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楼主:飞度【养生问答】 时间:2019年02月20日 23:22:38 点击:0 回复:0
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;We#39;ve made significant improvements since you bought your last computer.We switched from beige plastic to dark gray.;自从你买了最后一台电脑,我们取得了显著的进步,我们把米色塑料换成深灰色的了。 /201507/386872;No,I#39;m not using Botox.I#39;m just constantly amazed at what goes on in this office!;不,我没有用除皱药,我只是对发生在这间办公室的事情一直感到惊奇. /201507/387758LOS ANGELES — When Edmund G. Brown Sr. was governor of California, people were moving in at a pace of 1,000 a day. With a jubilant Mr. Brown officiating, California commemorated the moment it became the nation’s largest state, in 1962, with a church-bell-ringing, four-day celebration. He was the boom-boom governor for a boom-boom time: championing highways, universities and, most consequential, a sprawling water network to feed the explosion of agriculture and development in the dry reaches of central and Southern California.洛杉矶——当老埃德蒙·G·布朗(Edmund G. Brown Sr.)担任加州州长时,平均每天有1000人搬到该州。1962年,在布朗热情洋溢的主持下,加州庆祝了成为美国第一大州的那一刻。教堂钟声响起,为期四天的庆祝活动拉开帷幕。他是繁荣时期一位有魄力的州长:持建造公路、大学,以及最具深远影响的庞大供水网络,满足农业的迅速扩展,以及加州中南部干旱地区的发展。Nearly 50 years later, it has fallen to Mr. Brown’s only son, Gov. Jerry Brown, to manage the modern-day California that his father helped to create. The state is prospering, with a population of more than double the 15.5 million it had when Mr. Brown, known as Pat, became governor in 1959. But California, the seventh-largest economy in the world, is confronting fundamental questions about its limits and growth, fed by the collision of the severe drought dominating Jerry Brown’s final years as governor and the water and energy demands — from homes, industries and farms, not to mention pools, gardens and golf courses — driven by the aggressive growth policies advocated by his father during his two terms in office.大约50年后,轮到布朗唯一的儿子杰瑞·布朗(Jerry Brown)执掌当代加州,一个由他父亲参与创建的加州。加州繁荣发展,人口数达到了老布朗——又被称为帕特(Pat)——1959年担任州长时的1550万人口的两倍多。但作为世界第七大经济体,加州正面临有关限制及增长的根本问题,其原因来自两方面的碰撞。一方面是杰瑞·布朗州长任期最后几年出现大旱的情况,而另一方面就是家庭、工业及农场需要大量水和能源的现实,更不用说还有水塘、花园及高尔夫球场。而其父在两个任期内曾推出积极增长政策,从而促使上述领域快速发展。The stark challenge that confronts this state is putting a spotlight on a father and son who, as much as any two people, define modern-day California. They are strikingly different symbols of different eras, with divergent styles and distinct views of government, growth and the nature of California itself.该州面临的严峻挑战让大家的目光投向了这一对父子,他们比其他任何两人都更多地塑造了现代加州。他们来自不同时代,象征着截然不同的东西,风格迥异,并对政府、发展和加州本身的性质持有大不相同的看法。Pat Brown, who died in 1996 at the age of 90, was the embodiment of the post-World War II explosion, when people flocked to this vast and beckoning state in search of a new life. “He loved that California was getting bigger when he was governor,” said Ethan Rarick, who wrote a biography of Pat Brown and directs the Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service at the University of California, Berkeley. “Pat saw an almost endless capacity for California growth.”帕特·布朗于1996年逝世,享年90岁。他是二战结束后迅猛发展的体现。当时人们涌入这个幅员辽阔、极具吸引力的州,寻求一种新的生活。“他担任州长时,加州不断发展壮大,他喜欢这种感觉,”帕特·布朗的传记作者、加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)松井武男政治与公共务中心(Robert T. Matsui Center for Politics and Public Service)负责人伊桑·拉里克(Ethan Rarick)说。“帕特认为加州拥有几乎无穷尽的发展能力。”Jerry Brown arrived in Sacramento for the first of two stints he would serve as governor in 1975 — just over eight years after Pat Brown was defeated for re-election by Ronald Reagan. He was, at 36, the austere contrast to his father, a product of the post-Watergate and post-Vietnam era, wary of the kind of brawny, interventionist view of government that animated Pat Brown. The environmental movement had emerged in the years between Pat Brown’s defeat and Jerry Brown’s arrival — the first Earth Day and the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries oil embargo took place during that period — and among its most passionate adherents was Pat Brown’s son.杰瑞·布朗两度担任加州州长,他于1975年,也就是帕特·布朗在连任竞选中败给罗纳德·里根(Ronald Reagan)的八年之后,到达萨克拉门托,开始了第一个任期。那时,36岁的布朗与其父形成鲜明对比,他是后水门事件时代及后越战时代的产物,不认同帕特·布朗所热衷的强大政府及其干涉主义行事风格。在帕特·布朗竞选失败与杰瑞·布朗首次上任之间的时间里,环保运动横空出世。在那段时间里,出现了第一个地球日(Earth Day)及石油输出国组织(Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries)的石油出口禁令。当时,帕特·布朗的这个儿子是环保运动最热诚的拥护者之一。If Pat Brown wanted the stunningly ambitious California State Water Project that he muscled into law to “be a monument to me,” as he later said of what was the most expensive public works project in the state’s history, Jerry Brown championed the modest if intellectually provocative “Small Is Beautiful” viewpoint espoused by the economist E. F. Schumacher, which emphasized the dangers of depleting natural resources. (Mr. Brown flew to London to speak at Schumacher’s funeral in 1977.) As governor, Jerry Brown spoke of limits and respect for the fragility of the planet from the moment he took office.如果说帕特·布朗希望他强力推动、并使之成为法律的宏大的加州水资源计划(California State Water Project)成为“我留下的丰碑”——就像他后来提到该州历史上耗资最大的公共工程计划时说的那样,杰瑞宣扬的则是经济学家E·F·舒马赫(E.F. Schumacher)提出的“小即是美”(Small Is Beautiful)的观点,这个并不宏大的观点在知识界曾颇具争议性,强调了消耗自然资源的危险。(布朗于1977年飞往伦敦参加舒马赫的葬礼并发表讲话。)作为州长,杰瑞·布朗自上任伊始,就开始谈论这个脆弱星球面临的限制,以及对它的尊重。“He positioned himself as very, very different from my father,” said Kathleen Brown, who is Mr. Brown’s youngest sister. “Some looked at it as a psychological battle between father and son. I don’t think it was that at all. I think it was a coming-of-age in a different period. The consciousness that our resources were limited was just beginning to take hold in the broader community.”“他对自己的定位与先父完全不同,”布朗最小的凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“有人将这看作是父亲与儿子之间的心理战。我认为根本不是这么回事。我觉得这是成长于不同时期所造成的差异。当年,那种资源有限的意识刚刚开始在更广泛的人群中扎根。”Since taking office as governor for the second time, in 2011, Jerry Brown has again been the voice of limits — though this time, his view is informed less by the theories of environmentalists and more by the demands of trying to manage a drought of historic proportions. One month Mr. Brown is ordering a 25 percent reduction in the use of potable water in urban communities; the next he is pressing for a 40 percent cut in greenhouse gas emissions to battle the choking pollution that is another byproduct of the heady growth.自杰瑞·布朗于2011年开始第二个任期以来,他再次提出资源有限的观点,尽管这次他的观点更多的不是受环保主义理论的影响,而是源自努力应对史上罕见旱情的需要。布朗刚刚要求城市社区的饮用水量减少25%,接下来就要求将温室气体排放量减少40%,以对抗令人窒息的污染,而污染是快速发展造成的另一个附带结果。“We are dealing with different periods,” Mr. Brown said in an interview. “The word ‘environment’ wasn’t used then: You talked about conservation. Environmentalism came in after my father left. There was this sense that we can become No. 1 ahead of New York — they rang church bells when we did — but now, you fast-forward 60 years later, and people are concerned about whether the water is available, the cost to the environment, how to pay for suburban infrastructure.”“我们应对的是不同时期的问题,”杰瑞·布朗接受采访时说。“当年人们还不怎么使用‘环境’一词,谈的都是保护。我父亲离开后才出现环保主义这个说法。当时有那种我们能超越纽约,成为第一的感觉。当我们做到这一点时,他们纷纷庆祝。但现在,快进到60年后的今天,人们担心的是,是否有水可用,对环境的影响,以及怎么付郊区基础设施建设的费用。”“All of these insights and concerns developed after most of his governorship,” Mr. Brown said of his father. “But they preceded mine — and they have intensified.”“在他的任期过了大半时间后,才出现这些深刻看法及担忧,”杰瑞·布朗提到他父亲时说。“但它们出现在我的任期之前,而且自那时起愈演愈烈。”The House That Pat Built帕特的功绩When Pat Brown, then 53 and the state attorney general, was elected governor in 1958, the Republicans controlled both houses of the Legislature and most statewide offices. He swept to victory in an election that signaled a new direction for California: Brown was a Republican turned Democrat who identified with the New Deal policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt.1958年,时年53岁的州总检察长帕特·布朗当选为州长。当时,共和党控制着议会两院和全州范围内的大部分机构。他在一次选举中以压倒性优势获胜。那次选举标志着加州的新方向:布朗是一名从共和党转变而来的民主党人,认同富兰克林·D·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)的“新政”(New Deal)政策。“He really in many ways built the modern California that we know,” said Raphael J. Sonenshein, the executive director of the Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles. “Even though he only had two terms, they were enormously consequential. I have to think that the California that we live in bears his stamp more than that of any other governor.”“他真的在很多方面打造了我们所知道的这个现代的加利福尼亚,” 加州大学洛杉矶分校埃德蒙·G·“帕特”·布朗公共事务研究所(Edmund G. “Pat” Brown Institute for Public Affairs at California State University, Los Angeles)的执行主管拉斐尔·J·索南沙因(Raphael J. Sonenshein)说。“只当了两届,但那两届影响巨大。我必须承认,他在我们现在所生活的加州留下的印记,比其他任何州长都多。”The new governor pledged in his inaugural address to follow “the path of responsible liberalism.” He rejected warnings from aides about the state’s deficit, and advocated tax increases to finance spending on school construction, parks and transportation. During his years in power, the state built three new campuses for the University of California and six more for the state college system — though that was not his top interest.那时,他作为新州长在就职演说中承诺,将遵循“负责任的自由主义道路”。他拒绝了助手有关该州赤字的警告,持增税,以便为学校建设、公园和交通运输开提供资金。在他当权的那些年里,该州为加州大学修了三个分校,并为该州高校体系建了六所学校。而这还不算是他最关心的领域。“Water was the No. 1 thing on his agenda,” said Martin Schiesl, a professor emeritus of history at California State University. In his first year in office, Pat Brown persuaded the Legislature to pass and send to voters a .75 billion bond to begin the state water project — a network of dams, pipes and an aqueduct designed to take water from the relatively wet north to Southern California, where 80 percent of the population lived.“水是他当时要处理的首要问题,”加州州立大学(California State University)历史学荣休教授马丁·席泽尔(Martin Schiesl)说。执政第一年,帕特·布朗说州议会通过了一项17.5亿美元的债券计划,并向选民兜售,以便开始州级水利项目——这是一个由水坝、管道和一条引水渠组成的网络,旨在把水资源从相对湿润的加州北部输送到州里80%的人口聚居的南部。Pat Brown was offering an ambitious vision of California as he campaigned across the state for the measure: California as its own vast and diverse nation, where the water of the north would feed the population and farm growth to the south. “He thought it was irresponsible not to plan for the growth that was coming,” Kathleen Brown said. “He used to say, ‘If you don’t want to manage and build for this growth today, we’ll have to do something else tomorrow.’ ”在州内各个地方为这项提案做宣传时,帕特·布朗勾画了一个关于加州的宏伟蓝图:加州本身就是个广阔而多元的地方,北部的水资源能够供养南部的人口,并保障那里的农业增长。“他认为,不为将来的增长做打算,是不负责任的行为,”凯瑟琳·布朗(Kathleen Brown)说。“他常说,‘如果你今天不愿意为这种增长进行管理和建设方面的工作,我们明天就不得不去做额外的事情。’”In a letter cited in “California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown,” the biography by Mr. Rarick, Pat Brown argued that he had no choice. “What are we to do? Build barriers around California and say nobody else can come in because we don’t have enough water to go around?”拉里克撰写的传记《加州的崛起:帕特·布朗及其时代》(California Rising: The Life and Times of Pat Brown)中引用了一封信。帕特·布朗在其中表示,自己别无选择。“我们该怎么办?用栅栏把加州团团围住,说其他人等不得入内,就因为我们没有足够的水资源?”A New Tone新基调Jerry Brown did not originally go into the family business, spending his years as a young man as a Jesuit studying for the priesthood. He spent three years in the seminary, before emerging to prepare for law school and what would prove to be an almost- unbroken lifetime in public office. When he became governor, he arrived in the shadow of his father, who had gone from having an outsize reputation to a second-term decline and defeat in 1966 as he struggled with student unrest at Berkeley and a conservative shift by the electorate.杰瑞·布朗刚开始并没有子承父业,年轻时曾作为耶稣会士而研习神职。他在神学院度过三年,后来才为进入法学院做准备,随后开始了几乎不曾间断的公职生涯。在他成为州长的时候,父亲的阴影随之而来。他父亲最初享有很高的声望,却在第二任期时人气急跌,后来因为疲于应对伯克利的学生运动,再加上选民朝保守主义的转变,他在1966年落败。Jerry Brown’s new tone was clear from his first inaugural address as he warned of “the rising cost of energy, the depletion of our resources, the threat to the environment, the uncertainty of our economy and the monetary system, the lack of faith in government, the drift in political and moral leadership.”杰瑞·布朗的新基调在第一次州长就职演说中就表现得很清晰,他对“日益增长的能源成本、资源的损耗、环境所受到的威胁、我们的经济和货币体系面临的不确定性、政府公信力的缺乏,以及政治和道德领导力方面的偏移”发出了警告。With one notable exception — he campaigned, unsuccessfully, to win voter support for another water tunnel to finish his father’s project, which to this day he calls essential to the state’s long-term health — this would not be an administration about building roads, bridges, dams or college campuses. Instead, Mr. Brown focused on policies that regulated growth.这将不是一届致力于修建道路、桥梁、大坝或大学校园的政府。布朗关注的是调控增长的政策。不过,还是有一个引人注意的例外:他曾试图赢得选民对又一条引水渠的持,从而完成父亲的工程,但未能成功。迄今为止,他一直说该工程对加州的长期健康发展至关重要。Still, if Jerry Brown is different as a governor from his father, he is different from what he was 40 years ago as well. Even as he talks about strains on California, he is championing the kind of big projects that his father was known for: a high-speed train line from San Francisco to Los Angeles and two massive underground pipelines. The pipelines would help convey water through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta, east of San Francisco, to central and Southern California — the state water project his father began. Some of that, no doubt, reflects the consideration of a man who realizes he has only so many years left in office. “Jerry has appreciated, as time has passed, that leaving a legacy as a political figure often requires concrete,” Kathleen Brown said. “My father’s legacy is very much tied and identified with building. Jerry’s first term was very much more about ideas and fundamental shifts in the focus of government.”不过,如果说杰瑞·布朗作为州长与父亲有所不同,那么他与40年前的自己也不一样。就算会谈论加州面临的压力,他仍在持让他父亲闻名的那种大工程:从旧金山到洛杉矶的高铁线路,以及两个大型的地下管道项目。这些管道将把水从旧金山以东的萨克拉门托-圣华金河三角洲输送到加州的中部和南部——这属于他父亲开启的州级水利项目。毫无疑问,其中有些元素反映出他意识到了自己在任的时间有限。“随着时间的流逝,杰瑞已经体会到,作为一个政治人物,留下的政绩往往需要是有形的东西,”凯瑟琳·布朗说。“先父的政绩很大程度上与建筑工程密不可分。杰瑞的第一个任期更多地强调理念,以及政府关注点方面的根本性转变。”Still, Mr. Brown said he would have done what his father did if he had been governor during Pat Brown’s era — and expected that his father would be doing the same thing Jerry Brown is doing were he running the state today.不过,杰瑞·布朗表示,如果在帕特·布朗的时代担任州长,他会采取和父亲同样的做法,而且他认为,如果父亲在今天担任州长,也会做和自己同样的事。“What else could you do?” he said. “Who sets the agenda? The times set the agenda. It’s not like I don’t have a lot of things I want to do. There are a lot of challenges — you have to respond, whether it’s water or drought or education. Health. Immigration. Here they are — do something. That’s what I do. I think my father would do the same thing.”“还能有别的什么选择吗?”他问道。“谁来设定议程?是时代在设定议程。并不是说我自己没有很多想做的事情。是太多挑战了——你必须加以应对,无论是水利、干旱、教育,还是卫生、移民。问题就摆在那里——你得采取行动。我就是这么干的。我认为父亲也会做同样的选择。” /201505/376333It’s just a few days into the new year. How are you doing on your resolutions? Wait: Have you even started on them yet?新的一年刚过去几天,你的新年计划完成得如何?等等:你开始实施这些计划了吗?Recognizing that the hardest part of many tasks is beginning them at all, two researchers have sought to determine whether certain outside cues can jump-start us toward reaching our goals. Such cues, which manipulate our perception of time, are simple yet effective, according to a recent article in the Journal of Consumer Research.由于认识到对于许多任务,最困难的部分就是开始执行,两名研究人员试图确定,一些外部提示能否快速启动我们的计划,让我们向着目标迈进。根据《消费者研究学刊》(The Journal of Consumer Research)最近的一篇文章,这种提示能够操控我们对时间的感知,简单、有效。In one study, conducted in 2010, the researchers asked two groups of farmers in India to set up a bank account and accumulate a certain amount of money by a deadline, offering extra money as an incentive. One group was approached in June, with a deadline of December that year. The second group was approached in July with a deadline of January the next year.在2010年的一项研究中,研究人员让印度的两组农民开设一个账户,并在截止日期之前积攒一定的资金,而且还给他们提供了额外的资金作为奖励。研究人员于6月找到其中一组农民,给他们设定的截止日期是当年12月,又于7月找到另一组人,给他们设定的截止日期是次年1月。The farmers in the first group were more likely to set up an account immediately, even though both groups had the same amount of time. That’s because the deadline was in the same year as the assignment and therefore seemed more like the present, said Yanping Tu, a Ph.D. candidate at the Booth School of Business at the University of Chicago. She performed the research along with Dilip Soman, a marketing professor at the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto. (Lest you think that only farmers in India would benefit from this approach, the two researchers also found similar results among undergraduates and M.B.A. students in North America.)第一组中的农民更倾向于快速开设一个账户,尽管两组人拥有的时间一样多。这是因为,截止日期与布置任务的时间在同一年,所以看起来更接近现在,在芝加哥大学布斯商学院(University of Chicago Booth School of Business)攻读士学位的涂艳苹说。她与多伦多大学罗特曼管理学院(Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto)的营销学教授迪利普·索曼(Dilip Soman)一起进行了这项研究。(两位研究者在北美的本科生和MBA学生中,也得出了相似的结果,以免你认为只有印度农民会受益于这种办法。)So the inventors of the New Year’s resolution were on the right track when they had people set new goals on Jan. 1 rather than Dec. 31. But clearly that’s not enough, since the past is littered with unachieved resolutions. Fortunately, there are other time-related cues that can give people that in-the-present feeling.所以,如果让人们在1月1日,而非12月31日来设定新目标,那么新年计划的制定者就走上了正确轨道。但是,这显然还不够,因为过去充斥着太多未完成的计划。幸运的是,还有一些与时间相关的提示,能让人产生活在当下的感觉。In a separate study, the researchers also found that people were “more likely to start working on a task whose deadline is in the current month than in the next month,” even though the number of days to finish the task was the same, Ms. Tu said.研究人员还在另一项研究中发现,“与截止日期在下个月的任务相比,人们更倾向于开始执行截止日期在当月的任务”,尽管完成任务的天数一样,涂艳苹说。Color can also influence the perception of time, she said. She and Professor Soman found that simply by coding a stretch of calendar days in the same color — say, blue — with an assignment occurring on the first “blue” day and the deadline set for the last “blue” day, people were more likely to complete the tasks. Once again, this serves to make the future deadline seem more like the present. (Managers, are you listening? Get out your crayons.)她说,颜色也会影响人们对时间的感知。她和索曼发现,仅仅通过给一系列日历天标上同样的颜色——比如蓝色——在第一个“蓝色”的日子分配任务,截止日期设在最后一个“蓝色”的日子,人们完成这些任务的可能性就会增加。所以,这也能让未来的截止日期显得更加迫近。(管理者们,你们在听吗?请拿出你们的笔。)Research into procrastination has noted that people have much less concern about their future selves than their present selves — and are willing to sell their future selves down the river for the sake of present ease. But when the present marches into the future, and we are confronted with the work that our past selves refused to do, we pay the price in unmet deadlines, all-nighters and general torment.对拖延症的研究指出,与未来的自己相比,人们对现在的自己的关注程度要高很多——而且为了目前的舒适,他们愿意背叛未来的自己。但是,当现在走向未来,当我们面对着过去的自己所拒绝完成的工作时,我们就要在没完成任务的最后期限付出代价,通宵达旦,忍受折磨。So if a few little tricks can manipulate us into thinking that time is of the essence, why not give them a try?因此,既然一些小窍门能让我们意识到时间的宝贵性,为什么不试一试? /201501/352407

Aries buys the first thing that catches their eye.白羊座总是购买一眼就看上的东西。Taurus gives stocks and bonds, with piggy banks for the kids.金牛座花费很多在孩子身上。Gemini rewraps a present they didn#39;t use from last year.双子座会送给你一件他用不着的的去年的东西。Cancer knits sweaters and makes fudge for the neighborhood.巨蟹座会为邻居织毛衣或者自制巧克力。Leo makes charitable donations on behalf of their loved ones.狮子座代表他们爱的人进行慈善捐助。Virgo#39;s gifts don#39;t matter quite so much as their impeccable wrapping.处女座的礼物并不像像精美的包装一样华丽。Libra will reach a decision sometime next year.天秤座会决定明年再送礼物。Scorpio gives their partner a night to remember.天蝎座会给对方一个难忘的夜晚。Sagittarius distributes strange souvenirs from exotic locations.射手座分发异地带回的奇异的纪念品。Capricorn showers their coworkers with engraved pens.羯座给同事很多刻上字的钢笔。Aquarius purchases virtual gifts online.水瓶座在网上购买实质的礼物。Pisces plants a tree in the name of their dear ones.双鱼座会种下一棵以爱人名字命名的树。 /201507/385406

7.Pasta7.面食Anybody who loves a good bowl of pasta e fagioli or linguine and clams may want to tip his hat to the ancient Chinese for coming up with pasta -- not the Italians, as you may have suspected.对任何喜欢来一碗意大利面豆汤或者蛤蜊扁意面的人来说,也许都需要对发明面条的古代中国人致敬——而不是意大利人,正如你所怀疑的一样。The jury is still out on this one, but it looks like the Chinese beat either the Italians or the Arabs (it#39;s unclear which) by around 2,000 years. In 2006, archaeologists excavating a 4,000 year-old settlement at Lajia in the Qinghai Province near the Tibetian border uncovered an overturned bowl of stringy noodles buried beneath ten feet of earth.专家组仍在商讨到底是谁率先发明面条这件事,但看起来似乎是中国人凭借着近2000年的优势力压意大利人和阿拉伯人(还不清楚是哪一个),成为最终的赢家。2006年,考古学家在发掘喇家遗址时发现了一只倒扣的碗,深埋于十英尺厚的土中,碗内有细长而干枯的面条。该遗址位于青海省境内,靠近西藏,距今已有4000年的历史 。The newly discovered pasta may be the world#39;s oldest. It#39;s made from two types of millet grain, both of which have been cultivated in China for about 7,000 years. What#39;s more, the Chinese still use these grains to make pasta to this day.这一新发现的面条可能是世界上最古老的,由两种在中国均已有7000年栽培史的谷物制成。并且,时至今日,中国人仍在用这些谷物来制作面条。6.Wheelbarrow6.独轮手推车The Chinese are also responsible for easing the burden of humans around the world and across time with the wheelbarrow. A general named Jugo Liang, who lived during the Han Dynasty, is widely credited with coming up with the concept of a one-wheeled cart used to carry heavy objects in the second century. Jugo#39;s conception missed the mark just a bit; he didn#39;t add the barrow (handles) that came later as his invention was refined. Still, Jugo beat the Europeans by about 1,000 years with his wheelbarrow.千百年来,中国人发明的独轮手推车为减轻人类负担做出了巨大的贡献。人们普遍认为,公元2世纪时,蜀相诸葛亮提出了发明独轮手推车用来运载重物的构想。诸葛亮构思的独轮手推车仅有一点点瑕疵,因为他没有为其加上把手,不过这一问题被后人改进完善。尽管如此,诸葛亮的发明还是领先了欧洲人1000多年。Originally, the vehicle was intended for military purposes. Recognizing the physical advantages the wheelbarrow gave its armies over any enemies -- they were used as mobile barricades as well as for transportation -- the Chinese kept their invention secret for centuries.最初,独轮车被用于军事目的。正因认识到了独轮车为我方军队战胜敌军带来的先天优势——独轮车即既可被用来充当移动的路障,也能被当作运输工具——古代中国人将这项发明保密了长达几个世纪之久。An old folktale also gives the credit for inventing the wheelbarrow to a farmer from the first century B.C. named Ko Yu. Although his existence is questionable, there is a common th between Jugo and Ko: Like the general, the farmer is said to have kept the wheelbarrow secret by describing it in code.而民间的另一种传说则认为早在公元前1世纪,一个叫柯宇(KoYu)的农民就发明了独轮手推车。尽管历史上是否真的存在这个人还是个疑问,但诸葛亮和柯宇倒是有个共同点:和丞相一样,据说这位农民也对独轮车的制作流程守口如瓶。5.Seismograph5.地动仪Although the Chinese couldn#39;t tell anyone exactly what an earthquake measured on the Richter scale (since the Richter scale wasn#39;t created until 1935), they did manage to invent the world#39;s first earthquake detector -- a seismograph. Not only did imperial astronomer Chang Heng create a seismograph during the Han Dynasty in the early second century, he created a magnificently beautiful one.尽管古代中国人并不能准确地告知世人一场地震是里氏几级(因为直到1935年里氏震级才被发明出来),但他们却设法发明了世界上第一个地震测量仪——地动仪。早在公元2世纪前叶,汉代天文学家张衡就创造出了地动仪,他发明的地动仪还巧夺天工、壮观宏伟。Heng#39;s creation was a heavy bronze vessel with nine dragons facing downward embedded into its outside. The dragons were spaced equidistant from one another on the vessel, and below each dragon, a detached frog looked upward as each frog held its mouth open.张衡发明的地动仪以青铜铸成,四周镶嵌以八条龙,龙头朝下。这八条龙等距离间隔,每条龙的正下方,都有一只昂头张嘴的铜蟾蜍。Inside the vessel, a pendulum hung motionless until a tremor moved it. At this point, the pendulum#39;s swing set the seismograph#39;s internal levers in motion. This would trigger the release of a ball held in the mouth of the dragon facing the direction of the earthquake#39;s epicenter. The ball would then fall into the mouth of the frog directly below it. This first seismograph seems a bit basic, but it would be another 1,500 years before Western nations developed their own versions.地动仪的内部正中,有一“悬摆锤”静止不动。当某个地方发生地震,“悬摆锤”受到震动时,就会随之运动。此时,“悬摆锤”来回摆动引发地动仪内部的杠杆活动,从而触动机关,使得地震源方向的龙头张开嘴,吐出铜球,落到铜蟾蜍嘴中。这一最初的地动仪虽然有点简陋,但比起西方发明的地震仪仍然早了1500多年。4.Alcohol4.酒精You can thank the Chinese for ethanol and isopropyl alcohol -- not to mention beer, wine and liquor. When you think of it, few of man#39;s ingenuities have delivered as much joy and sorrow as alcohol.你得感谢中国人创造出了乙醇和异丙醇,这里说的并不是啤酒、葡萄酒跟烈酒噢!当你想到酒时,也就明白只有极少数人类智慧的结晶能像酒那样让人欢喜让人忧。For many years, it was assumed that alcohol fermentation grew out of other, similar processes. By the early third century B.C., the Chinese had figured out how to refine food products like vinegar and soy sauce using the techniques of fermentation and distillation. Alcoholic spirits would soon follow.一直以来,人们都认为酒精发酵技术脱胎于其他相似的工艺。公元前3世纪前期,中国人就掌握了酿造醋和酱油的技术,而这都是通过发酵和蒸馏来实现的。因而这些技术也很快就被运用到酿酒中。Recent archaeological discoveries have pushed the date for Chinese fermentation and the creation of alcohol much further back. Nine-thousand-year-old pottery shards uncovered in Henan province show traces of alcohol. This discovery proves that the Chinese were the first to make alcohol, since the previous title holders, the ancient Arabs, didn#39;t come up with alcoholic drinks until 1,000 years later.最近的考古发现又使中国人利用发酵工艺制酒的时间向前推移。考古学家在河南省发现了9000年前的陶器碎片,并在其中觅到了酒的踪迹。这一发现实了中国人才是酿酒的鼻祖,因为曾经的酿酒先驱——古阿拉伯人直到1000年后才制造出含酒精的饮品。审校:落月 listen /201507/384652

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