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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年09月22日 15:48:48
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China has developed an American-style infatuation with the automobile. As a result, traffic in most major cities streets is a nightmare. So the Chinese government has been experimenting with multiple public transport options. This latest concept, known as the 3D fast bus, runs on stilt-like legs, ferrying passengers some 14 feet above the road, while allowing other vehicles to pass underneath. It is sort of a hybrid bus and train that can run on either rails laid on either side of the road, or on wheels that are programmed to follow routes painted on the pavement.中国汽车行业发展迅速。结果这造成了中国主要城市大街上车水马龙,交通拥堵。因此,中国政府努力发展多元公共交通。最新的设想是一种名为3D快车的交通工具。利用高脚,在高于公路14英尺的公路上方运送乘客,同时允许车辆从下方通过。这种新型交通工具相当于汽车和火车的结合物,它可以在铁路和公路上,甚至是标有路线的人行道上行驶。The company behind it, Shen Zhen HuaShi, says they are starting construction at the end of the year in the suburb north of Beijing. Although Chinese official says it will be at least a couple of years before it actually gets completed. It is expected to cost about seven million dollars per kilometer to build. Each car costs about four million dollars. Chinese state media, which has reported widely on the project, says the construction costs are about a tenth of what it would cost to build a subway. Obviously, the first question everyone asks is: How does it not run into other traffic?设计公司,深圳Huashi表示,他们将于年底在北京北部郊区改造城市道路。但中国政府表示至少要在几年后才会完成改造。预期会花费700万美元。而每辆车预计花费400万美元。国内媒体广泛介绍这种新型交通模式,媒体表示,这种交通方式的花费是建造地铁的十分之一。很明显,别人首先会问:这种交通工具下面如何行使其他的汽车呢?The bus will supposedly use a system of lasers and ultrasound to fend off some other vehicles. Some western transportation experts say it will never work because it is just impossible to rule over a traffic like that. But others give the Chinese credit for even attempting such a system, as traffic planning is always a bit of a trial-and-error process.这种车将应用镭射和超声波系统来躲避其他车辆。一些西方交通学者表示,这种车绝不可能成真,因为这样的交通不可能存在。但其他学者表示相信这种交通模式会成真,因为交通规划本来就是个探索的过程。infatuation n. 迷惑,迷恋,醉心stilt n. 高跷,柱,脚柱注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201208/194132

Books and Arts;Book Review;Classical music;Conjurors;文艺;书评;古典音乐;音乐的魔术;Music as Alchemy: Journeys with Great Conductors and Their Orchestras.音乐就像点石成金——一段与伟大的指挥家和乐团的奇妙旅程。IN “FANTASIA”, Walt Disneys 1940 film of musically inspired animations, each piece begins and ends in the same way, with the silhouetted figure of Leopold Stokowski, a British conductor who died in 1977. He stands alone against a dark red background while the mysterious movements of his hands conjure the music in and out of being. “Fantasia” was hugely popular, and made a notable contribution to cultivating a wider appreciation of classical music. But it also unwittingly peddled the still pervasive myth that conductors are, in effect, magicians—sorcerers who single-handedly extract waves of finely variegated sound out of thin air.1940年沃特·迪士尼拍摄了音乐动画“幻想曲”,每一段的开始和结束都是利奥波德·斯托科夫斯基的剪影。而这位英国指挥家于1977年去世。他独站在深红色背景前,手上的动作充满了神秘色,音乐便随着动作此起彼伏。“幻想曲”获得了巨大的成功,并且它对古典音乐新诠释所做出的贡献也非同一般。但它也无意中增加了指挥家的神秘色,时至今日人们仍然觉得不可思议,好像他们就是魔术师——独自一人就凭空变出变幻莫测的美妙声音。Tom Service, a British radio presenter and writer on classical music, has taken the mysterious business of what conductors actually do as the subject of his first book, “Music as Alchemy”. Conductors, including the ones studied in this book, have been scrutinised before, often in considerable detail. What sets Mr Services book apart, in addition to its breezy tone and infectious, easily worn enthusiasm, is his focus on the relationship between the conductor and his or her orchestral musicians. Many hours have been spent not just in concerts given by the six conductor-orchestra pairs taken as his subject, but in observing them in the rehearsals beforehand and quizzing members of the orchestra about their side of the experience.汤姆·瑟维斯是英国一位与古典音乐相关的电台主持人和作家,他的第一本书《点石成金的音乐》主题就是揭开指挥家的神秘面纱。包括书中提到的每一位指挥家,都曾被详细介绍过,而且可谓到了事无巨细的地步。但瑟维斯先生的书的特别之处不仅在于他活泼的文笔和极具感染力的热情,还在于书中对指挥家与他们乐队关系的解读。作者花了大量时间,不仅探索了作为书中主人公的六位指挥家和他们乐队的音乐会,还深入了解了他们前期的排练,“拷问”乐队成员,从他们的角度寻找。This is not a method that would pass muster in scientific inquiry—few orchestral players would be rude in print about their chief conductor—but it yields some insightful results. The er learns, for example, that most players in the Budapest Festival Orchestra do not really mind when Ivan Fischer lays down the law, but that the players of the robustly democratic Concertgebouw Orchestra most certainly do. Mr Service finds that the London Symphony Orchestra see the benefit of Valery Gergievs high-octane, “everything will be all right on the night” attitude, but that the Berlin Philharmonic rely on a slightly more thorough approach from Sir Simon Rattle.这种方法并不是科学调查方法——几乎没有乐队成员会在书中对他们的指挥发牢骚——但同样也能获得一些极富洞察力的结果。譬如,读者通过本书会了解到,有些布达佩斯节日乐团的成员就不介意他们的指挥伊万·费舍尔发号施令。但相反,皇团的成员就强烈要求民主,不会接受个人号令。瑟维斯先生发现伦敦交响乐团得益于瓦列里·格吉耶夫的高强度风格,坚信“晚上开场前一切都能就绪”,但柏林爱乐乐团就更加青睐西蒙·拉特尔那种略微周密的做事方法。The interviews with the conductors themselves, awkwardly woven into the narrative as full transcripts, are not particularly rewarding. The books strength is in its mix of stories and perspectives, which ably convey the murky process by which orchestras and conductors build a bond of mutual trust.指挥家的专访只是编成文字记录一般的叙述,了无趣味,所以没什么特别的价值。本书的长处在于书中不乏故事和观点,巧妙地叙述了乐队成员和指挥如何建立起相互信任的神秘过程。The most illuminating chapter is perhaps the final one, about the relationship between Claudio Abbado and the Lucerne Festival Orchestra. Famously reticent, Mr Abbado gives little away himself, but his players say it all for him—a fine confirmation of his gifts as a conductor. He is special, the musicians explain, not merely because of his clarity of vision, authoritative analysis or the mysterious energy of his gestures, but rather because of the way he listens. He appears to live the music, inviting them to live it with him.书中最出的一章大概就属最后一章了,描写了克劳迪奥·阿巴多与琉森节庆管弦乐团。阿巴多先生沉默少语是出了名的,所以他自己并没有多说什么,但他的乐团成员完全代劳——成为他指挥天赋的最佳明。成员都说他不一般,不仅是因为他有敏锐的洞察力、权威的阐释和充满神秘力量的手势,而是因为他聆听音乐的独到之法。他能唤醒音乐,并邀请音乐伴他左右。Players need to believe conductors understand what they are doing, and that their individual efforts make a difference. Conductors, in turn, need to trust their orchestras to do everything possible to make the music happen in the moment. The currency of this trust is listening, and one of the most interesting pictures to emerge from the book is that of the conductor as a kind of chief listener. Hand gestures, whether the baton-traced polygons of the textbooks or the mysterious finger-flickerings of Mr Gergiev and Mr Abbado, are construed less as specific directions than as signs of a kind of ultra-responsive listening, a listening which feeds back into how the players hear each other.演奏者要相信他们的指挥知晓他们的一举一动,也明白他们每个人的努力都举足轻重。同样,指挥家也要相信他的演奏者一定会让演奏毫无差错。信任源自倾听,而指挥更像是首席听众,这是书中传达出的最有趣的一点。不论是课本里用指挥棒划出的多边形,还是格吉耶夫先生和阿巴多先生指尖迸出的不可思议的弧度,指挥家的手势都不仅仅是特殊的提示,而是一种无需回应的聆听,只需演奏者相互聆听就够了。As the books title suggests, it may indeed be most appropriate to think of this listening process as a kind of magic. But if so, it is a magic that comes through dedication, not sorcery.就像书名一样,我们的确应该把这种聆听过程视为魔术。就真是魔术,也是表演者们尽心奉献变成的魔法,不会有什么法术。201206/188230

  Darren, I do love these museum collections when you come behind the scenes and you suddenly feel that you are surrounded by treasures. And its amazing to think that there are new discoveries to be made in here as well.达伦,我真的很喜爱这些物馆收藏,当你来到幕后时,突然感觉自己被财宝包围着。一想到在这里将会有新的发现,也会让人觉得不可思议。Thats right in a way. There are almost too many specimens for the number of experts out there. There is always new stuff to find in collections. You arent necessary to go out to a field and look for dinosaurs. You can just rummage through museum floors. You will find something new.在某种程度上,这是对的。对于众多在外探索的专家而言,标本的数量相对有限。在收集的标本上总会有新发现。你没有必要去野外的遗址寻找恐龙。只要在物馆的地板上仔细翻阅,就会有新的发现。Recently Darren and a colleague did exactly that. They came across a bone which had been lying on a museum shelf since Victorian times. It may look unremarkable but with several unique features, it didnt fit with anything which had been found before. And it was enough for them to describe a new species.最近达伦和一位同事的确这样做了。他们碰到一块骨化石,它自维多利亚时代起就一直躺在物馆的架子上。它看起来不显眼,但却有几处独一无二的特征,这与之前发现的任何恐龙并不契合。而且这足以让他们来描述一个新物种。About 50 new species of dinosaurs named every year. About 90% of all named dinosaurs have been named since about 1990. If you were to generate a discovery curve of dinosaurs overtime, you would have a curve that shaped like this. And we are currently on the steep upward curve of the graph.每年大概会给50个新物种命名。自上世纪90年代年起,几乎90%的恐龙均被命名。如果你发现的新恐龙来自于更早的时代,那么形状应该是这样的。目前我们的图表是陡峭的上升的曲线。Why do you think there is such a craze for naming new dinosaurs at the moment?你认为在那时为什么会出现给恐龙命名的热潮?Regions of the world have been explored more. They havent been really looked at much beforehand. So places like southern South America, much of the central Asia, parts of Africa and Australia, more and more people are going out to those places, finding new dinosaurs and bringing them back.在世界范围内已经进行探索了许多。他们预先并没有太多依据可以参照。因此在南美南部地区,大多数中亚地区,部分非洲及澳洲地区,越来越多的人来到这些地方,寻找新的恐龙并带回去。原文译文属!201209/199124

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  Business商业Intellectual property in Silicon Valley硅谷知识产权之争Rumble in the Java jungleJava丛林大战1The legal fight between Oracle and Google is arcane, but the stakes are high甲骨文和谷歌之间的诉讼晦涩难解,牵涉的商业利益却是非常巨大LARRY ELLISON and Larry Page, the bosses of Oracle and Google, share a name. But they clearly do not share the same view of a particular intellectual property (IP) matter.甲骨文的老板拉里?埃里森和谷歌的老板拉里?佩奇都有一个相同的名字,但他们在某些知识产权问题上的看法却是迥然不同。On April 16th a jury began hearing arguments in a trial to determine whether Googles Android operating system infringes copyrights and patents owned by4月16日,为确定谷歌的安卓操作系统是否侵犯了甲骨文的版权和专利,陪审团开始听取法庭辩论。The outcome could shake up the Android world of more than 300m mobile devices.审理的结果也许会震动安卓业界,这一产业涵盖了超过3亿部的移动设备。The judge has called the trial ;the World Series of IP cases;.法官将这次审判称为;知识产权案件中的总冠军赛2;.That sounds about right-though both firms are far more global than the baseball contest in the analogy.这样说起来大概不错,虽然拿来类比的两家公司可比这项棒球赛事国际化多了。Oracle is hoping to hit a legal home run-and win billion in damages-by showing that Google failed to pay for its use of Java, a programming language which Oracle inherited when it bought Sun Microsystems in 2010, and on which Android is based.甲骨文希望通过明谷歌使用Java没有付费,在法律上打出一记全垒打,赢得10亿美元的赔偿金。Java是一种编程语言,甲骨文2010年收购Sun微系统后将其接手,它也是安卓的基础。Google says it has done nothing wrong.谷歌表示自己没有任何过错。The trial is delving into the complex world of computer programming and providing fascinating glimpses of the inner workings of the two tech giants.案件的审理是对复杂的计算机编程业界的深入研究,也让众人对两大技术巨擎的内部运作有机会惊鸿一瞥。In testimony this week, for instance, Mr Ellison revealed that Oracle had considered buying Research in Motion, the maker of the BlackBerry.例如,埃里森先生本周在作时就披露甲骨文曾考虑过收购RIM(黑莓的制造商)。But at the heart of the case lies the thorny issue of whether copyright law applies to application programming interfaces,但本案的核心在于,版权法对于应用程序编程接口(简称API)是否适用,这是个棘手的问题。or APIs-the specifications that allow one piece of software to talk to another (in this case, allowing apps to run on Android).API是允许软件不同部分进行通信的规范(本案中,API允许程序在安卓系统上运行)。Oracle claims that Google used 37 Java APIs in Android without paying, and that the APIs are covered by copyright because they are the creative work of Javas developers.甲骨文的主张是,谷歌在安卓系统中使用了37个Java API,但没有付费用,而且由于这些API是Java开发者们创造性的工作成果,所以它们是受版权保护的。Googles lawyers have responded by arguing that APIs are akin to words in a poem.谷歌的律师们回应辩称API就像诗歌里的词语。Copyright can protect the poem itself, but not the underlying elements used to create it.版权能保护诗歌本身,但不能对用来创造它的基本元素进行保护。Google-whose chairman once worked for Sun-has also made much of the fact that Javas creators cheered the launch of Android.谷歌,公司董事会主席曾为Sun效力,也特别强调了Java的创造者们为安卓的发布而欢呼这一事实。If Oracle prevails, Google may have to reach a settlement with Mr Ellisons firm so it does not have to cut the offending APIs from Android, which would cause huge disruption.如果甲骨文赢得诉讼,谷歌可能只好与埃里森先生的公司达成和解,这样才不必从安卓中将侵权的API移除,一旦移除将会引发巨大的混乱。;Oracle wants a financial piece of Android,; says Tyler Ochoa, a law professor at Santa Clara University.;甲骨文想从安卓的金钱蛋糕中分得一块,;圣克拉拉大学的法律学教授泰勒?奥乔亚这样说到。A victory would also raise further questions about the legal status of APIs.诉讼的胜利同样会激起对于API法律地位更深层次的疑问。Like a baseball game, this saga could have plenty of innings.如同一场棒球比赛,这场业界传奇可能要大战三百回合。 /201210/204901Y: Don! Hey, Don! Hey!耶尔:唐!嘿,唐!嘿!D: Did somebody say something?唐:什么人?Y: Yes, over here, hello!?!耶尔:是我,这儿呢。听到了吗?D: Oh, hi Yael. What a sec, let my take my earplugs out. Man, drums are loud.唐: 噢,你好,耶尔。等一下,让我把耳塞摘掉。哦,鼓声真响亮。Y: Tell me about it! What are you doing? Starting a rock band?耶尔:跟我说说!你在做什么呢?成立一个摇滚乐队?D: Nope. Im working out.唐:不是的。我在做运动。Y: Uh, OK. It looked to me like you were nurturing your inner John Bonham.耶尔:嗯,在我看来,你在把自己培养下一个约翰-纳姆。D: Well, maybe I was living out my rock star fantasies, but Im also working up a sweat. Did you know that during a rock show the drummers heart rate can get as high as 179 beats per minute?唐:哦,我已经不做摇滚巨星的梦了。我出汗了。你知道吗?在一场摇滚音乐会中,鼓手的心率可以达到每分钟179次。Y: Wow! Thats like professional athlete range.耶尔:哇塞!那相当于一个职业运动员的心率。D: Yep. Rock drummers burn something like six-hundred calories per hour.唐:是的。摇滚鼓手每小时消耗600卡路里的热量。Y: How do you know all this?耶尔:你怎么知道这些的?D: Im a big fan of the rock group Blondie. Remember them from the 1970s and early 80s? Anyhow, the groups drummer, Clem Burke, has been working with scientists to study what drumming does for the body. Turns out it could be a great form of exercise.唐:我可是摇滚乐团;金发女郎;的超级粉丝。他们活跃于20世纪70年代和80年代初,还记得吗?它的鼓手克莱姆-伯克曾和与科学家做过研究,看看击鼓对身体的锻炼作用。结果显示击鼓确实是一个很好的锻炼方式。Y: I can see that. Youre using both arms and legs at the same time, and if youre playing a fast song, that really takes a lot of energy.耶尔:我看到了。你需要同时使用胳膊和腿。如果是一首节奏很快的歌曲的话,真的需要耗费大量的体力。D: Exactly. And its more fun than running on a tmill like a hamster on a wheel.唐:没错。这种锻炼方式比在跑步机上有趣多了。Y: So are we going to see drumming fitness centers in the near future?耶尔:在不久的将来,会出现击鼓锻炼中心吗?D: Maybe. Theres still more research to be done on drumming as exercise. But drumming could very well emerge as a new fitness trend.唐:也许吧。要把击鼓发展成锻炼方式,还需要很多研究要做。但击鼓很可能成为一个新的锻炼趋势。201203/174716Are Tanning Beds Safe?日光浴床安全吗?Millions of people go to tanning salons, some to get a base tan before they go away on a beach vacation. The idea of the base tan is that it will protect you from burning on your sun excursion, so that what you end up with is a darker tan rather than a lobster face and discomfort.数百万的人在海滨度假之前去日晒沙龙,一些人的皮肤会晒成棕褐色。把皮肤晒成棕褐色,是因为它可以保护你免于晒伤,因此最终你的皮肤将变得更黑,而不是变红或是感觉不舒。But does a base tan protect your skin from ultraviolet damage you cant see? And how safe are tanning beds themselves?但是棕褐色皮肤真的可以使你的皮肤免遭那些你看不见的紫外线伤害吗?The Truth About Tanning日光浴的真相Dermatologists say that just one trip to the tanning salon can produce DNA damage that can cause skin cancer. Tanning booths emit about ninety-five percent ultraviolet A light and five-percent ultraviolet B light.皮肤病学家称仅仅去一次日晒沙龙就可以引起致皮肤癌的DNA损害。人工日光浴场放射出约95%的紫外线A光和5%的紫外线B光。For some time, ultraviolet A light was thought to affect the aging of skin only. Now dermatologists know that ultraviolet A light, like ultraviolet B light, also causes genetic damage linked to skin cancer.有时,人们认为紫外线A光仅仅是影响皮肤老化。现在皮肤病学家们认识到,和紫外线B光一样,紫外线A光也会产生与皮肤癌有关的遗传性伤害。One study indicated that people who used tanning beds at least once were two-and-a-half times more likely to develop squamous cell skin cancer, and one-and-a-half times more likely to develop basal cell skin cancer. Tanning bed users are at an increased risk of melanoma too, the deadliest form of skin cancer.有研究表明,至少用过一次日光浴床的那些人得鳞状细胞皮肤癌的可能性要(比没用过的)高2.5倍,得基底细胞皮肤癌的可能性要高1.5倍。日光浴床使用者得黑素瘤的风险也增加了,这是一种最致命的皮肤癌。Skin Cancer And SPFs皮肤癌和防晒系数Not only can tanning inside lead to skin cancer, but the base tan that indoor tanning provides contains a sun protective factor of only about SPF-4. It doesnt offer good protection against sunburn or the genetic damage that can lead to skin cancer. Dermatologists recommend an over-the-counter sunscreen of SPF-15 or higher.日光浴不仅在内部能让人体得皮肤癌,而且即使是室内日光浴提供的“日晒”防晒系数也只有SPF4.它们没有提供良好的保护以免受致皮肤癌的晒伤或遗传性伤害。皮肤病学家们推荐使用防晒系数15或更高的非处方防晒霜。 /201209/201790

  A FREIGHT train, its dozen cars loaded with coal covered in a light dusting of snow, snaked through the narrow valley, sometimes following the two-lane highway and sometimes crossing it. The valley was silent and snowy, and though it was two days into 2012 it could easily have been 1982, 1942 or 1922: coal has been mined in Appalachia and carried out by rail for well over a century.一列货运火车装载着十二车煤炭,煤炭上覆盖着一层薄薄的白雪,火车迂回地行进于狭窄的山谷之间,时而沿着这一条双车道高速公路行驶,时而又穿过那一条。峡谷寂静而多雪,尽管这已经是进入2012年以来的的第二天了,然而在阿帕拉契亚,这样的一天也可以发生在1982年,1942年或者是1922年:一个世纪以来,煤炭在这里挖掘,并不断用火车运走。And by some measures, coal is still going strong. It provides more of Americarsquo;s electricity than any other fuel. Production has fallen off since 2008, but it remains high, as do prices, for which thank the developing worldrsquo;s appetite. In Appalachia, coal remains a source of well-paid jobs in a region that needs them: for the first three quarters of 2011 employment in the Appalachian coal industry was at its highest level since 1997. And the Powder River Basin, which spans Wyoming and Montana, has become Americarsquo;s major source of coal in the past decade, relieving overmined Kentucky and West Virginia. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reckons America has enough coal to meet current demand levels for the next 200 years.然而在某种程度上,煤炭业依旧很昌盛。较比其他的燃料,煤炭为美国提供了更多的电力资源。自2008年以来,煤炭产量逐渐减少,但仍能维持较高的生产量,而且价格也没有大幅跌落,这都得益于发展中国家对于煤炭的广泛需求。在阿帕拉契亚那些需要煤炭的地区,煤炭一直是高收入工作的主要来源:在2011年的前三个季度,煤炭产业的就业状况达到了其自1997年以来的最高水准。在过去十年里,横跨怀俄明州和蒙大纳的粉河盆地已经成为了美国重要的煤炭来源,缓解了肯塔基州和西弗吉尼亚州的重度开采。能源信息则认为,美国有足够的煤炭来满足其未来200年的需求。But if the raw numbers look good, the trends tell a different story. Regulatory uncertainty and the emergence of alternative fuel sources (natural gas and renewables) will probably make Americarsquo;s future far less coal-reliant than its past. In 2000 America got 52% of its electricity from coal; in 2010 that number was 45%. Robust as exports are, they account for less than one-tenth of American mined coal; exports cannot pick up the slack if Americarsquo;s taste for coal declines. Appalachian coal production peaked in the early 1990s; the EIA forecasts a decline for the next three years, followed by two decades of low-level stability. Increased employment and declining productivity suggest that Appalachian coal is getting harder to find. 但如果原始数据前景看好,那么未来趋势则另当别论。管理规章的不确定性和可替代燃料能源的出现可能会使美国不再会像过去一样依赖于煤炭资源。2000年美国52%的电力资源来自煤炭;2010年这一数字是45%。尽管出口很强劲,出口的煤炭量不到美国开采煤炭量的十分之一;然而如果美国自身对于煤炭的需求量逐渐减少,对外出口也不会缓解这一萧条景象。阿帕拉契亚的煤炭产量在20世纪90年代初达到顶峰; 美国能源信息预测未来三年煤产量会减少,之后会迎来二十年的低水平稳定期。就业增加,生产率降低,预示着阿帕拉契亚的煤炭会越来越难开采。Toughening regulation has an effect, too. Coal-fired power plants are the source of more than one-third of greenhouse-gas emissions in America. Last July the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule that requires 28 states to reduce the amount of sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide they emit; in December came another, reducing the amount of mercury and other toxic air pollutants that power plants can puff out. 加强管理也具有一定的效用。美国三分之一以上的温室气体排放来自燃煤发电厂。去年七月,环境保护局发表了一项规章,要求28个州减少二氧化硫和氮氧化物的排放;在接下来的十二月份,又要求发电厂减少汞和其他有毒空气污染物的排放。Many plants have aly made the necessary upgrades and retrofits; around 53% of Americarsquo;s coal-fired capacity comes from units fitted with scrubbers. But others, particularly older plants, will have to decide whether such expensive upgrades are worth doing at all. Most of Americarsquo;s coal-fired capacity comes from plants at least 30 years old, and as much as 14% of existing coal-fired plants, accounting for 4% of Americarsquo;s generation capacity, will have to be retired in the next five to eight years. Energy providers face a stark choice. They can fight these regulations in court (outcome uncertain). They can retrofit old plants: plenty have done that, too. Or they can build new plants;in which case, far more are choosing plants that burn natural gas or use renewables rather than coal.许多工厂已经做了必要的升级和改进;大约53%的美国燃煤生产力来自装有洗涤器的装置。但是其他的工厂,尤其是一些历史更久远的工厂,必须得决定这样昂贵的升级到底值不值。大多数的美国燃煤生产力来自于30年余久的工厂,这样的工厂占现有燃煤工厂的14%,发电量占美国发电总量的的4%,然而这些工厂在接下来的5到8年内必须淘汰。能量供应商面临着一个严峻的抉择。他们可以上诉公堂,与这些规章条例作斗争。他们也可以改进这些工厂:很多人也已经这么做了。或者他们可以建造新的工厂;; 在这种情况下,更多人会选择烧天然气或使用可再生能源,而不是煤炭。201202/169710Science and Technology Animal behaviour Drip-feeding科技 动物行为 滴定进食Ecology raids the techniques of chemistry生态学里应用上了化学技术。BIOLOGISTS are sometimes accused of physics envy—and there is truth in this accusation. The essential fuzziness of biological systems can never be captured by the precise, mathematically based experiments of something like the Large Hadron Collider. Between physics and biology on the spectrum of fuzziness, though, lies chemistry. And a group of researchers led by Carolyn Nersesian of the University of Sydney has just borrowed one of chemistrys most elegant techniques, titration, to answer a pressing ecological question: how do animals choose where to feed?生物学家们常常被认为非常嫉妒研究物理学的人(事实上确实如此)。他们永远不可能通过像大型强子加速碰撞那样精确、量化的实验来揭示生物学里的一些关键性的奥秘。但是在这种奥秘的;两极;——物理学和生物学之间还有化学。最近由悉尼大学的卡洛琳·涅尔谢相带领的一组研究人员借用化学里一种非常精妙的技术——滴定法来解决一个迫待回答的问题:动物们如何选择觅食场所。Titration, to remind those who dozed through their chemistry lessons, is a way of working out the concentration of a substance in a solution. A reagent of known concentration is dripped (or titrated, to use the term of art) into the unknown solution in the presence of an appropriate indicator molecule (for example litmus, in the case of a reaction between an acid and an alkali). When the tipping point comes, and all of the unknown reagent has reacted, the solution changes colour. The unknown concentration can then be calculated from the amount of known reagent used.滴定法(为了给那些在化学课上打过瞌睡的同学们提个醒)是一种计算溶质在溶液中的浓度的方法。在某种特定的指示分子的参与下(例如,酸溶液和碱溶液的反应中我们使用石蕊指示剂),将一种已知浓度的溶液滴到(专业术语叫滴定)未知溶液中。当滴定终点到来时,所有的未知溶液全都完成了化学反应,溶液的颜色就会发生变化。然后未知溶液的浓度就可以通过被消耗掉的已知溶液的体积计算出来。In Dr Nersesians titration the litmus was a species called the brushtail possum. The two reagents were predators and poisons. In the wild, possums feed mainly on eucalyptus trees. Feeding in trees this way also keeps them safe from ground-based predators, such as foxes. They frequently have to shift from tree to tree in search of non-poisonous leaves, though, because a tree that is being browsed starts manufacturing toxins. Dr Nersesian reasoned that there is probably a measurable point at which a plant becomes so toxic that possums prefer to take their chances with the predators on the ground—and she realised this was a perfect opportunity to do an ecological titration.涅尔谢相士的滴定实验中的;石蕊指示剂;是一种叫帚尾袋貂的动物。那两种溶液是;猎食者;和;有毒物;。在野生环境下,袋貂主要以桉树叶为食。生活在树上也能让它们安全地远离地面上的那些猎食者——例如狐狸。但是他们还得经常从一棵树上换到另一棵树上去寻找那些没有毒的叶子。因为一颗树如果被它们吃久了就会自动分泌毒素。涅尔谢相士认为可能当植物中的毒素达到一个量值的时候,袋貂会选择冒着被猎食的风险(途经地面换一棵树觅食),然后她就意识到这是一个应用生态滴定法绝好的机会。As she reports in the Journal of Animal Ecology, she attempted to imitate the distinction between trees and ground by giving eight possums the opportunity to feed in either of two enclosures. In one, cover was created with eucalyptus branches and light levels were kept low, mimicking an arboreal habitat. Here, the food was sometimes spiked with cineole—a poison often found in eucalyptus leaves. In the other enclosure, the food was always untarnished. However, no cover was provided and fox scent, in the form of faeces and urine, was scattered liberally around, mimicking conditions on the ground.她发表在动物生态学报上报告中写道:她通过给8只袋貂两种桉树来选择觅食来模拟树上和地面的区别。一棵桉树上,有特意放置的桉树枝来遮挡,光照强度也很低,模拟出适合树栖动物习性的环境。但是,这种树上的叶子有时含有桉树脑——桉树叶中常见的毒素。另一棵桉树上,叶子总是无毒的,但是,没有树枝的遮挡。而且通过将一些狐狸的;踪迹;,例如狐狸的脸谱尿液随意四散在周围,来模拟地面环境。To start with, when the level of cineole was low, possums preferred the first enclosure. But as the drip of the titration went up, from 0% to 1% to 2% to 5% and ultimately to 10% of the food being cineole, their behaviour changed. It was not quite the sudden shift from litmus red to blue of an acid being neutralised by an alkali, but it was not far off.开始桉树脑的浓度很低,袋貂都喜欢第一棵桉树。但是随着滴定程度的上升,食物中的桉树脑含量从0%到1%到2%到5% 到最终的10%,它们的行为开始出现变化。虽然不是完全像酸溶液完全被碱溶液中和时石蕊试剂突然从红变蓝那样迅速,但是也差不太多。When the food was toxin-free, the possums spent an average of 40 minutes of every hour eating safely under treelike cover and only 20 minutes in the risky, ground-like enclosure, and that scarcely changed for 1% and 2% cineole. The switch began at 5%, and by the time the cineole level had reached 10% the ratio of time the animals spent in the two enclosures had reversed itself—presumably reflecting, though this remains to be tested, the point at which they change trees in the wild.当叶子无毒时,袋貂们每小时用平均40分钟的时间在树枝状的遮蔽物下安全的进食。而在危险的类地面的桉树上只待20分钟,这时的桉树脑含量变化在1%到2%之间。分界点出现在5%,当桉树脑含量达到10%,这些小动物们呆在这两颗桉树上的时间比完全颠倒过来了——这大致上能反映在野外环境下它们换树进食时的毒素量值,当然这还有待验。Though foxes are of recent introduction in Australia (having been brought for sport by British settlers), many marsupial predators, now extinct, were present before the arrival of man in both his Aboriginal and his European forms, so the ecological system of plants, herbivores and carnivores in the eucalyptus forests would probably not have been that different in the evolutionary past. A neat illustration, then, of co-evolution between three different parts of an ecosystem—and of the value, even in biology, of precise measurement.虽然狐狸是很晚才被引进到澳大利亚的(由英国移民出于狩猎运动的目的而带来的),但是在原始人或者欧洲人到来之前还有很多其他的有袋动物的猎食者(现在都灭绝了)。所以桉树林生态系统中的那些植物,素食动物肉食动物,与进化史中较早的生态系统相比,差别可能也没有那么大。这样一来生态系统中的三个不同角色的(植物,素食动物,肉食动物)协同进化的一张清晰的图表呈现出来。在生物学里也能进行精确的量化计算,这种尝试的价值是巨大的。 /201301/221487

  

  

  

  They used to call her the Muse, but thats wrong, shes not the muse. 他们经常称她为艺术女神,但,这是错误的,她不是艺术女神。She was a musician. 她是一位音乐家。She could play, she could sing. 她可以演奏,她可以唱歌。The left-wingers championed what they saw as authentic Brazilian music, music of the people, that came from the city slums, the favelas, or the countryside, and had no foreign influences. 左翼持他们认为正宗的巴西音乐,音乐人都是来自这个城市贫民窟,贫民窟,还有乡村,没有受到外国影响。During the 60s, these favelas doubled in size, as more migrants moved from the countryside to the increasingly industrialised city.在60年代,随着越来越多的移民者离开农村到越来越发达的城市,这些贫民窟翻了一番。注:听力文本来源于普特201302/224437

  

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