原标题: 贵池区人民医院看妇科飞度管家健康门户
The Alibaba Group’s initial public offering was long expected to be a blockbuster. But a flood of orders for shares in the Chinese e-commerce giant has proved stronger than expected.阿里巴巴集团的首次公开募股(IPO)早就被认为会造成轰动。果不其然,对这家中国电子商务巨头股票的认购需求势如潮水,超越了预期。Only five days into the company’s global journey to promote itself to prospective buyers, its underwriters have told their sales staffs that they plan to close orders for the stock sale by Wednesday, people briefed on the matter said on Friday.阿里巴巴向潜在买家推介自己的全球路演之旅刚刚进行了五天,承销商即告诉负责销售的员工,计划于周三停止接受对该集团股票的认购。这一消息由知情人士于上周五透露。And with that intense interest — shown by the huge lines of investors who waited to spend even an hour with Alibaba’s senior management — comes the possibility that the company’s bankers may eventually raise the price range for the offering, pushing it past a fund-raising goal of .1 billion.投资者对阿里巴巴兴趣浓厚,等待与集团高管见上哪怕一个小时的人排起了长龙。因此,公司聘请的投行有可能会最终提高价格区间,使筹资额超越之前设定的211亿美元(约合1296亿元人民币)目标。That could make Alibaba the biggest initial offering in history, surpassing the .1 billion that the Agricultural Bank of China raised four years ago. But the people briefed on the matter, who spoke on the condition of anonymity, cautioned that no plans had been set and that the price range might remain within the aly disclosed to a share, which values the company at roughly 3 billion at the high end.这样,阿里巴巴上市或许会成为史上规模最大的IPO,一举打破四年前中国农业创下的221亿美元的纪录。不过,要求不具名的知情人士谨慎指出,目前并未定下相关计划,价格区间可能会保持在此前披露的每股60至66美元。按照这一区间的高端计算,公司估值约为1630亿美元。A final decision will be made next Thursday, when underwriters are expected to price the offering after examining its order book. Alibaba would then begin trading the next day on the New York Stock Exchange.最终决定将于周四做出,届时,承销商将对认购额进行盘点,并设定发行价。接下来的一天,阿里巴巴将在纽约券交易所(New York Stock Exchange)上市交易。Driving any possible bump in price is strong demand from investors eager to buy a piece of China’s biggest e-commerce operator. Alibaba, which is an amalgam of eBay, Amazon and Google, has positioned itself as a gateway to a Chinese population that is increasingly and quickly going online to shop, reaping huge growth in profits and margins along the way.The company’s underwriters told their sales staffs on Friday that the stock offering was aly oversubscribed, with “no sensitivity” to the existing price range. That suggests that the banks may feel comfortable raising the price of the offering, as happened in other big initial offerings like those of General Motors and Facebook.推动价格可能攀升的原因是,投资者渴望从中国最大的电商碗中分一杯羹,认购需求强劲。阿里巴巴类似于eBay、亚马逊(Amazon)和谷歌(Google)的集合体,已将自己打造成通往快速增长的中国网上消费者的一扇大门,盈利一路飙升。承销商周五告诉销售人员,阿里巴巴的股票已获超额认购,而且认购者对目前的价格区间“不敏感”。这表明,承销投行或许会乐于提高发行价,与通用汽车(General Motors)和Facebook等其他一些大宗IPO一样。But the banks are wary of pushing the price range too far, potentially scaring off investors, some of the people briefed on the matter said.不过,部分知情人士称,承销商对过度推高发行价有所顾虑,担心可能会吓跑投资者。Since Alibaba began its roadshow on Monday, money managers ranging from huge mutual funds to big-name hedge funds have clamored for an audience with executives including the company’s chairman and co-founder, Jack Ma. More than 800 people attended an invitation-only lunchtime presentation at the Waldorf-Astoria in Midtown Manhattan, with some others turned away for lack of space.自从阿里巴巴上周一启动路演以来,从大型共同基金到著名对冲基金的投资人均竞相与阿里巴巴的董事局主席和联合创始人马云(Jack Ma)等高管会面。逾800人出席了在曼哈顿中城华道夫-阿斯多利亚酒店(Waldorf-Astoria)举行的一场仅面向受邀者的午宴推介活动。还有其他一些人因为空间不足而吃了闭门羹。Other presentations across the country this week were smaller but no less packed. A gathering with Fidelity Investments portfolio managers and executives in Boston on Tuesday, for example, drew more than 100 attendees, according to people at the event.上周在美国各地举行的其他宣讲活动在规模上比曼哈顿中城的午餐推介活动小,但现场的爆满程度却并不逊色。比如,亲历了周二在波士顿举行的一场活动的人士称,阿里巴巴携富达投资(Fidelity Investments)的投资组合经理和高管举行的那场活动吸引了100多人参加。Many hedge fund magnates, including Daniel S. Loeb of Third Point, have sought out one-on-one meetings with the Chinese company’s management, according to people with direct knowledge of the roadshow scheduling. But Alibaba’s underwriters have allotted fewer than 40 of the roughly 100 planned meetings to individual firms.据对路演行程安排有第一手了解的人士称,包括Third Point的丹尼尔·S·勒布(Daniel S. Loeb)在内的许多对冲基金巨头,已请求与这家中国公司的管理层进行一对一的见面。但在计划的约100场见面活动中,阿里巴巴的承销商只将其中不到40场分给了单一公司。Most of those meetings will go to the institutional investors considered crucial to the offering’s success, including mutual fund giants like BlackRock and Fidelity and sovereign wealth funds in the Middle East and Asia.Still, prominent hedge fund managers have gotten an intimate audience with the company. Mr. Loeb and several other investors — including David A. Tepper of Appaloosa Management, Louis M. Bacon of Moore Capital Management and Chris Shumway of Shumway Capital — attended a private lunch with Alibaba executives on Wednesday, according to people with direct knowledge of the schedule.这些会面活动中,大部分的对象是被视为对此次IPO的成功至关重要的机构投资者,包括贝莱德(BlackRock)和富达等共同基金巨头,以及中东和亚洲的主权财富基金。而知名对冲基金经理已同阿里巴巴进行了近距离接触。对相关安排有第一手了解的人士称,周三,勒布和其他几名投资者——包括阿帕卢萨资产管理公司(Appaloosa Management)的戴维·A·泰佩尔(David A. Tepper)、尔资本管理公司(Moore Capital Management)的刘易斯·M·培根(Louis M. Bacon)以及沙姆韦资本(Shumway Capital)的克里斯·沙姆韦(Chris Shumway)——与阿里巴巴的高管一同出席了一场私人午宴。Several of those investors, Mr. Loeb and Mr. Tepper among them, walked away with good impressions of the management team, some of these people said.部分知情人士称,包括勒布和泰佩尔在内的其中几名投资者,在离开时对阿里巴巴管理团队的印象颇好。Representatives of Alibaba and the hedge funds declined to comment or were not available for comment.阿里巴巴和相关对冲基金的代表要么拒绝置评,要么分身乏术,无法置评。If any of these investors have not placed orders for shares in the company, they will have only a few more days to do so. In their communications to the sales staffs, the underwriters said that they would stop accepting orders from investors in the ed States by Tuesday at 4 p.m. Asian investors have until 4 p.m. Hong Kong time on Wednesday to place their orders, while money managers in Europe have until the close of business in London on Wednesday to submit orders.如果这些投资者中有人还未认购阿里巴巴的股票,他们只剩几天时间了。阿里巴巴的承销商告诉各自的销售人员,他们将于周二下午4点结束美国的认购活动。亚洲投资者必须在香港时间周三下午4点之前认购,而欧洲的基金经理则必须在周三伦敦交易时段结束之前提交认购订单。But investors who have not met with the company’s executives — either in one-on-one gatherings or in small group sessions — by their region’s deadlines will have extra time to file their purchase orders.不过,在所在地区的截止日期前尚未与阿里巴巴的高管进行过会面的投资者——不管是一对一的会面还是小规模的集体活动——将有更多时间提交认购订单。 /201409/328647I should be sympathetic to people’s need for golden visas, and even more so for second passports. Before I became a British citizen (because I live and work in London), I spent a good part of my life travelling on a Lebanese passport – which was a nightmare when it came to obtaining visas, and even raised red flags at airports. My most chilling moment was in Rome, where I was once accompanied by a security guard from check-in to boarding and made to feel I was a menace to other passengers.对人们获取“黄金居留许可”(golden visa)的需求,我本应很有共鸣,至于获取第二本护照,我就更应心有戚戚。在成为英国公民(因为我生活和工作的地方在伦敦)之前,我人生中一段不短的时间里,一直用一本黎巴嫩护照旅行,用黎巴嫩护照申请签的过程简直像是噩梦一场,甚至曾导致机场的安保人员如临大敌。最可怕的一次是在罗马,一名安保人员在我从办理登机手续到登上飞机的过程中全程陪同,让我觉得自己好像对其他乘客的安全是个威胁。I doubt my parents would have invested in a residency permit or a second nationality even if they’d been able to afford it. It wasn’t an easy option, in any case. These days it is much more common to shop for golden visas, permanent residency and even citizenship. The critical ingredient is cash. As financially strained governments have discovered a quick way to boost investment, demand for immigration options has skyrocketed, especially from wealthy Chinese and Russians.我怀疑就算我的父母有足够的钱,他们也不会花在用投资换取居留许可或第二国籍上。无论如何,这都不是一个能轻易做出的选择。近来,“购买”黄金居留许可、永久居留权,乃至国籍的行为变得普遍多了。其中的关键因素是钱。财政紧张的政府找到了一条促进投资的捷径,人们对移民方案的需求不断高涨,其中富有的中国人和俄罗斯人对这类项目的需求最为强劲。Websites help you pick the best golden visas, quite a few of them European. A growing number of banks, law firms and consultancies are dedicating staff to advising on the most efficient programmes for temporary or permanent residency and a new nationality. Some countries, meanwhile, are openly advertising citizenship.一些网站会帮助你挑选最好的黄金居留许可,其中不少是欧洲国家签发的。越来越多的、律师事务所和咨询公司指派专员,就获取暂时或永久居留权以及国籍的最高效项目提供建议。同时,一些国家则公开打出出售国籍的广告。In the past two years Portugal’s golden visa has been among the most successful. A minimum property investment of 500,000 allows you to live in the country for five years, travel to 25 others in Europe and apply for permanent residency.过去两年中,葡萄牙的黄金居留许可项目是此类项目中最成功的之一。最低只需投资50万欧元购置该国房产,就能获得该国5年的居留权,在此期间还可自由出入欧洲其他25个国家、并申请永久居留权。This week the glitter came off the Portuguese scheme when a police investigation led to a string of detentions, including the head of the border agency and a senior justice ministry official. Part of the investment, the police suspect, might have been lining officials’ pockets.最近,这一项目光鲜不再,在警方进行调查后,包括移民局局长和登记与公处主席在内的多人遭逮捕。警方怀疑,部分投资款项可能流入了这些官员自己的腰包。Sometimes scandals are useful, if only to remind us of the side effects of a rapidly expanding financial arrangement. Portugal’s investigation will increase scrutiny of these programmes, though it probably won’t stop abuses. There are plenty of reputable business people who need flexibility of travel and an insurance policy for the future. But dodgy clients, too, are attracted to the schemes.有时候,丑闻是有用的,即便这用处只是提醒我们注意一个快速发展的财务安排存在的负面效应。葡萄牙警方的调查会促使此类项目受到更严格的审查,尽管很可能还是无法消灭滥用职权现象。有许多有身份的商界人士,需要能够灵活地旅行、并对未来投保。但这些项目同样也引来了一些劣质的客户。Still, the Portuguese debacle could put a damper on a fast-growing industry. According to Christian Kalin of Henley amp; Partners, Switzerland, residence-by-investment programmes attract about bn a year in foreign direct investment; and citizenship by investment another bn. Both figures are increasing at 20 per cent a year.不过,葡萄牙的投资换居留项目丑闻,可能还是会给这个正在快速发展的产业浇一盆冷水。从事投资换居留权和国籍相关咨询业务的咨询公司Henley amp; Partners瑞士分部的克里斯蒂安#8226;卡林(Christian Kalin)表示,投资换居留权项目每年吸引50亿美元的外国直接投资(FDI),投资换国籍项目每年另外吸引20亿美元的投资。这两项数据均每年增长20%。There’s been so much interest in immigration alternatives that experts have established the Investment Migration Council, whose mandate is to promote the industry and set standards of transparency.人们对移民方案的兴趣如此浓厚,以至于业内专家们已经建立了投资移民理事会(Investment Migration Council),旨在推动行业发展,设立透明度标准。Dimitry Kochenov, who runs the IMC, was an adviser on the Malta citizenship programme, which I’m told is the one most favoured by industry specialists. Malta’s residency requirement is only one year, and the total price is less than 1.2m, part of it in an non-refundable contribution to the National Development and Social Fund. There are quicker options: a passport from the tiny Caribbean islands of St Kitts and Nevis, for example, can be acquired for a 0,000 property investment or just 0,000 in contribution to the sugar industry fund – and it doesn’t require recipients to spend any time in the country. Indeed, in May a US Treasury department alert warned financial institutions that some Iranians had been using St Kitts citizenship to circumvent sanctions.投资移民理事会主席季米特里#8226;科切诺夫(Dimitry Kochenov)是一名马耳他国籍项目顾问。据我所知,马耳他的国籍项目是最受业内专家们推崇的项目。马耳他只要求申请入籍者至少在该国住满1年,办理过程总花费不到120万欧元,其中包括给马耳他国家发展及社会基金(National Development and Social Fund)的捐款,部分捐款过后不可退还。还有更快的方案:比如,要想获得加勒比海岛国圣基茨和尼维斯(St Kitts and Nevis)的护照,你只需花40万美元投资该国房产,或者向糖业基金捐赠25万美元,并且完全无需在该国居住。事实上,5月份美国财政部的一个部门曾向金融机构发出警报,称有一些伊朗人在利用圣基茨的公民身份规避制裁。Professor Kochenov says he is promoting a concept, not the sale of citizenship. His argument is that there is no straightforward connection between citizenship and feelings towards a country. “There are of plenty of sceptics around the world#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;People say you can’t sell citizenship,” he says. “But there is a misunderstanding about citizenship. People think of it as a sentiment, not as a legal status.”科切诺夫教授表示,他推销的是理念,而不是国籍本身。他的观点是,国籍和对一个国家的情感没有直接联系。“世界各地有很多持怀疑态度的人……他们说你不能出售国籍,”他说,“但是对于国籍,人们存在误解。人们认为国籍代表一种情感,而不是一种法律地位。”Having spoken to the professor, I am still sceptical. Maybe I’m sentimental. A golden visa I might just about understand. But trading cash for citizenship in a country where you don’t intend to live, or even visit, is a step too far.在与这位教授谈话之后,我还是持怀疑态度。或许我太感性了。黄金居留许可我或许还差不多能理解。但用金钱换取一个你不打算去居住、甚至压根儿就不打算踏足的国家的国籍,在我看来就有点儿过头了。 /201412/346539

(CNN) -- In 1985,Meng Weina set up China#39;sfirst private special needs school in the southern city of Guangzhou.(美国有线电视新闻网)——1985年,孟维娜(Meng Weina)在中国广州市成立了第一所私有特殊需要学校。As a single mother she was motivated tohelp those who are often overlooked by the country#39;s health care system andstigmatized by society.作为一名单身母亲,她成立这所学校的动机是帮助那些常被国家医疗制度忽视并为社会所指责的人。From her first center in Guangzhou,Weina now has Hui Ling operations in a dozen cities across China providinga range of services, from kindergartens and primary schools to youth workshopsand adult residential homes.自从在广州成立第一家机构后,维纳现在在中国的十几个城市成立了慧灵智障人士务机构,该机构属下务单位有:幼儿园、学校、青少年展能中心和社区家庭。The expansion of the donation-funded NGO showsnot just the success of the Weina#39;s vision but the desperate needfor mental health care provision in China.这个依靠捐赠资助而得以扩张的民间组织不仅表明了维娜成功的预见力,还表明了中国对精神卫生保健的迫切需求。;We estimate that only 10% of peoplewith intellectual disabilities in China are receiving some kind ofcare or help,; said Weina.维娜说,“据我们估算,中国只有10%的智障人群得到了照料或帮助”。According to a 2009 study published inBritish medical journal The Lancet, around 173 million Chinese suffer from amental disorder. However there are only 20,000 psychiatrists, equaling 1.5 foreach 100,000 people, or a tenth of the ratio in the ed States.据2009年英国医学杂志《柳叶刀》公布的一项研究,约有1.73亿的中国人患有精神疾病。然而,中国只有2万名精神病医生,这相当于1.5/100000的医患比例,这个比值只占美国的十分之一。Mental health legislation精神卫生立法Last year saw the introduction of China#39;s firstmental health legislation, which took a reported 27 years to pass.去年,中国引进了第一部精神卫生立法。据报道,这个法令的通过时间是27年。Among the changes from the law are newfinancing initiatives for mental health services and training for primarycare-givers. Perhaps the most significant was a new set of rights for patients,including not being hospitalized against their will.伴随立法带来的改变是为提供心理健康务和训练的基层医疗机构创建新的筹资渠道。或许最具意义的是为患者提供了一系列权利保障,其中包括入院要征求患者意愿。Negative perceptions of those with metalhealth problems are often portrayed in the media in China; they are either victims orperpetrators of violence.中国媒体刻画的那些有精神问题的人往往带有负面形象;他们要么是受害者,要么就是罪犯。Weina knows that each individual that comesto a Hui Ling center has their own set of needs and unique personality, andhelping bring out their best encourages her to keep working.维纳知道每个来到慧灵务机构的人都有各自的需求和个性,而协助他们以最好的方式生活下去激励着她继续工作。;I wanted to do something to make mylife worth while,; said Weina.维纳说,“我想做一些让自己的人生有意义的事情”。;When I see the smiles on their faces,when I see that these adults are truly happy to be at Hui Ling, that for me isthe happiest moment.;“当我看到他们脸上的微笑,看到这些大人们在慧灵真正感到快乐时,那于我来讲就是最快乐的时候”。 /201411/343354

;Their economy is depressed but beautiful women are running rampant,; the state-run Beijing News reported Jan. 22 in a story suggesting that Ukrainian women could be the solution to China#39;s woman shortage. The piece, illustrated with charts, bubbles, and cartoon illustrations of lonely Chinese men, was a breezy attempt to make light of China#39;s missing women and the severe gender imbalance caused by couples aborting female fetuses in favor of boys. So widesp is the practice that it has badly skewed the country#39;s sex ratio: The global average is around 105 boys born for every 100 girls; but in China last year, just over 115 boys were born for every 100 girls.;他们的经济正萧条但是美丽的姑娘却层出不穷,; 一月二十二号出版的新京报在一个故事中提出乌克兰姑娘可能是解决中国女性数量不足的良策.这个故事使用了图表,数字和漫画表现出孤独的中国男人,轻视中国的女性短缺和由于一些家长因重男轻女思想去流产女孩导致的性别失衡.这个情况是如此广泛的存在乃至它对国家的人口比率造成了巨大的危害:全球的平均情况是每105个男孩出生就有100个女孩出生;而在去年的中国,每100个女孩的出生要伴随115个男孩.The problem has been brewing since sonogram technology was introduced to China in the 1980s, allowing families to determine a baby#39;s gender during the first few months of pregnancy. Combined with the country#39;s restrictive family-planning policies — until recently, most urban families were only allowed a single child in order to curtail population growth — and a traditional preference for sons, the newfound ability to practice sex-selective abortion has resulted in one of the world#39;s highest gender imbalances. The topic flared anew in the public mind after the National Bureau of Statistics announced the latest population figures on Jan. 20, noting that at the end of 2014 China had 701 million men and 667 million women, a shortfall of nearly 34 million women.* The bureau didn#39;t provide a breakdown, but previous research shows that most of China#39;s missing women are among those born since 1985.自从八十年代中国引进了超声波性别检测,使家长可以在怀的第一个月就可以决定孩子的性别之后,这种问题就慢慢出现了.再加上这个国家严格的计划生育政策---直到最近,为了降低人口的增长速度,大多数的城市家庭仍旧只能生育一个孩子--由于中国传统上的重男轻女的观念,这种新技术就实践于性别选择的流产并最终导致了世界上最严重的性别失衡.在中国国家统计局于一月二十号宣布了最近的人口统计数字之后,这个话题又重新出现在公众的视野当中.截止2014年底,中国有七亿零一百万的男性和六亿六千七百万的女性,缺少了将近三千四百万的女性.当局并没有给出一个确定的划分,但是先前的研究表明自从1985年开始中国的女性就处于短缺的状况。To address the problem, China has resorted to propaganda campaigns extolling the virtues of daughters and offering cash incentives for couples who have them. These measures have spurred more female births, but not enough — China#39;s gender imbalance is still ;the most serious in the world and has lasted for the longest time and affected the largest number of people,; China#39;s National Health and Family Planning Commission said in a Jan. 21 statement.萎了解决这个问题,中国已经开始使用宣传生女儿的好处和现金奖励生女孩的家庭等方法.这些政策确实缓解了问题,但还远远不够--中国的性别失衡#39;仍旧是世界上最严重的而且还将长时间影响着世界上最多的人口#39;,中国国家卫生和计划生育委员会于一月二十一号声明道.Rather than dwelling on the fact that sex-selective abortions continue despite a government ban, Chinese media interpreted the sex ratio as a threat to men, not women. On Jan. 21, web giant Sina#39;s arm in Henan, China#39;s most populous province, wondered aloud on social media platform Weibo whether the news was ;heart-stopping; and exhorted bachelors to ;start making an effort!; Meanwhile, a Beijing statistician sharing the latest figures to his Weibo account wrote, ;Tomorrow I am going to get my son to hurry up and find a girlfriend at his elementary school.; Beijing News even suggested that Ukrainian women could be a solution to China#39;s problem. The story kicked off with a question: ;Just how hard is it for a diaosi,; slang for young bachelors of modest means, ;to find a wife?; After explaining the severe imbalance that the ratio represents, it added that Chinese brides are a popular ;export; to many countries such as Japan, South Korea, and the ed States, a trend it said had depleted China#39;s supply of eligible women still further. It offered a chart of the best destinations around the globe for Chinese men to find spouses. Japan and South Korea were particularly promising, the paper said, claiming that 26 percent of South Korean women who took foreign spouses in 2012 chose Chinese men. The trend is bound to grow, the argument went, since popular Korean television actress Park Chae-rim married her Chinese actor beau, Gao Ziqi, in September 2014.尽管有政府的禁令,用流产来选择新生儿性别的做法仍在继续,中国的媒体已经将提出性别的失衡其实对男性的危害更大.一月二十一日,在中国人口最稠密的省份河南.满心疑惑的问 与此同时,一个北京的统计学家在他的微上发布了最新的统计数字#39;#39;明天我就要告诉我儿子让他在小学快些找个女朋友#39;#39; 新京报甚至提议可以考虑乌克兰姑娘来解决中国的问题.它提供了一个图表来显示中国男性寻找外国配偶的最佳目的地,日本和韩国是不错的选择,报纸指出在2012年同外国人结婚的韩国女性中,有百分之二十六的结婚对象都是中国人.自从韩国的著名女演员朴蔡琳于2014年九月嫁给了中国演员高梓淇之后,这个潮流有愈演愈烈之势.Lighthearted joking filled the comments section, with most ignoring the underlying factors leading to the bachelor oversupply. Some netizens viewed the gender imbalance as a boon for the gay community, others as a useful pressure valve for those who aren#39;t interested in marriage anyway. There are, in other words, plenty of fish in the sea, at least outside China.轻松的笑话充满了区,多数忽略了造成单身汉过多的潜在原因。一些网民认为性别不平衡将会导致更多的同性恋,另一些则认为这会对不想结婚的人造成压力。用俗语说:天涯何处无芳草,至少在中国以外是这样。Therese Hesketh, a professor of global health at University College London, told Foreign Policy via email from eastern China#39;s Zhejiang province that many ordinary Chinese believe that ;aborting a girl is simply a choice made by a couple — and they are entitled to this.; Hesketh said that when she lectures in China, many audience members ;seem to just accept selective abortions,; and she has students who admit they would abort female fetuses in favor of a boy. She added that many students attribute this stance to parental pressure.伦敦大学学院的全球健康学教授Therese Hesketh通过一份来自中国东部浙江省的电邮告诉外交政策:普通中国民众相信;因为不想生女儿而堕胎;是一对夫妇个人的决定,而且他们有权利这样做。Hesketh说当他在中国教学的时候,很多听众都接受;因胎儿性别而堕胎;,他也有学生承认他们会打掉一个女性胎儿。他说很多学生是迫于父母压力而做出这种选择。China is not alone in these cultural predilections. Indian social scientist Ravinder Kaur wrote in an August 2013 paper that ;the common response; in both China and India ;when the connection between sex selection and bride shortage is pointed out is that rather than allow daughters to be born, they would resort to importing brides.; Kaur also wrote that bride shortages in China and India can lead to ;kidnap marriage,; which includes ;deception and enticement; and ;luring women for marriage into high sex ratio areas.;中国不是唯一有这些文化偏好的国家。印度社会科学家Ravinder Kaur在2013年8月写到在中国与印度对于女性短缺的;通常回应;是宁愿;引进外国新娘;而不是;生多点女孩子;。Kaur 还写道中国与印度的女性短缺会导致;绑架婚姻;,这包括了;欺骗和诱惑;与;引诱女孩子嫁去高性别比例的地区;。For its part, the Chinese government is still campaigning against sex-selective abortions. Following the release of the latest statistics, the National Health and Family Planning Commission revealed details of its latest initiative to curb sex-selective abortion: harsher penalties for agencies and individuals who send blood samples from expectant mothers abroad for testing to determine the gender of the woman#39;s fetus. Clinics and hospitals in China can perform sonograms on expectant mothers, but are barred from revealing the gender of the baby, a restriction that has given rise to black market sonogram testing (including providers who perform the exam in the back seat of a woman#39;s car). Chinese agencies that offer to come to a woman#39;s home will draw blood, pack it in dry ice, and then mail or carry the sample across the border to Hong Kong or elsewhere for testing at hospitals. The commission has promised severe punishments for anyone caught in the act. But that hardly seems like enough to solve the underlying problem, any more than Ukrainian brides.中国政府依然在为减少因性别而堕胎做宣传。根据最新资料,中国计生委提出了抑制因性别而堕胎的措施:对那些把妇的血样送到国外化验以确定胎儿性别的人进行更严厉的处罚。中国的诊所和医院可以进行超声波扫描,但是他们被禁止告诉父母胎儿的性别,这种限制令黑市上的超声波扫描更为流行(包括那些在车辆后座为妇提供扫描的人)。中国代理人回来带妇家中为他们抽血,用干冰包裹,然后寄到香港或者其他地方化验。计生委承诺对这些人施以更严厉的处罚。但这看起来并不能解决根本问题,就像引进乌克兰新娘一样。Correction, Jan. 28, 2015: The National Bureau of Statistics announced that at the end of 2014, China h ad 701 million men and 667 million women, creating a shortfall of nearly 34 million women. An earlier ver sion of this article mistakenly said China had 700 million men and just 667 women, resulting in a shortfa II of more than 33 million women.更正:国家统计局宣布在2014年末,中国有7.01亿男人和6.67亿女人,造成了接近3千4百万女性数字的落差。这篇文章的早期版本错误的声称中国有7亿男人和6.67亿女人,造成了接近3千3百万女性数字的落差。 /201503/361843Local governments in some of China’s smallest cities are snapping up their own land at auctions, in a destructive cycle designed to prop up property prices but which is ravaging their own finances.中国一些小城市的地方政府正在抢购它们自己拍卖的土地,这种破坏性循环本意是要推高房价,结果却正在破坏它们自己的财政。Local government financing vehicles (LGFVs) in at least one wealthy province, Jiangsu, which borders Shanghai, accounted for more land purchases than property developers did in 2013 — the last year for which data were available — according to research collated by Deutsche Bank.德意志(Deutsche Bank)研究发现,在2013年(可获得数据的最近年份),至少一个富裕省份——与上海毗邻的江苏省——的地方政府融资工具(LGFV)所收购的土地超过了房地产开发商所购买的土地。The data signal that cash-strapped local governments are switching money from one pocket to another rather than booking real sales.该数据表明,资金紧张的地方政府正在将资金从一个口袋转移到另一个口袋,而不是记录真实的销售收入。“China faces a severe fiscal challenge in 2015,” said Zhang Zhiwei, Deutsche Bank’s chief Asia economist, yesterday, as local governments are forecast to record the first contraction in revenues since 1994 and total government revenues grow by the smallest percentage since 1981.德意志首席亚洲经济学家张智威昨日表示,“中国在2015年将面临严峻的财政挑战,”地方政府据预计将出现自1994年以来的首次收入萎缩,政府总收入将创下自1981年以来最低的百分比增速。Deutsche Bank reviewed data for only four provinces, but concerns about the health of property markets in third-tier cities across China are mounting.德意志仅评估了4个省份的数据,但人们对中国三线城市房地产市场健康状况的担忧却在日益增长。Local government budgets, especially in smaller cities, rely on land sales, which in turn are dependent on strong property demand and prices.地方政府预算(尤其是在中小城市)依赖土地销售收入,从而需要房地产需求和价格保持强劲。A glut of new building combined with tougher credit markets has cooled interest in all but the largest cities, forcing local governments to step in and prop up their own land prices.大量新建住房进入市场,再加上信贷市场收紧,导致几乎所有大城市的房地产市场降温,从而迫使地方政府出手推升本地地价。Land sales accounted for about a quarter of local government revenues on average across China but there was a “huge range”, said Debra Roane of Moody’s rating agency. “The issue is that land as a source of revenue is highly volatile.”穆迪(Moody’s)的黛拉#8226;罗恩(Debra Roane)表示,平均而言,土地销售收入占到中国地方政府收入的大约四分之一,但不同城市差异很大。“问题在于,把土地作为收入来源极不稳定”。LGFVs appeared about six years ago. Created to fund Beijing-mandated stimulus projects in the wake of the global financial crisis, they quickly exacerbated concerns over rising levels of local government debt. Use of the vehicles to prop up land prices would stoke those concerns.地方政府融资工具大约出现在6年前。它们创立的目的是为中国政府在全球金融危机后出台的刺激项目融资,后来很快加剧了人们对地方政府债务水平增长的担忧。使用这些工具推升地价将会进一步加剧这些担忧。“Land sales are among the most polluted statistics in China,” said Anne Stevenson-Yang of J Capital Research. Land sales to LGFVs could be a means to repay debt, move collateral or maintain the value of land locally, she said.美奇金投资咨询公司(J Capital Research)的杨思安(Anne Stevenson-Yang)表示:“土地销售情况是中国扭曲最为严重的统计数据之一。”她补充称,将土地出售给地方政府融资工具可能是偿债、移除担保或者维持当地土地价值的一种手段。The Chinese population’s continued preference for large metropolitan areas flies in the face of Beijing’s urbanisation policies, which try to force investment, construction and home purchases to smaller cities and county seats.中国人对大都市的一贯喜好与中国政府的城镇化政策相悖,政府试图让人们在中小城镇投资、建设和购房。 /201501/354140

Paris aims to become #39;world bike capital#39;巴黎计划成为;世界自行车之都;Paris is to double the number of cyclinglanes by 2020 as part of its Socialist mayor#39;s push to turn the city into;the world#39;s bike capital;.隶属社会党的巴黎市长力争将巴黎打造为;世界自行车之都;,其中一项计划是到2020年,巴黎的自行车道长度将是目前的两倍。The 150 million-euro project will increasethe number of safe bike lanes from the current 700 kilometres (435 miles) to1,400 kilometres within five years.该项目耗资1.5亿欧元,计划在五年内将巴黎现有的700公里安全自行车道扩展至1400公里。Paris town hall hopes the new lanes willhelp triple the number of journeys made on a bike from five percent to 15percent in that time.巴黎市政厅希望,届时新增的自行车道将使巴黎市民的自行车出行率在现有基础上增加两倍,由5%增至15%。The new ;express network; forbikes will introduce protected cycling lanes on major avenues throughout thecity, including the banks of the Seine, separated from the traffic.新的自行车;快线网络;将在巴黎城区各主要干道开辟出与道路交通隔离开的安全自行车道,塞纳河沿岸也包括在内。;We think that there are people yto cycle but don#39;t do it due to a sense of not being safe,; saidChristophe Najdovski, Green deputy mayor in charge of transport.;在我们看来,有不少市民想要骑自行车出行,但是出于安全方面的担忧而放弃了这一想法。;巴黎市负责交通事务的副市长、绿党成员纳杰多维斯基说。;This plan will create a new form oftourism in Paris which is booming elsewhere,; he said.他表示:;这一计划将开创巴黎的一种新的旅行方式,这种方式在其他地方已经开始蓬勃发展。;The plans also include increasing thenumber of two-way cycling lanes on smaller roads where the speed limit formotorists will be limited to 30km/h. Among the new cycle lanes will be onealong the notoriously dangerous Champs Elysees. Some 10,000 bike parking spaceswill be added.该计划还包括在一些较窄路段增设双向自行车道。在这些路段行驶的机动车辆时速将限制在30公里。新增自行车道中,还包括一条公认的危险路段--香榭丽大街。巴黎还将新建约1万个自行车停车位。City hall intends to ramp up cyclingclasses and repair workshops to get Parisians on their bikes.市政厅还计划开设自行车课程,增加自行车修理间,鼓励巴黎市民骑车出行。Paris#39; famed bike rental scheme;Velib; is going from strength to strength, with some 283,000subscribers and 40 million individual rentals this year aly.巴黎著名的自行车租赁务;Velib;发展势头日益强劲。今年,;Velib;已拥有注册用户28.3万人,个人租车已达4000万次。The city is now considering introducingelectric bikes for hillier parts like Montmartre.目前,巴黎正在考虑在蒙马特等多山地区引进电动自行车。The plans come days after Paris sufferedworrying pollutions levels that briefly topped Shanghai, according to oneweather agency.一家气象机构表示,近期,巴黎的污染级别曾令人担忧,曾一度赶超上海。其后数天,巴黎自行车计划就诞生了。 /201506/382092When hundreds of Californians invaded the state capitol last week to demand the right not to vaccinate their kids, they were playing out a very modern conflict: science versus belief systems. Scientists tell parents that vaccinations are safe. But many parents prefer to trust their gut instinct that they’re not safe. This dialogue of the deaf is becoming the norm. Increasingly, people make their own decisions on health and diet, instead of outsourcing them to scientists, doctors or governments.不久前,数百名美国加州人闯入州议会大厦,要求拥有不让自己的孩子接种疫苗的权利,他们演绎了一场极为现代的冲突——科学vs观念体系。科学家告诉家长接种疫苗是安全的,但许多家长宁愿相信自己的直觉——接种疫苗不安全。这种鸡同鸭讲式的对话已成常态。人们在健康和饮食方面越来越自作主张,而不是相信科学家、医生或政府。If you want to change people’s behaviour, don’t recite science at them, says Alan Dangour, nutritionist at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM). Rather, to nudge people to better decisions, we need to understand how they decide. Behavioural economics has identified cognitive biases that influence our decisions about money. Here are some biases and misjudgments that shape decisions on health and diet:伦敦卫生暨热带医学院(London School of Hygiene amp; Tropical Medicine)营养学家阿伦#8226;丹古尔(Alan Dangour)表示,如果你想改变人们的行为,不要跟他们大讲科学道理。相反,想劝人们作出更好的决定,我们需要去了解他们是怎么做决定的。行为经济学已发现多种影响人类消费决定的认知偏见。以下是一些影响人们决定健康和饮食方式的偏见和错误观念:“‘Natural’ is good.”“‘天然的’就是好的”When faced with complex problems, people often resort to a heuristic: a pragmatic, simplified mental shortcut. A common shortcut is to use labels such as “natural”, “organic”, “local” or “homeopathic” as proxies for healthy. Conversely, “artificial” gets equated with unhealthy. This heuristic appeals partly because it relies on words. Not everyone understands science but we all know language.当面对复杂问题时,人们往往会采用启发法(heuristic),这是一种务实、简单化的心理捷径(mental shortcut)。常见的捷径之一是使用“天然”、“有机”、“本地”或“顺势疗法”等标签代表健康。反之,“人造的”就等同于不健康的。这种启发法之所以具有吸引力,部分在于它依靠文字。不是人人都懂科学,但所有人都懂语言。Sometimes, natural actually is good. The World Health Organisation announced last month that the world’s most common weedkiller, glyphosate, can probably cause cancer. But often natural isn’t good. For instance, homeopathy is ineffective for treating any medical condition, concluded Australia’s National Health and Medical Research Council last month, echoing a report for Britain’s House of Commons in 2010.有时天然的确是好的。世界卫生组织(WHO)在今年3月宣布,全球最常见的除草剂草甘膦可能会致癌。但多数情况下,天然的并不好。比如,澳大利亚国家健康与医学研究理事会(National Health and Medical Research Council)也在今年3月发表了一个结论,顺势疗法对治疗任何疾病都毫无疗效,附和了2010年提交到英国下议院的一份报告的结论。Likewise, “natural” organic foods aren’t more nutritious than other foods, said researchers from the LSHTM, after reviewing 50 years of studies. A Stanford analysis of 237 studies concurred.此外,伦敦卫生暨热带医学院的研究人员回顾了50年来的研究成果之后,表示“天然”有机食品并不比其他食物更有营养。斯坦福大学(Stanford)从237项研究中也得出了同样结论。“All ‘scientific’ studies are equal.”“所有‘科学的’研究都是平等的”In fact, as Eula Biss explains in her book On Immunity, any single study in medicine is meaningless. To e medical researcher John Ioannidis: “Most published research findings are false.” A single study might have been small, poorly conducted or produce findings that are due simply to chance. “What matters,” says Ioannidis, “is the totality of evidence.” That’s why the gold standard of medical research is the meta-study, such as the ones cited above on organic food, which aggregate previous research on a topic. Nonetheless anti-vaccinators still cite one now-retracted study of 12 children, published by Andrew Wakefield and others in 1998, which suggested that vaccinating children might cause autism.事实上,正如尤拉#8226;比斯(Eula Biss)在其著作《免疫》(On Immunity)中所述,医学上的任何单一研究都毫无意义。引用医学研究人员约翰#8226;约安尼季斯(John Ioannidis)的一句话:“大多数业已发表的研究成果都是虚假的。”单一研究有可能规模很小,操作不当,或者仅仅是偶然状况下得出的结果。约安尼季斯说:“重要的是所有据的总和。”这就是为什么医学研究的黄金标准是元研究,它集合了关于某一课题的以往研究,比如前文中提到的关于有机食品的研究。尽管如此,反疫苗者仍引用一份已经撤销的关于12名儿童案例的研究报告,该研究由安德鲁#8226;韦克菲尔德(Andrew Wakefield)与其他研究人员在1998年发布,他们认为儿童接种疫苗可能引起自闭症。People seize on single studies because we are bad at weighing quantities. We struggle to distinguish between “a little” and “lots”. That’s also why people panic when “traces” of “toxins” show up in a product — traces of mercury in vaccines, for instance. But quantity is crucial. Biss es a toxicologists’ adage: “The dose makes the poison.”人们之所以会抓住一项研究不撒手,是因为我们非常不善于权衡数量。我们很难区分出“少量”与“大量”之间的差别。这也是为什么当某一产品显现出“有毒迹象”时人们会恐慌,比如当疫苗中含有汞成分时。但分量才是关键因素。比斯引用了一句毒理学格言:“只要剂量足,万物皆有毒。”(The dose makes the poison)“Self-denial is good for you.”“弃绝自我是有益的”This religious notion survives in today’s “detox diets”, which often entail forswearing everything except selected “natural” products such as juices. In fact, “sinful” things such as wine, chocolate and coffee (a rare legal, mind-altering, performance-enhancing drug) are healthy in small quantities.这种宗教观念在如今的“节食排毒”(detox diets)饮食理念中得到延续。该饮食方式通常需要戒绝一切食物,只食用果汁之类的选定的“天然”产品。事实上,少量食用“罪恶的”食物对健康有利,比如葡萄酒、巧克力和咖啡(咖啡是一种少有的合法、会改变精神、提高效率的药品)。Confirmation bias确认偏见Our main source of information on health today is Google. However, you can find anything online, and most people gravitate to websites that confirm their beliefs.我们今天关于健康的信息主要来自谷歌(Google)。但是网上可以找到各种各样的说法,而且绝大多数人倾向于那些能明他们观念的网站。Ambiguity aversion模糊厌恶People like certainty. In health, that’s rarely available. Authorities sometimes change their minds: for instance, the US government is expected to announce soon that high-cholesterol foods are OK after all.人们喜欢确定性,但在健康方面确定性很难得到。相关部门不时会改变观点,比如美国政府预计很快将宣布,高胆固醇食物是没有问题的。Instead of seeking certainty, we should make decisions on the balance of probability: vaccinating your kids is very probably smart. But probability feels too ambiguous to be reassuring.在健康问题上,我们不该去追求确定性,而是应该基于概然性来做出决定:给你的孩子接种疫苗非常可能是个明智的决定。但可能性听起来太模棱两可,无法让人放心。Rare, spectacular kinds of death grip our imaginations.我们的想象里充斥着各种稀奇的、耸人听闻的死法People fret about terrorists, sharks, Ebola and plane crashes because of the availability heuristic. The more available a piece of information is to the memory — a terrorist attack, say — the more likely it is to influence our decisions. In fact, terrorism kills fewer people than sitting at a desk.人们担心恐怖分子、鲨鱼、埃拉(Ebola)和飞机失事是因为它们具有“可得性启发”(availability heuristic)。一条信息——比如恐怖袭击——对记忆的启发越多,对我们做决定的影响很可能就越大。事实上,死于恐怖主义的人远远少于死在办公桌前的人。Optimism bias乐观倾向Smokers know that smoking is addictive and lethal. But they tend to believe it will only enslave and kill other smokers, says Jody Sindelar, professor at the Yale School of Public Health. In general, people downplay their unhealthy habits, preferring instead to blame disease on factors beyond their control: their genes or environmental factors such as mobile phones or radiation. You can see why.耶鲁大学(Yale)公共卫生学院(School of Public Health)的乔迪#8226;辛德拉尔教授(Jody Sindelar)表示,吸烟者知道吸烟会上瘾,还会致命,可他们往往相信香烟只会征和杀死其他吸烟者。一般来说,人们会低估自己的不良习惯的影响,而偏向将病因归结于那些他们无法控制的因素,比如基因或手机、辐射等环境因素。个中原因可想而知。Present bias重视眼前的倾向We value the present above the future. The best time to quit smoking is therefore always tomorrow, says Sindelar.辛德拉尔说,比起未来,我们更看重眼前,所以戒烟的最佳时机永远是明天。Scientists and governments need to change tack. Instead of bombarding people with science, they should design policies that use our cognitive biases. One obvious technique is advertising. A gorgeous ad showing a mother cuddling a baby who is being vaccinated might be worth 10,000 scientific studies. Sindelar suggests other methods:科学家和政府需要改变策略。不应该用科学道理去轰炸民众,而是应该根据我们的认知偏差来设计政策。最易行的手法就是广告。比如拍摄一位母亲怀里抱着正在接种的小宝宝,这样一动人的广告或许比得上一万个科学研究。辛德拉尔还提出了其他方法: Reminders: on sunny days, send people messages suggesting they put on sunscreen.提醒:在阳光明媚的日子,给人们发消息建议他们涂上防晒霜。 Pre-commitments: encourage people to bet that they will lose specific amounts of weight.预承诺:鼓励人们打赌他们能够减掉多少体重。 Financial incentives: pay people to give up smoking.财务奖励:以奖金鼓励人们戒烟。These nudges could do more than scientific findings to change behaviour. In today’s low-trust world, science is in the doghouse with most other authorities.这些温和的规劝比科学发现更能改变人类行为。在如今这个低信任度的世界,科学与其他多数权威都已被打入冷宫。 /201505/374469

Fresh off an official report that confirmed long-held fears over the state of China#39;s soil, new government figures show the majority of the country#39;s water remains polluted despite billions of dollars spent trying to clean it up. Reuters官方报告刚刚实长期以来人们担心的中国土壤污染状况,新出炉的官方数据又显示中国大部分地下水监测点水质差,尽管中国政府已花费数十亿美元试图治理水污染。Nearly three-fifths, or 59.6%, of China#39;s water was found to be either moderately or seriously polluted in 2013, the Ministry of Land and Resources said in its annual report on Tuesday ( pdf). 中国国土资源部在周二发布的年度报告中称,2013年中国水质较差和极差的监测点占总数的比例将近五分之三,达到59.6%。That#39;s a slight increase from 2012, when the figure was 57.4%. A little more than a tenth of the country#39;s water was #39;high quality#39; last year, according to the report, which didn#39;t specify how quality levels were determined. 这比2012年的比例57.4%有小幅上升。报告称,中国水质优良的监测点占总数的比例略高于10%。该报告没有说明水质等级是如何确定的。The ministry#39;s report is the latest evidence to underline the scale on environmental damage wrought by decades of hell-for-leather economic growth and the enormity of the challenge authorities face in cleaning it up. 国土资源部的这份报告是说明中国环境已受到严重污染、政府治污面临严峻挑战的最新据。中国几十年来的经济飞速增长导致国内环境受到巨大破坏。Last week, the Ministry of Land and Resources and the Ministry of Environmental Protection jointly released the results of a national soil survey that found close to a fifth of the country#39;s arable land is polluted, with around 3% suffering either moderate or serious pollution. The vast majority of that pollution came from inorganic sources such as heavy metals, most of which are byproducts of industry and mining. 上周,国土资源部和环境保护部联合发布了《全国土壤污染状况调查公报》,调查显示国内接近五分之一的可耕种土地已经受到污染,其中大约3%受到中等程度或严重污染。污染绝大部分来自重金属等无机污染物,这些重金属污染物是工业和矿业的副产品。While the data on soil pollution -- previously considered a state secret -- is new, authorities have been more open on the subject of water. Data from the resources ministry shows that 57% of the country#39;s water was either seriously or moderately polluted in 2010. In other words, while water pollution isn#39;t getting much worse, it isn#39;t getting better either. 这是土壤污染相关数据第一次在世人面前揭开面纱(之前都被当做国家机密),不过,当局对于水污染的现状则更为公开一些。国土资源部的数据显示,2010年,中国57%的水源已经达到重度或中度污染程度。换句话说,虽然水污染并没有大幅恶化,但也没变好。That#39;s despite massive government spending on water conservation in recent years. 政府近些年来确实也为水资源保护投入了很大力气,但是成效甚微。#39;Problems continue to occur in a lot of places. We can#39;t take this lightly,#39; said Liu Changming, a senior water researcher with the government-backed Chinese Academy of Sciences. 中国科学院高级水资源研究专家刘昌明说:许多地方仍然曝出水资源问题,对此我们不可轻视。China was reminded of just how serious it water pollution remains earlier this month, when residents of the city of Lanzhou were ordered to avoid drinking tap water following the discovery of levels of benzene some 20 times the national limit. The carcinogenic chemical was later found to have made its way into the city#39;s water supply as the result of a crude-oil leak. 本月早些时候,一场水质事件提醒中国勿忽视严重的水污染现状。兰州市市民被告知不要饮用自来水,因为自来水中所含的苯被发现超过国家标准线大约20倍。后来查明,这种致癌化学物质流入兰州市供水系统源于某原油管道的泄漏。The government was #39;alert to the problem and prepared to deal with it,#39; said Mr. Liu. #39;But it will take a long time to solve.#39; 刘昌明说,政府已经警惕到了水问题的严重性,准备着手予以解决。但他补充称,这要花上很长一段时间。 /201404/290981A DOCTOR who sees a child with an odd appearance might write “FLK” in his notes. Short for “funny-looking kid”, it is meant not as an insult, but as a reminder to watch for slow growth and mental retardation, which can accompany physical abnormalities. Later he may add “FLD”: funny-looking dads tend to have funnylooking offspring. But such candour may become a thing of the past as more hospitals and clinics make doctors#39; notes available to patients and their guardians.面对一个长相奇特的孩子,医生会写下“FLK”的字迹。“FLK”是“长相滑稽的孩子”的意思,此意并非是一种人身攻击,而是暗示身体生长缓慢或智力发育缓慢,也会伴随生理异样。之后他加上“FLD”:长相滑稽的父亲更易育有长相滑稽的后代。但随着医院和诊所要求医生以病人和其监护者能读懂的方式书写,这种直白会成为过去式。The trailblazers see open notes as a way to engage patients in their treatment, and to keep their other carers informed. A study in 2012 in the Annals of Internal Medicine of 105 American doctors who shared their notes with 20,000 patients backs this position. Over four-fifths of the patients who visited their doctors in the following year had looked at their notes. In a survey, about three-quarters said they felt more in control of their care. Few said the notes were confusing, offensive or worrisome; nearly all wanted access to continue.病人的首个医生将病历上的信息视为参与治疗的一种方式,让之后的医生获得信息。2012年,《内科医学年报》做了一项调查,105名美国医生有这种行为,涉及20,000个患者。一年内再次就诊的患者中,超过五分之四看到了首位接待他的医生写下的信息。一项调查表明,约四分之三的患者称,这种信息共享让他们更感安心。很少有人认为医生的字迹难以辨认、有冒犯性或是令人不安的。几乎所有人都想继续治疗。The doctors who took part reported little change in their behaviour and little extra work, though some did alter the way they wrote about charged topics such as cancer, mental health, substance abuse and obesity. As for FLK and other medics#39; slang, Tom Delbanco, one of the study#39;s authors, says: “Good doctors don#39;t label things; good doctors describe things.”参与该调查的医生,很少特意改变行为和画蛇添足,虽然在涉及癌症,精神病,药物滥用和肥胖等问题时,确实有部分医生会换个写法。该调查的作者之一汤姆·德百考称,对于FLK和另外的医学俚语,“好医生不是给事情定义,而是描述事情。”Some 3m American patients now have easy access to their doctors#39; notes, including those at leading institutions such as the Cleveland and Mayo clinics, and 1m of those cared for by the Department of Veterans Affairs. This is good business as well as good medicine. Patients with Kaiser Permanente Northwest must register on its website in order to their doctors#39; notes, which makes their care easier to manage and lowers the chance that they will switch to a competitor.如今,300万名美国病人能够轻松读懂医生的字迹,其中包括像Cleveland 和 Mayo 诊所这样的领先诊所的医生的字迹。他们当中,有100万名病人由退伍军人事务部照顾。这对商务和医学都是好事。凯撒医疗机构的病人需在网站注册,才能读医生的字迹,这使得他们可以更轻松的掌控他们的治疗,降低他们流失到竞争对手的医院去的几率。Health administrators elsewhere are watching with interest. Some British doctors have aly opened their notes and more are likely to follow suit if the National Health Service keeps its promise to give all patients online access to their records by next year. The next step, says Dr Delbanco, is getting patients to contribute to their records. Funny-looking doctors take note.海外的医疗管理者颇有兴趣的关注此事。一些英国医生已开放他们的字迹,如果国家卫生务局明年承诺让所有的病人看到他们的医学记录,那么更多的医生将开放字迹。德百考说,下一步是让更多的病人看到他们的医学记录。记录长相滑稽的医生可要注意了。 /201408/321142

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