Governor Mitt Romney, who he is advising: 20 per cent across the board tax cuts costing .8tn over the ensuing decade, to be paid for by closing loopholes that Mr Romney has refused to specify (apart from two minor items.) Even in a cynical age, that is cynicism of mind-boggling proportion. 与此同时,格伦#8226;哈伯德(Glenn Hubbard)表示,美国需要修复其漏洞百出的税法,整顿好财政状况。美国当然需要这么做;每一位有认知能力的美国人都清楚这一点。但哈伯德心不在焉地忽略了马萨诸塞州州长米特#8226;罗姆尼(Mitt Romney)提出的计划——罗姆尼提议:在接下来的十年里对所有美国人减税20%,由此造成的2.8万亿美元亏空将通过堵住一些漏洞(他拒绝点明到底是哪些漏洞,除了两个小项目)来弥补。即便是在一个玩世不恭的时代,这种程度的玩世不恭也超出了人们的想象。 The Romney/Hubbard tax plan would not result in net additional revenues, which means reducing the deficit would require spending reductions on a massive and – I believe – politically unacceptable and socially undesirable scale. 罗姆尼/哈伯德税收计划不会产生净新增税收收入,这意味着削减赤字要依靠大规模地减少出——我相信,如此规模的减在政治上是不可接受的,也不会受到社会的欢迎。 Finally, Mr Hubbard offers up the thoroughly discredited argument that deficit reduction can spur near-term economic growth. He should ask the British (or the eurozone members) how that austerity stuff is working out for them. 最后,哈伯德提出了一个完全不可信的论点,即减赤可在短期内刺激经济增长。他应该问问英国(或者欧元区成员国)紧缩努力的效果如何。 Amid all the disingenuousness lie a few hopeful wisps. 在所有这些不诚实的中,也有一些鼓舞人心的声音。 Maine Senator Olympia Snowe#39;s cri de coeur for the GOP to retreat from its extremism to a centre right position is welcome – even coming on the eve of her retirement – as is the estimable Jon Huntsman#39;s call to embrace the progressivism of Theodore Roosevelt, a giant widely admired across party lines. 缅因州参议员奥林匹亚#8226;斯诺(Olympia Snowe)强烈呼吁共和党从极端主义退到中右翼立场,这一表态值得欢迎——尽管她即将退休。同样值得欢迎的是,受人尊敬的洪培(Jon Huntsman)呼吁接受西奥多#8226;罗斯福(Theodore Roosevelt)的进步主义。罗斯福是一位受到两党普遍尊重的伟人。 But that same Teddy Roosevelt was the first president to espouse national healthcare, while Mr Huntsman, a former Utah governor, advocated repeal of ObamaCare during the Republican primaries. Now he says full repeal of ObamaCare is ;unlikely; and wants the ;pointless sound bites; dropped. 但西奥多#8226;罗斯福是首位持全民医保的美国总统,而曾任犹他州州长的洪培在共和党初选期间却曾主张废除;奥巴马医改;(Obamacare)。如今,洪培表示,完全废除;奥巴马医改;是;不太可能;的,并希望放弃;毫无意义的政治口号;。 Barack Obama mostly escaped a direct lashing. Instead, Republicans were sure to include code words to subtly identify the incumbent#39;s alleged failures: ;defeatism;, ;crony capitalism;, ;ad hoc responses;, ;bureaucrats; and the like. 巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)通常不会遭受直接的抨击。相反,共和党人肯定会用一些代名词隐晦地指出现任总统的所谓失败,比如;失败主义;、;裙带资本主义;、;特别回应;、;官僚;等等。 In fact, Mr Obama is far closer to the right approach than his Republican nemeses. Putting in place a long-term deficit reduction plan is an urgent priority but it should be balanced between tax increases and spending cuts and phased in gradually, just as a speeding car should be decelerated slowly. 实际上,奥巴马的路线比他的共和党对手们靠谱得多。出台长期减赤计划确是当务之急,但该计划应当在增税和减之间找到平衡,而且应当缓步推进,就像一辆高速行驶的汽车应当缓慢减速一样。 US spending on social welfare programmes can be curbed humanely, without gutting the social safety net. And of course policy certainty would benefit business and consumers alike. But let#39;s put the blame for the current drifting where it belongs: on Congress. 美国可以温和地抑制社会福利计划方面的出,而不致破坏社会保障网络。政策明确显然会让企业和消费者等群体受益,但当前政策的摇摆不定应当归咎于国会。 By all means go back and the Right Thinking series, just also be sure to the transcripts of the Republican presidential debates and the policy papers of Mr Ryan, Mr Romney and others who form the true core of the Republican party. 务必要回过头来读一读;右翼思想;系列文章,也一定要读一读共和党总统竞选辩论的文字稿、以及瑞安、罗姆尼和其他共和党真正核心人物的政策文件。 The writer is a former counsellor to the US Secretary of the Treasury 本文作者曾任美国财政部长顾问 /201208/195065Sleeping like a log: More than half of us in the UK sleep curled up in the foetal position, suggesting we are a nation of worriers, while the second most common position is the log, right, which indicates a rigid personality睡得香:在英国有超过一半的人是胎儿型睡姿,睡觉时会蜷成一团,这说明我们是一个焦虑者的国度,第二常见的睡姿是像树干一样的睡姿,这体现出刚强的个性。Do you sleep like a log? Or are you more of a yearner, a freefaller or a foetal?你是树干型睡姿吗?还是渴望型、自由落体型或是胎儿型?More than half of people in the UK curl into the foetal position as they sleep - a sign they are seeking comfort - according to new research.根据最新的一项调查,超过一半的英国人睡觉时会蜷成一团,像婴儿一样——表示他们在寻求安慰。The #39;log#39; is the second most common position, adopted by those with rigid personalities, according to the study by a body language expert.“树干型”是其次普遍的睡姿,根据一个肢体语言专家所做的研究,采用这种睡姿的多为个性刚强的人。#39;Yearners#39;, who sleep with arms outstreched, account for the 25% of the population who are longing to chase their dreams. 17% of those surveyed adopt the #39;freefall#39; position, suggesting they feel a lack of control over their lives.“渴望型”指的是双臂向前伸展的睡姿,占人群中的25%,他们大都渴望追求梦想。17%的被调查者睡觉时的姿势是“自由落体型”,暗示他们觉得自己无法掌控自己的生活。The position you choose while sleeping reveals a startling amount about your personality, according to body language expert Robert Phipps.身体语言专家罗伯特·菲普斯告诉我们,人在睡眠时选择的睡姿惊人地反映出了这个人的个性。Mr Phipps has identified four positions and says the foetal – most favoured by worriers – is by far the most common.菲普斯表示在四种睡姿中胎儿型是焦虑者最喜欢的——也是目前最常见的一种睡姿。More than half of us (58 per cent) adopt it and sleep with knees up and head down. The more we curl up, the more comfort we’re seeking, he says. The second most common position is the log (28 per cent).超过一半的人(58%)会采取胎儿型睡姿,膝盖卷起,低着头。菲普斯解释道:我们蜷缩地越厉害,也就是我们渴望的舒适越多。第二常见的睡姿是树干型(28%)。A straight body, with arms and legs by the side, apparently indicates stubbornness and they can wake up stiffer than when they went to sleep, says Mr Phipps.菲普斯表示,笔直的身体而且胳膊和腿放一边,这样的睡姿明显反映出固执的性格,他们醒来时会比入睡时更僵硬。Nap-time: #39;Yearners#39; sleep with their arms outstreched, while #39;freefallers#39; sleep on their stomachs with their arms at right-angles, right.小憩“渴望型”的人会伸长胳膊,;而“自由落体型”的人会趴着睡,胳膊成直角弯曲。The 25 per cent of us that are a yearner – arms stretched out in front – are either chasing a dream or being chased.有25%的人是渴望型睡姿,手臂向前伸出去,这样的睡姿要么是在追求梦想,要么是在被人追赶。Yearners are their own worst critics says Mr Phipps, always expecting great results. They wake up eager to face the challenges of the day.菲普斯说渴望型的人会最爱批评自己,他们总是期待很好的结果。他们醒来时带着对新一天挑战的渴望。Freefallers – face down, arms outstretched – make up 17 per cent and feel they have little control over their life. Physically this is the least comfortable position.拥有脸朝下、手臂张开的自由落体型睡姿的人占了17%,这一类人对于自己的人生少有控制。从生理角度而言,这是最不舒的睡姿。Mr Phipps’s survey asked people to record their most common sleeping positions, with some naming more than one. He said: ‘A good night’s sleep sets you up for the following day and our sleeping positions can determine how we feel when we wake.’菲普斯通过调查了解并记录人们最常见的睡姿,有的人常用的睡姿不止一个。他说:“一个良好的夜间睡眠决定了你的第二天,我们的睡姿决定了我们醒来时会是什么感觉。” /201210/206666

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