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楼主:飞度排名云管家 时间:2018年11月22日 18:19:09 点击:0 回复:0
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This is how quickly fortunes change in the smartphone industry. In 2006, Nokia (NOK) still controlled more than half of the share of the smartphone market. The iPhone wouldn#39;t appear until the summer of 2007. And no one was making Android phones. Android Inc., bought by Google (GOOG) in 2005, wouldn#39;t emerge as a player until HTC released the Dreamsmartphone in the fall of 2008.在智能手机行业,运气来得快去得也快。就在2006年的时候,诺基亚(Nokia)还控制着智能手机市场的大半壁江山。iPhone直到2007年夏天才出现。当时安卓(Android)手机甚至还没有面世。安卓公司于2005年被谷歌(Goolge)收购,但是直到宏达电(HTC)在2008年秋天推出Dream智能手机,安卓才作为一个竞争者进入了市场。Android, of course, would go on to dominate the global smartphone market, powering 70% of smartphones shipped in the last quarter of 2012. Five years ago, Android was an open-source mobile OS offered to device manufacturers that wanted to take on Nokia, Apple (AAPL), and BlackBerry (BBRY). It was the OS supporting the Open Handset Alliance, whose members included manufacturers like HTC, Samsung, and Motorola.去年第四季度,全球智能手机出货量中70%安装的都是安卓系统,因此安卓毫无疑问还会继续主宰全球智能手机市场。五年前,安卓作为一个开源移动操作系统平台,被提供给那些想与诺基亚、苹果(Apple)和黑莓(Blackberry)分一杯羹的手机厂商。它也是开放手机联盟的代表系统,而这个开放手机联盟的成员则包括HTC、三星(Samsung)和托罗拉(Motorola)等大牌厂商。Early on, HTC emerged as the company most likely to succeed as the big maker of Android phones. Not only because of the Dream -- the inaugural Android smartphone -- but also theNexus One, Google#39;s first attempt to design its own smartphone. Android may have been an open OS, but it needed a leader. Early on, HTC looked to be that leader. Instead, it#39;s Samsung that is ruling the Android empire in 2013.起初,HTC似乎是最有可能获得巨大成功的安卓厂商。这不仅仅是因为它的Dream手机开创了安卓时代的先河,同时也因为谷歌的第一个“亲儿子”Nexus 1就是HTC代工的。虽然安卓是个开源平台,但是它也需要一个领头羊。在早期的安卓时代,HTC貌似就是那只领头羊。到了2013年,三星则成了安卓王国的霸主。And what of HTC? By recent numbers, it#39;s ailing. According to comScore, its share of U.S. smartphone subscribers fell 1.3 percentage points to 9.3% in the three months through February, a bigger decline than Motorola (now owned by Google). Samsung saw its share grow by 1 percentage point and Apple by 4 points. Measured by global smartphone shipments, according to Barclays Research, HTC may drop to No. 10 this year.HTC怎么了?从最近的数据看,它显然存在一些问题。根据康姆斯科公司(comScore)的数据,去年12月及今年1、2月份,HTC在美国智能手机用户中的占有率降低了1.3个百分点,降至9.3%,跌幅甚至超过了被谷歌收购的托罗拉。同一时期,三星的占有率上升了1%,苹果的占有率上升了4%。根据巴克莱研究公司(Barclays Research)的数据,HTC今年的全球手机出货量可能会跌至第十位。Last week, HTC pre-announced its first-quarter earnings, and the news wasn#39;t good. Net income declined 98% to NT million (.8 million), well below analyst estimates of NT0 million. Revenue fell 37% to NT.8 million. The quarter marked the sixth straight decline in profit for the Taiwan-based company.上周,HTC提前宣布了今年第一季度的收益,成绩并不喜人。第一季度HTC的净收入为8500万新台币(合280万美元),下降了98%,远远低于分析师预测的6亿新台币。其第一季度营收为4280万新台币,下跌了37%。这已经是HTC连续第六个季度收益持续下跌了。For some, the disappointing news was another sign that HTC#39;s ship is sinking. Most of the disappointing profit centered around the delayed release of the HTC One phone, an Android phone with an attractive display screen that had been winning largely positive reviews. A shortage of cameras reportedly forced the delay of the new phones. Smartphone makers don#39;t just have to compete for consumers, they also often compete for components.另一个让人沮丧的信号是HTC的出货量也在下降。首先,利润下降的主要原因是HTC One手机的推迟出货。HTC One搭载了一块十分吸引人的显示屏,近来受到了不少好评。据说摄相头供应不足是导致出货推迟的主要原因。智能手机厂家们不仅要为争抢消费者而竞争,还得为了抢零部件而竞争。The HTC One was supposed to release in March, several weeks ahead of Samsung#39;s new smartphone -- the Galaxy S4, which had also won strong early reviews and received a fair amount of attention now that Samsung has emerged as a rival to Apple. Having a head start of a month could help HTC steal thunder and show that it was making a big step forward with its smartphones. Instead, the HTC One was delayed until April, with shipment expected to begin this week.HTC One本来定在今年三月份发布,比三星的最新型号Galaxy S4还早了几周。随着三星成为苹果日益强大的竞争对手,其新发布的Galaxy S4手机也获得了不少好评和关注。如果能提前一个月发布HTC One手机,将有助于HTC抢占市场先机,并明自己在智能手机研发上走在了行业前列。可惜HTC One的发布被延期到4月,而且预计本周才会发货开卖。HTC#39;s stock closed down 2.2% on the day it announced those numbers. But it ended up rallying 8.5% over the next four days, closing the week at NT1.50. That rally appeared to be sparked by the positive reception of Facebook Home, Facebook#39;s (FB) effort to coopt Android#39;s OS to create a front-end interface designed around its own social network. Another HTC phone, the First, was presented as the first Facebook Home phone, although Home will be dowloadable to other Android phones.HTC宣布第一季度收的当日,其股价以下跌2.2个百分点收盘,不过在接下来的四天里又逆势上扬8.5%,本周收于261.50元新台币。这次股价上扬可能是由于Facebook与HTC合作的Facebook Home系统受到了好评的缘故。而HTC First手机则成为第一款持Facebook Home的手机。不过以后Facebook Home将也可以下载到其它手机上。Still, the decline in its market share has brought HTC#39;s stock down significantly from its levels in recent years, trading 80% below the high point of NT,300 in April 2011. The One is intended to turn that around, with its impressive display, a casing designed to rival that of the iPhone, and an image processor chip that HTC made in-house.尽管如此,由于HTC手机的市场份额不断下降,该公司的股价近年来也明显下跌,从2011年4月顶峰时的1300元新台币下跌了80%。HTC希望凭借HTC One手机扭转颓势,因此给HTC One配备了一块性能超强的显示屏、一个意在与iPhone竞争的铝合金机身、以及HTC自家生产的图形处理芯片。Wall Street analysts remain divided on HTC#39;s outlook, but most feel the One would have a bigger impact on its fate than the First. J.P. Morgan, which described the One as HTC#39;s ;last chance for a turnaround,; said in a report last week that ;early signs of order rates are very strong; and could deliver 50% growth in revenue this quarter over the previous quarter. Others, like Goldman Sachs, were concerned that the supply-chain issues that delayed the One could continue to be a factor.华尔街的分析师们对HTC的展望持分歧态度,不过大多数分析师都认为,HTC One对该公司的影响将大于HTC First。根大通公司(J. P. Morgan)在上周的一份报告中称HTC One是HTC公司“翻身的最后一次机会”,还称“从早期迹象看,它的订购率很强势”,并表示本季度HTC的营收可能会比上季度增长50%。高盛等公司则认为,造成HTC One出货延迟的供应链问题仍是一个不稳定因素。HTC#39;s One is the company#39;s best chance to win back market share. The company#39;s new marketing chief recently promised a louder voice and bolder approach in reaching out to consumers in a market flooded with Android phones. Last week, to promote the HTC One, the company launched an ad campaign mocking reality TV shows on sites like Funny or Die.HTC One是宏达电赢回市场份额的最好机会。HTC的新任市场总监最近表示,在这个安卓手机多如牛毛的市场中,HTC将更大声、更大胆地迎合消费者。上周为了推广HTC One,HTC公司还在Funny or Die等网站上发布了一个恶搞电视真人秀的广告。In the smartphone market, consumer tastes are just fickle enough to make HTC a winner again. For now, the Android manufacturer that once seemed most likely to succeed is just fighting to stay in the game.在智能手机市场上,消费者的口味是非常善变的,这完全有可能使HTC再次成为赢家。不过目前,这家一度曾是最有希望成功的安卓手机厂商还得先为生存而战。 /201304/235831Could Google’s new self-driving car one day have to yield to an oncoming smart bicycle?谷歌(Google)新研发的无人驾驶汽车会不会有一天向尚未问世的智能自行车低头?Samsung introduced the prototype for its Smart Bikeat a design trade show in Milan earlier this year, showing off a form of two-wheel transportation that connects to a Samsung KRX smartphone to enable onboard sensors, GPS and other safety high-tech features. Design Boom reports that Samsung teamed up with Italian frame-builder Giovanni Pelizzoli to build the Smart Bike, which sports a curved frame meant to reduce the roughness of riding on urban terrain.今年年初,三星(Samsung)在米兰设计贸易展览会上展出了旗下智能自行车的原型。这种新型双轮交通工具可与三星(KRX)智能手机相连,驱动车载传感器、GPS系统等高科技安全保护功能。据设计邦(Design Boom)网的报道称,这款智能自行车由三星集团携手意大利车架设计专家Giovanni Pelizzoli共同打造,车身总体采用曲管设计,以缓解都市路面的颠簸。The bike also has safety features such as laser beams that create an individualized bike lane and a rearview camera, which syncs with the handlebar-mounted smartphone to allow riders a view of whatever is behind them. Business Insider notes it is not clear yet whether the Smart Bike, which comes enabled with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, will go into full production anytime soon.此外,三星智能自行车还配备了其它安全保护措施,比如车载激光器可以投射出激光束自行车道,车上还有一台后视摄像机,与手把中间的智能手机同步,车主可以对背后的情况一清二楚。商业内幕网(Business Insider)称,尚未有确切消息明这种装有Wi-Fi和蓝牙的智能自行车会很快投入批量生产。Samsung isn’t the first entrant into the smart bike market. Vanhawks Valour recently waged a successful Kickstarter campaign to fund the production of its connected bike, which tracks the rider’s performance and also features security sensors and syncs with smartphones to provide interactive feedback. Helios also offers a bike model with built-in Bluetooth and a GPS tracker.其实,三星并不是抢占智能自行车市场的第一家公司。近期,凡浩克斯公司(Vanhawks)在众筹平台(Kickstarter)上成功募款,筹得的资金用于生产旗下一款名为“凡浩克斯o勇气”(Vanhawks Valour)的智能互联自行车。这款自行车能追踪车主情况,同时还配有安全传感器,能与智能手机同步提供双向反馈。另外,海里欧(Helio)也推出一款内嵌蓝牙与GPS追踪器的自行车模型。Meanwhile, Google GOOG is thinking a little bigger, having announced plans last month to build a fleet of 100 driver-less cars that can shepherd up to two passengers to a destination relying only on sensors to detect location and any possible obstacles, including (maybe?) smart bikes.谷歌(GOOG)这时候也没闲着,正在忙着规划一次大型活动。它上个月宣布,要组建一个100辆无人驾驶汽车车队,护送两乘客至目的地,全程仅依靠传感器监测位置与障碍物,它所指的“障碍物”其中(说不定)就包括智能自行车。 /201406/306056Global sea levels are about eight inches higher today than they were in 1880, and they are expected to rise another two to seven feet during this century. At the same time, some 5 million people in the U.S. live in 2.6 million coastal homes situated less than 4 feet above high tide.你知道吗,今天的全球海平面要比1880年的时候高出8英寸,而就在本世纪内,全球海平面预计还将上涨2到7英尺。另外,美国沿海地区有260万户家庭的500余万人口的住宅,在海水满潮时,只高出海平面不到4英尺。Do the math: Climate change is a problem, whatever its cause.毫无疑问,气候变化是个大问题,不管导致它的原因是什么。The problem? Actually making those complex calculations is an extremely challenging proposition. To understand the impact of climate change at the local level, you’ll need more than back-of-the-napkin mathematics.那么如何计算气候对环境的影响呢?事实上,要进行这些复杂的计算,是一个极具挑战性的课题。要想了解气候变化对一国一地的影响水平,绝对不是在一张餐巾纸上写写画画就能算得出来的。You’ll need big data technology.这时你就需要大数据技术了。Surging Seas is an interactive map and tool developed by the nonprofit Climate Central that shows in graphic detail the threats from sea-level rise and storm surges to all of the 3,000-plus coastal towns, cities, counties and states in the continental ed States. With detail down to neighborhood scale—search for a specific location or zoom down as necessary—the tool matches areas with flooding risk timelines and provides links to fact sheets, data downloads, action plans, embeddable widgets, and other items.“上升的海平面”(Surging Seas)是由非盈利组织“气候中心”(Climate Central)开发的一款互动式地图工具,它用图形的形式详细描绘了海平面上升和风暴潮给美国大陆沿海3000多个城市、城镇和农村造成的威胁。它的细节可以精确到每一个街区——你可以搜索一个特定的地理位置,或是按照需要继续缩小目标范围。这个工具会与存在洪泛风险的地区进行匹配,并且提供相关实时报道、数据下载、行动计划、内嵌小工具和其它相关事项的链接。It’s the kind of number-crunching that was all but impossible only a few years ago.这种数据处理方式仅仅在几年前还是不可能实现的。‘Just as powerful, just as big’能力有多大,困难就多大“Our strategy is to tell people about their climate locally in ways they can understand, and the only way to do that is with big data analysis,” said Richard Wiles, vice president for strategic communications and director of research with Climate Central. “Big data allows you to say simple, clear things.”气候中心的战略沟通副总裁兼研究主任理查德o怀尔斯表示:“我们的战略是以人们能够理解的方式告诉他们当地的气候情况,唯一能实现这个目标的方法就是通过大数据分析。大数据让你能够简单、清晰地表达。”There are actually two types of big data in use today to help understand and deal with climate change, Wiles said. The first is relatively recently collected data that is so voluminous and complex that it couldn’t be effectively manipulated before, such as NASA images of heat over cities, Wiles said. This kind of data “literally was too big to handle not that long ago,” he said, “but now you can handle it on a regular computer.”怀尔斯指出,目前主要有两种大数据形式可以用来帮助人们了解和应对气候变化。第一类是某些在近期才收集到的数据,但它们往往数据量极大且非常复杂,搁在以前很难对其进行有效分析,比如美国国家航空航天局(NASA)对各大城市的热成像绘图。怀尔斯表示,这种数据“一直到不久之前,还因为数据量过大而基本上没法处理,但是现在你已经可以在一台普通的电脑上处理它们了。”The second type of big data is older datasets that may be less-than-reliable. This data “was always kind of there,” Wiles said, such as historic temperature trends in the ed States. That kind of dataset is not overly complex, but it can be fraught with gaps and errors. “A guy in Oklahoma may have broken his thermometer back in 1936,” Wiles said, meaning that there could be no measurements at all for two months of that year.第二类大数据是一些相对较老但可能不那么可靠的数据。怀尔斯表示,这些数据“基本上一直都在那儿”,比如美国的历史气温趋势。这种数据一般不太复杂,但有可能存在不少缺口和误差。比如怀尔斯就指出:“1936年,俄克拉荷马州的某个负责量气温的家伙有可能不小心把温度计弄坏了。”这样的话,当年可能就有两个月根本没有气温记录。Address those issues, and existing data can be “just as powerful, just as big,” Wiles said. “It makes it possible to make the story very local.”怀尔斯表示,要解决这些问题,现有的数据可以说“能力有多大,困难就有多大。但是大数据技术使得揭示一城一地的气候变化成为可能。”Climate Central imports data from historical government records to produce highly localized graphics for about 150 local TV weather forecasters across the U.S., illustrating climate change in each station’s particular area. For example, “Junes in Toledo are getting hotter,” Wiles said. “We use these data all the time to try to localize the climate change story so people can understand it.”气候中心从政府的历史记录中获取原始数据,然后为美国各地的150余家地方电视台的天气预报节目制作高度本地化的气候图形,以阐释该地区的气候变化。比如怀尔斯指出:“今年六月,托雷多市变热了。我们一直利用这些数据试图让当地人了解气候变化趋势。”‘One million hours of computation’100万小时的计算Though the Climate Central map is an effective tool for illustrating the problem of rising sea levels, big data technology is also helping researchers model, analyze, and predict the effects of climate change.气候中心的地图是阐释海平面上升情况的一个非常有效的工具。此外,大数据技术还能帮助研究人员模拟、分析和预测气候变化的影响。“Our goal is to turbo-charge the best science on massive data to create novel insights and drive action,” said Rebecca Moore, engineering manager for Google Earth Engine. Google Earth Engine aims to bring together the world’s satellite imagery—trillions of scientific measurements dating back almost 40 years—and make it available online along with tools for researchers.谷歌地图引擎(Google Earth Engine)的工程经理瑞贝卡o尔介绍道:“我们的目标是助力最好的大数据分析技术,以催生新颖的见解并且促进行动。”谷歌地图旨在将全球的卫星图像进行汇总,其中还包括40年来数以万亿计的观测数据,并将其与其它为研究人员开发的工具一道放在网上。Global deforestation, for example, “is a significant contributor to climate change, and until recently you could not find a detailed current map of the state of the world’s forests anywhere,” Moore said. That changed last November when Science magazine published the first high-resolution maps of global forest change from 2000 to 2012, powered by Google Earth Engine.比如在全球荒漠化问题上,尔表示:“全球荒漠化是气候变化的一个重要推手,直到不久之前,还没有一份详细的实时地图能够显示全球各地的森林情况。但现在情况不同了,去年11月,《科学》(Science)杂志在谷歌地图引擎的帮助下,发布了首张2000至2012年的高分辨率全球森林变化图。“We ran forest-mapping algorithms developed by Professor Matt Hansen of University of Maryland on almost 700,000 Landsat satellite images—a total of 20 trillion pixels,” she said. “It required more than one million hours of computation, but because we ran the analysis on 10,000 computers in parallel, Earth Engine was able to produce the results in a matter of days.”尔介绍道:“我们运行的森林测绘算法是由马里兰大学(University of Maryland)的马特o汉森教授开发的,总共利用了70万张美国陆地资源卫星的图像,加起来大约有20万亿个像素点。它需要超过100万小时的计算时间,但由于我们是在10,000台计算机上并行计算的,因此谷歌地球引擎才得以在几天内就得出了结果。On a single computer, that analysis would have taken more than 15 years. Anyone in the world can view the resulting interactive global map on a PC or mobile device.如果只用一台计算机计算的话,完成这样一次分析大概需要超过15年的时间。但现在全球各地的任何人都可以在电脑或移动设备上查看这次分析得到的这张互动式全球地图。‘We have sensors everywhere’传感器无所不在Rapidly propelling such developments, meanwhile, is the fact that data is being collected today on a larger scale than ever before.在这些项目取得快速进展的背后离不开这样一个事实:如今我们对数据的收集程度已经远超以往任何时候。“Big data in climate first means that we have sensors everywhere: in space, looking down via remote sensing satellites, and on the ground,” said Kirk Borne, a data scientist and professor at George Mason University. Those sensors are continually recording information about weather, land use, vegetation, oceans, ice cover, precipitation, drought, water quality, and many more variables, he said. They are also tracking correlations between datasets: biodiversity changes, invasive species, and at-risk species, for example.乔治梅森大学的数据学家柯克o波恩教授指出:“大数据技术在气候研究领域的发展,首先意味着传感器已经无所不在。首先是太空中的遥感卫星,其次是地面上的传感器。”这些传感器时刻记录着地球各地的天气、土地利用、植被、海洋、冰层、降水、干旱、水质等信息以及许多变量。同时它们也在跟踪各种数据之间的关联,比如生物多样性的变化、入侵物种和濒危物种等等。Two large monitoring projects of this kind are NEON—the National Ecological Observatory Network—andOOI, the Ocean Observatories Initiative.在这一类监控项目中有两个比较有代表性的大型项目,一个是美国国家生态观测站网络(NEON),一个是海洋观测计划(OOI)。“All of these sensors also deliver a vast increase in the rate and the number of climate-related parameters that we are now measuring, monitoring, and tracking,” Borne said. “These data give us increasingly deeper and broader coverage of climate change, both temporally and geospatially.”波恩指出:“这些传感器令我们现在正在观测和追踪的气候参数无论在等级还是数量上都有了极大的提高。另外无论是在时间上还是在地理空间上,这些数据对气候变化的覆盖都变得越来越深、越来越广。”Climate change is one of the largest examples of scientific modeling and simulation, Borne said. Efforts are focused not on tomorrow’s weather but on decades and centuries into the future.波恩表示,气候变化是科学建模仿真应用得最广泛的例子之一。科学家不仅利用建模仿真来预测明天的天气,而且还用它来预测几十年甚至几百年后的气候。“Huge climate simulations are now run daily, if not more frequently,” he said. These simulations have increasingly higher horizontal spatial resolution—hundreds of kilometers, versus tens of kilometers in older simulations; higher vertical resolution, referring to the number of atmospheric layers that can be modeled; and higher temporal resolution—zeroing in on minutes or hours as opposed to days or weeks, he added.他还表示:“大规模的气候模拟现在每天都在运行,有些甚至可能更为频繁。”这些模拟的水平分辨率更高,达到几百公里,而过去的模拟只能达到几十公里。同时它们垂直分辨率也变得更高,这也就表示可以对大气层中更多的层进行建模。另外还有更高的瞬时分辨率,也就是说只需要几分钟或几个小时就可以进行归零校正,而不是几天或几个星期。The output of each daily simulation amounts to petabytes of data and requires an assortment of tools for storing, processing, analyzing, visualizing, and mining.每天的气候模拟都会生成几千兆字节的数据,并且需要一系列工具进行存储、处理、分析、挖掘和图像化。‘All models are wrong, but some are useful’所有模型都是错的,但有些很有用Interpreting climate change data may be the most challenging part.气候变化数据的解读可能是最具有挑战性的部分。“When working with big data, it is easy to create a model that explains the correlations that we discover in our data,” Borne said. “But we need to remember that correlation does not imply causation, and so we need to apply systematic scientific methodology.”波恩指出:“搞大数据时,要建立一个模型来解释我们在数据中发现的某种关联是很容易的。但我们得记住,这种关联并不代表原因,所以我们需要应用系统化的科学方法。”It’s also important to heed the maxim that “all models are wrong, but some are useful,” Borne said, ing statistician George Box. “This is especially critical for numerical computer simulations, where there are so many assumptions and ‘parameterizations of our ignorance.’波恩还指出,搞大数据最好要记住统计学家乔治o克斯的名言:“所有模型都是错的,但有些很有用。”他表示:“这对数字计算机模拟尤为重要,因为其中有很多假设和‘代表了我们的无知的参数’”。“What fixes that problem—and also addresses Box’s warning—is data assimilation,” Borne said, referring to the process by which “we incorporate the latest and greatest observational data into the current model of a real system in order to correct, adjust, and validate. Big data play a vital and essential role in climate prediction science by providing corrective actions through ongoing data assimilation.”波恩表示:“要想解决这个问题,以及解决克斯警告我们的问题,最重要的是做好数据同化。”也就是“把最新最好的观测数据纳入一个真实系统的实时模型中,以对数据进行纠正、调整、确认。通过以不间断的数据同化作为校正措施,大数据在气候预测科学中扮演了至关重要且不可或缺的角色。‘We are in a data revolution’我们已经在一场数据革命之中Earlier this year, the Obama administration launchedClimate.data.gov with more than 100 curated, high-quality data sets, Web services, and tools that can be used by anyone to help prepare for the effects of climate change. At the same time, NASA invited citizens to help find solutions to the coastal flooding challenge at an April mass-collaboration event.今年早些时候,奥巴马政府推出了官方的气象研究网站Climate.data.gov,上面有100多种精心编辑的高质量数据以及网页务和工具,任何人都可以利用这些数据与工具来研究气候变化的影响。与此同时,NASA也在今年四月的一次大型协作活动上,邀请普通民众协助其寻找应对沿海洪灾的解决方案。More recently, UN Global Pulse launched a Big Data Climate Challenge to crowdsource projects that use big data to address the economic dimensions of climate change.最近,联合国“全球脉动”行动(UN Global Pulse)推出了一项“大数据气候挑战”项目,将一些用大数据研究气候变化对经济的影响的项目通过众包的形式进行了发布。“We’ve aly received submissions from 20 countries in energy, smart cities, forestry and agriculture,” said Miguel Luengo-Oroz, chief scientist for Global Pulse, which focuses on relief and development efforts around the world. “We also hope to see submissions from fields such as architecture, green data centers, risk management and material sciences.”“全球脉动”行动主要致力于全球各地的扶贫救灾与发展事业,该行动的首席科学家卢恩戈o奥罗兹表示:“我们已经收到了来自20多个国家的在能源、智能城市、林业和农业等领域的意见书。我们也希望收到建筑、绿色数据中心、风险管理和材料科学等领域的意见书。”Big data can allow for more efficient responses to emerging crises, distributed access to knowledge, and greater understanding of the effects personal and policy decisions have on the planet’s climate, Luengo-Oroz added.卢恩戈o奥罗兹补充道,大数据还可以用于提高突发灾害的应急工作效率,提供更广泛地获取知识的渠道,以及帮助我们更好地了解私人与政府的决策会对地球的气候造成哪些影响。“But it’s not the data that will save us,” he said. “It’s the analysis and usage of the data that can help us make better decisions for climate action. Just like with climate change, it is no longer a question of, ‘is this happening?’ We are in a data revolution.”奥罗兹表示:“然而拯救我们的不是那些数据,而是那些让我们能做出更好的决策来应对气候变化的数据分析与使用方法。这就像气候变化本身一样,现在已经不是‘它开始了吗’的问题。我们已经在一场数据革命之中。” /201407/310075

Facebook’s quarterly earnings, released last month, have surpassed most market expectations, sending its stock price to an all-time high. They have also confirmed the company’s Teflon credentials: no public criticism ever seems to stick.Facebook上月公布的季度业绩超出了市场中大多数人的预期,股价因此被推升至有史以来的最高点。这再次显示,它好像给自己的招牌涂了一层“特氟龙”,任何公众批评都没法“粘”在上面。Wall Street has aly forgiven Facebook’s experiment on its users, in which some had more negative posts removed from their feeds while another group had more positive ones removed. This revealed that those exposed to positive posts feel happier and write more positive posts as a result. This, in turn, results in more clicks, which result in more advertising revenue.华尔街也已原谅了Facebook对用户所做的一个实验。在那个实验里,在用户不知情的情况下,Facebook在其中一些用户的朋友动态中删除了较多消极帖子,而在另一些用户的朋友动态中删除了较多积极的帖子。结果显示,那些看到更多积极帖子的人感觉更快乐一些,于是他们会发出更多积极的帖子,这反过来增加了点击量,从而能带来更多广告收入。Troubling ethics notwithstanding, the experiment has revealed a deeper shift in Facebook’s business model: the company can make money even when it deigns to allow its users a modicum of privacy. It no longer needs to celebrate ubiquitous sharing – only ubiquitous clicking.这次实验带来的道德问题暂且不谈,它更揭示了Facebook商业模式的深层次变化:即便它屈尊赏赐用户一点隐私权,依然能确保滚滚财源。这家公司所推崇的,不再是“无所不在的分享”,而是“无所不在的点击”。At the earnings call, chief executive Mark Zuckerberg acknowledged that the company now aims to create “private spaces for people to share things and have interactions that they couldn’t have had elsewhere”. So Facebook has recently allowed users to see how they are being tracked, and even to fine tune such tracking in order to receive only those adverts they feel are relevant. The company, once a cheerleader for sharing, has even launched a nifty tool warning users against “oversharing”.在发布季报时的电话会议上,Facebook首席执行官马克#8226;扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)承认,Facebook现在的目标是“为人们建立私人空间,让他们可以分享信息,实现他们在其它环境中无法实现的互动”。基于这个目标,Facebook最近已允许用户查看该网站如何跟踪他们的数据,甚至还允许用户对数据的使用方式进行微调,从而可以只收到他们感兴趣的广告。这家当初极力鼓励用户间分享的公司,甚至还推出了一种工具,能提醒用户防止“过度分享”。As usual with Facebook, this is not the whole story. For one, it has begun tracking users’ browsing history to identify their interests better. Its latest mobile app can identify songs and films playing nearby, nudging users to write about them. It has acquired the Moves app, which does something similar with physical activity, using sensors to recognise whether users are walking, driving or cycling.和Facebook所做的其它事情一样,这不是事情的全貌。首先,为了更准确地了解用户兴趣所在,Facebook早已开始跟踪用户的浏览历史。该公司最新推出的一款移动应用能分辨用户附近播放的歌曲和电影,并鼓励用户对它们做出评价。同时,该公司还收购了Moves应用,这款应用能利用手机内的传感器,跟踪用户的运动状态,分辨他们是在走路、开车还是在骑自行车。Still, if Facebook is so quick to embrace – and profit from – the language of privacy, should privacy advocates not fear they are the latest group to be “disrupted”? Yes, they should: as Facebook’s modus operandi mutates, their vocabulary ceases to match the magnitude of the task at hand. Fortunately, the “happiness” experiment also shows us where the true dangers lie.但是,Facebook既然在一开始就热情接受了“保护隐私”这种说法,并从中盈利,个人隐私的维护者们难道不该担心,他们可能成为又一个“被带歪了的”团体?没错,他们确实应该感到担心:随着Facebook不断改变做法,它所定义的“隐私”已与“保护隐私”这个真正目标相去甚远。所幸的是,那个有关“幸福感”的实验向我们展示了这其中真正的危险是什么。For example, many commentators have attacked Facebook’s experiment for making some users feel sadder; yet the company’s happiness fetish is just as troubling. Facebook’s “obligation to be happy” is the converse of the “right to be forgotten” that Google was accused of trampling over. Both rely on filters. But, while Google has begun to hide negative results because it has been told to do so by European authorities, Facebook hides negative results because it is good for business. Yet since unhappy people make the best dissidents in most dystopian novels, should we not also be concerned with all those happy, all too happy, users?比如,许多人士批评Facebook的实验加剧了部分用户的悲伤情绪。但是,Facebook对幸福感的过度推崇其实同样有问题。Facebook暗示人们“有快乐的义务”,它的反面即是人们“有被遗忘的权力”(谷歌此前就被批评无视人们这种权力)。这两者都依赖对信息的过滤。不过,虽然谷歌开始隐藏负面搜索结果,是出于欧盟当局的压力,Facebook隐藏负面帖子,却是因为这对它的业务有好处。不过,既然在多数反乌托邦小说中,最好的异见者都是那些不快乐的人,难道我们不该提防那些整天乐呵呵的,甚至太过快乐的用户?The happiness experiment confirms that Facebook does not hesitate to tinker with its algorithms if it suits its business or social agenda. Consider how on May 1 2012 it altered its settings to allow users to express their organ donor status, complete with a link to their state’s donor registry. A later study found this led to more than 13,000 registrations on the first day of the initiative alone. Whatever the public benefits, discoveries of this kind could clearly be useful both for companies and politicians. Alas, few nudging initiatives are as ethically unambiguous as organ donation.那个幸福感实验明,Facebook会毫不犹豫地修改算法,只要此举符合它的商业或社会利益。回想一下,2012年5月1日,Facebook曾更改其设定,允许用户表达对器官捐赠问题的立场,同时还附上了用户所在国器官捐献登记网站的链接。后来的一个研究发现,仅仅在倡议提出当天,这种做法就导致逾1.3万人登记捐献器官。不论公众从中获得了什么好处,这一发现显然对企业和政客都很有用。但是,很少有其他倡议像器官捐赠一样在道德上没有争议。The reason to fear Facebook and its ilk is not that they violate our privacy. It is that they define the parameters of the grey and mostly invisible technological infrastructure that shapes our identity. They do not yet have the power to make us happy or sad but they will ily make us happier or sadder if it helps their earnings.我们担心Facebook及其同类,原因不在于它们会侵犯我们的隐私,而在于它们是规则制定者——它们可以定义灰色地带的边界,也掌握着那些决定我们以怎样的面目示人的最隐秘的计算方法。他们虽然还没有力量让我们感到快乐或者悲伤,却很乐意加强我们的快乐感,或悲伤感,如果这样做能让他们更赚钱的话。The privacy debate, incapacitated by misplaced pragmatism, defines privacy as individual control over information flows. This treats users as if they exist in a world free of data-hungry insurance companies, banks, advertisers or government nudgers. Can we continue feigning such innocence?错位的实用主义对围绕隐私权的争论产生了有害影响,人们在争论中将隐私权定义为个人对于信息流的控制权。在这样的语境下,用户仿佛存在于这样一个世界:在这个世界里,那些渴望得到个人数据的保险公司、、广告商或政府引导人员仿佛都不存在。对此,我们还能继续掩耳盗铃么?A robust privacy debate should ask who needs our data and why, while proposing institutional arrangements for resisting the path offered by Silicon Valley. Instead of bickering over interpretations of Facebook’s privacy policy as if it were the US constitution, why not ask how our sense of who we are is shaped by algorithms, databases and apps, which extend political, commercial and state efforts to make us – as the dystopian Radiohead song has it – “fitter, happier, more productive”?如果要围绕隐私权展开更有益的辩论,就需要问一问:是谁需要我们的数据?为什么?与此同时,应该提出制度化的方案,而不是一味接受硅谷企业给出的方案。与其把Facebook的隐私政策推崇得像美国宪法一样,围绕如何解释它争吵不休,我们为什么不问一句:那些算法、数据库和应用是如何影响我们的自我认知的?事实上,这些程序正在做的,是让我们像那首Radiohead乐队的反乌托邦歌曲中唱的那样——“更健康、更快乐、更高效”,而这其实正是政界、商界及政府希望看到的。This question stands outside the privacy debate, which, in the hands of legal academics, is disconnected from broader political and economic issues. The intellectual ping pong over privacy between corporate counsels and legal academics moonlighting as radicals always avoids the most basic question: why build the “private spaces” celebrated by Mr Zuckerberg if our freedom to behave there as we wish – and not as companies or states nudge us to – is so limited?如今,这个真正的问题却游离于隐私权保护的争论之外。法学家们把持着这场争论,切断了隐私保护与更大范围的政治经济问题间的联系。那些企业法律顾问和“兼职”激进分子的法学家们在围绕隐私权你来我往地开展争论之际,总是回避一个最基本的问题:既然我们按照自己的意愿行动(而不是被企业和国家推动着行动)的自由如此有限,我们为何还需要扎克伯格推崇的那种“私人空间”? /201408/320694

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