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2018年05月22日 22:10:29 | 作者:飞排名权威医院 | 来源:新华社
Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag. Alistener writes:又到了科学一刻听众的来信时间。一位听众写道:Dear A Moment of Science,亲爱的《科学一刻》,Im not a math person. In fact, anytime I have to deal with numbers, let alone solve an actualmath problem which, thankfully, is not often its almost painful.我不是很擅长数学。事实上,每次我跟数字一打交道就觉得痛苦不堪,跟别提解决单纯的数学问题了,不过谢天谢地,这种事不常有。First, you should know that youre certainly not alone.首先,你要知道你绝不孤单。Lots of people suffer from whats known asmath anxiety.许多人都遭受数学焦虑症的折磨。And whats most interesting is that, according to one study, people with very highlevels of math anxiety actually experience pain when confronted with a math challenge.最有趣的是,有一项研究表明,严重数学焦虑症患者当面对数学挑战时会实实在在经历疼痛。Notmetaphorical pain actual, real pain.这种疼痛不是一种想象出来的感觉,而是真实的痛感。OK, but what does that mean? How can math cause pain?好的,这意味着什么呢?数学怎么可能造成疼痛呢?Its all in the brain, of course.当然,这与大脑有关。The researchers compared fourteen people with high math anxietyto fourteen people with low math anxiety.研究人员将14名严重数学焦虑症患者与14名轻度数学焦虑症患者进行对比。Each group was given a series of word and mathproblems while an MRI machine scanned their brain activity.每组人员都拿到一系列的文字与数学问题,同时使用核磁共振成像机器对他们的大脑活动进行扫描。Before each problem, either a yellowcircle would appear to indicate that they were about to solve a math problem, or a blue squarewould pop up to signal a word problem.在每一个问题出现前,会有一个黄圈出现,指明他们即将解决一个数学问题,或是出现一个蓝色方框,这是表明弹出的是文字问题。When people with high math anxiety saw the ded yellow circle, theparts of their brain linkedto pain perception lit up like a pinball machine.当严重数学焦虑症患者看到令人惧怕的黄圈时,他们脑部连接痛感的部分立刻如弹球机一般活跃起来。People with low math anxiety didnt show much orany activity in thatpart of the brain.轻度数学焦虑症患者的那部分大脑则没出现太多这种情况,甚至都没有任何反应。So doing math problems caused real pain.因此,解决数学难题真导致真实的疼痛。Not exactly. Its the anticipation of doing math that litup the pain sensors.并非如此。当得知要解决数学难题时,疼痛感知神经即被激活。Actually doing math didnt cause any pain related brain activity.事实上在做数学题的过程中并没有触动任何让人感知疼痛的脑部活动。 201402/276038Online business and security网络商业及网络安全A digital heart attack电子心脏病A flaw in popular internet-security software could have serious consequences for all sorts of business广泛使用的网络安全软件出现漏洞,可能会殃及几乎所有企业THE Heartbleed bug sounds like a nasty coronary condition. But it is in fact a software flaw that has left up to two-thirds of the worlds websites vulnerable to attack by hackers. “This is potentially the most dangerous bug that we have seen for a long, long time,” says James Beeson, the chief information security officer of GE Capital Americas, an arm of GE. Since its existence was revealed on April 7th by researchers at Codenomicon, a security outfit, and Google, countless companies around the world that rely on the internet for part or all of their business have been scrambling to fix the flaw.“心脏流血”,听起来像是某种严重的心脏病的名称。但事实上,它是一个软件漏洞的名字,此漏洞使得全球三分之二的网站暴露于被黑客攻击的危险之中。“这可能是近些年来发现过的最危险的漏洞了,”通用电气旗下的通用电气金融务公司的首席信息安全官詹姆士·比森说道。这个漏洞是由网络安全研究团队Codenomicon和谷歌于四月七日发现的,自从那时起,全球范围内,只要是或多或少依靠互联网的公司,都火急火燎地在修补漏洞。Ironically, the bug was discovered in OpenSSL, encryption software that was designed to make the internet more secure. Available free, this open-source code is popular with businesses and governments, which use it to help secure everything from online credit-card transactions to public services. On April 9th, for instance, Canadas tax authority shut off public access to its online services while it checked the security of its systems in the light of news about the bug.讽刺的是,这个漏洞是在OpenSSl中发现的,而后者是一个用于提升网络安全的加密软件。OpenSSL是一个免费的开源软件,被企业和政府部门广泛使用,用于保护信用卡交易或公共务的安全。比如加拿大税务部门的提供的公众网络务就使用了OpenSSL,在得知漏洞的存在后,税务部门便在四月九日关闭了务。The flaw makes it possible for hackers to trick a server into spewing out data held in its memory. OpenSSL has a feature known as a “heartbeat” that allows a computer at one end of an encrypted link to send occasional signals to the computer at the other end of it, to check that it is still online. The researchers discovered that a hacker with knowledge of the bug could replicate this signal and use it to steal all manner of data from a remote computer.“心血”漏洞增加了黑客套取存储在务器上的数据的可能性。OpenSSL有一个名为“心跳”的功能,允许加密链接一端的电脑随机发出一条信息,确认另一端的电脑是否仍然在线。研究人发现,一个熟悉“心血”漏洞的黑客,可以通过复制这个信号来盗取远程计算机上的所有数据。Those data could include encryption keys that let hackers decipher traffic. To make matters worse, the researchers found that the bug, which is present in some versions of OpenSSL that have been available since March 2012, allows attacks to be mounted without leaving a trace in targeted computers “server logs”, so victims are unaware their systems have been compromised. That means it is impossible to tell for sure what damage has been done.这些数据可能包括可以让黑客解码之前通信内容的密钥。更糟糕的是,研究人员发现,此漏洞从2012起就开始在OpenSSL的一些版本中出现;而且,黑客通过此漏洞攻击时不会在其目标计算机的“务器日志”中留下痕迹,所以,受害者无法察觉到自己的系统已经被入侵了。The bug has forced companies to find out fast how many of their systems employ the vulnerable versions of OpenSSL. “Everyone knows they have to patch their customer-facing internet websites, but that is only the tip of the iceberg,” says Jonathan Sander of STEALTHbits Technologies, a security firm that is helping one of Americas biggest banks work out where it has deployed the buggy software. Web-connected systems that handle things such as accounting and personnel data will also need to be checked for the bug.这个漏洞促使企业迅速查明它们自己有哪些系统使用了存在漏洞的OpenSSL。“所有人都知道要去修补他们面向客户的网站,但那些只是冰山一角,”安全公司STEALTHbits Technologies的乔纳森·桑德说。该公司正在帮助美国的一家大型定位其系统上的漏洞。其他联网系统,例如处理帐务和私人信息的联网系统,都有必要检查一下是否有漏洞。Mr Sander likens the discovery of the Heartbleed bug to finding a faulty part in nearly every make and model of car. The problem is that the internet cannot be recalled. Big web companies such as Google and Yahoo have moved fast to deal with the bug. But millions of smaller e-commerce sites and other businesses face the worrying prospect of being attacked by hackers alerted to the bugs existence as the firms race to fix the problem.桑德说,发现“心血”漏洞,就好比汽车厂商在它的每款车里都发现一个同一个缺陷。但问题是,互联行业里没有召回这一说。像谷歌和雅虎这样的大型网络公司已经立即处理了漏洞。但是还有大量的小型的电商网站和其他类型的小公司只能一边抢修,一边担心被那些获悉漏洞存在的黑客的攻击。The cure includes applying a software “patch” and then choosing new encryption keys to replace those that may have been compromised. Once this has been done, customers will often need to change their passwords too. Tumblr, a blogging service owned by Yahoo, has urged its users to change the passwords they use for all of the secure online services that hold sensitive data about them. Some companies even chose to suspend services while they were working on a fix. Bitstamp, a Bitcoin e-currency exchange, temporarily suspended new account registrations and logins to its existing accounts.补救的办法包括给软件打“补丁”,然后用新密钥替换那些可能被盗取的密钥。完成了这两步之后,用户通常还需要更改他们的密码。雅虎旗下提供务的Tumblr就强烈建议用户更改所有包含他们敏感信息的务的密码。有些公司甚至在其修补漏洞期间暂停了务。比特币交易网站Bitstamp就暂时关闭了注册和登录务。Another Y2 K?另一个千年虫?Perhaps the risk posed by the Heartbleed bug will turn out to be overblown. But if it emerges that companies systems have indeed been hacked because of it, this could open a legal can of worms. Firms could argue that they ought not to be punished for using widely trusted security software. But aggrieved customers—and their lawyers—may see things differently.也许,“心血”漏洞可能造成的风险被夸大了。但是一旦真的有公司因此漏洞被黑客入侵了,就可能引起极为棘手的法律纠纷。企业可能会自辩说其不应该因使用被广泛信任的安全软件受罚。但受害的用户和他们的律师可不会这么想。Quite how the bug got into the OpenSSL software in the first place is a mystery. Bruce Schneier, an internet-security expert, argues in a blog post that “the probability is close to one” that intelligence agencies have exploited the glitch to nab the encryption keys needed to decipher information about their targets. His guess is that the glitch is the result of a coding error rather than the handiwork of spies, though he says he cannot be sure.至于究竟这个漏洞最初是如何出现在OpenSSL中的,这还是一个谜。网络安全专家布鲁斯·施奈尔在他的一篇客里称,“毫无疑问”,情报部门已利用此漏洞盗取密钥以获取其监控目标的信息。虽然他不能完全肯定,但他认为漏洞是编程失误的结果,不太可能是间谍的杰作。No matter who is to blame, this episode is another reminder of the security challenges companies face as ever more economic activity shifts online. According to eMarketer, a research outfit, worldwide business-to-consumer e-commerce sales are likely to grow by just over a fifth this year, to .5 trillion. That is a huge commercial opportunity, but it will also encourage cyber-crooks to target businesses even more vigorously. Expect more computer-security heartburn in boardrooms.不管幕后黑手到底是谁,这个事件再一次提醒我们,在企业不断将经济活动向线上转移的过程中,它们将面临大量的安全挑战。据一个名为eMarketer的市场调查公司称,今年全球B2C电商的销售总额将有望达到1.5万亿美元,同比增长超过五分之一。这是巨大的商机,同时也会让网络罪犯们更坚定地咬住企业这块肥肉。就让董事会的老爷们为此烧心窝火吧。 /201404/288732

Leaders社论Crisis in Ukraine乌克兰危机Not the same movie不是同一场电影The situation in Ukraine is volatile and dangerous. The West must act对于乌克兰目前动荡,危险的局势,西方国家必须采取行动。SAME places. Same slogans.同样的地点,同样的口号,Same icy weather. Same villain: Viktor Yanukovych, Ukraines thuggish president.同样的冰天雪地,针对同一个恶人—乌克兰的暗杀总统亚努科维奇。The protesters in Kiev want him out, just as the Orange revolutionaries of 2004 wanted an election that had been rigged in his favour to be annulled.2004年基辅的橙色革命,示威者们对竞选中的舞弊行为表示抗议,9年后同样在基辅示威者们再次抗议他的继任。Outsiders may be tempted to think that the current turmoil is simply a rerun of the previous bout, and is likewise destined to end peacefully.局外人也许会认为目前的混乱仅仅是一次历史的重演,最后注定将和平收场。But the latest stand-off is far more volatile—and much too dangerous for the West to watch blithely as it develops.但是最近的对峙局面越来越不稳定,对于西方国家来说,冷眼旁观其发展是非常危险的。The biggest change is in leadership, on all sides.最大的变化是全方位的领导层变化。In 2004 the Orange brigades had clear leaders, a definite aim and formidable discipline.2004年橙色派有明确的领导层,清晰的目标和严谨的纪律。Partly because, in office, those leaders thoroughly discredited themselves, todays crowds lack all these assets.一部分原因是因为,在办公时那些领导者们彻底败坏了自己的名声,而这些却是现在民众所缺少的。The protests were sparked by Mr Yanukovychs decision to reject a trade deal with the European Union, which most Ukrainians supported; but the anger goes much wider, embracing the countrys entire corrupt, dysfunctional governing class.示威活动在亚努科维奇决定拒绝签署大多数乌克兰人持的与欧盟签署贸易协议时一触即发。The opposition politicians who are trying to surf this legitimate fury have less control over the protesters than social media do, and could not disperse them even if they wanted to.但令人愤怒的远不仅此,还有整个国家的腐败风气以及统治阶级的功能失调。那些试图通过网络合法表达愤怒的反对派政治家比社会媒体更难控制,即使他们很想,却也难分散。The regime is dangerously different, too.该政权也截然不同。In 2004 the wily outgoing president, Leonid Kuchma, ultimately brokered a solution.2004年,即将离任老谋深算的总统库奇马最后提出了一个解决方案。Mr Yanukovych, by contrast, is loth to compromise, seeing politics as a winner-takes-all, life-and-death struggle—much like his Russian counterpart, Vladimir Putin, who helped to cause the crisis by cajoling him to reject the EU.相反地,亚努科维奇总统不愿妥协,将政治看做一场赢者得天下,生与死的斗争,这点很像俄罗斯总统,弗拉迪米尔普京总统,正是他哄骗亚努科维奇拒绝签署欧盟协议导致危机的爆发。For Mr Putin the Orange revolution was a humiliation, which he wrongly believed had been orchestrated by the West;对于普京来说,橙色革命时一种耻辱,因为他错误的认为这是由西方国家策划的。since 2004 he has himself become more ruthless, both geopolitically and towards dissent.从2004年开始,无论对地缘政治还是持不同政见者,普京都更显无情。The ed States, meanwhile, which leant on Mr Kuchma in 2004, has lost interest.同时,2004年倚靠库奇马总统的美国对这些也失去了兴趣。The upshot of all this is violence.这一切的结果就是暴力。The crushing of a protest camp on November 30th was more brutal than anything done during the Orange revolution, which resembled a month-long rock festival as much as a political upheaval.11月30日,破碎的抗议营地比类似为期一个月摇滚音乐节的橙色革命政治动乱的任何时期更加残酷。This time protesters have blockaded streets and occupied municipal buildings; riot police have beaten demonstrators and journalists; agents provocateurs have tried to discredit the crowd and so excuse the repression.这个时期,抗议者封锁了街道和被占领的城市建筑,防暴警察殴打示威者和记者,间谍试图抹黑群众并以此镇压。The security services, which wavered in 2004, have been tamed by Mr Yanukovych.2004年时有些动摇的安全务已被亚努科维奇镇压下来。To minimise scruples, he has borrowed the old Russian trick of busing goons to Kiev from elsewhere.为了减少顾虑,他甚至借用俄罗斯老把戏从其他地方运来受雇暴徒到基辅。The violence could get much worse.这场暴力事件可能会愈演愈烈。The fire this time激烈的时期Even by the standards of eastern Europe, Ukraines history is appallingly bloodstained.即使以东欧的标准,乌克兰的历史依然是惊人的血迹斑斑。The memory of its 20th-century horrors has helped to defuse internal tensions since the country became independent in 1991.自从1992年独立以来,20世纪的恐怖记忆稍许缓解了内部紧张局势。But it remains a fragile polity, divided between Russian- and Ukrainian-speakers, manipulated by Moscow and now threatened by a teetering economy, an ominous budget deficit and huge debts.但是它仍然是一个脆弱的国家,受俄罗斯和乌克兰领导者的影响,受到莫斯科的控制,和目前不详的预算赤字,巨额负债这些摇摇欲坠的经济威胁。Nationalism, once confined to pockets of western Ukraine, has sp.民族主义,曾局限于乌克兰西部的思想已逐渐蔓延开。Irreconcilable forces are tussling for control of the capital.不可调和的力量正角逐着想要控制这个国家。Perhaps the protests will fizzle out in the slush.也许,示威活动将会在这一团糟的形势下不了了之。But equally this nation of 46m people, bordering on four EU countries, could combust.但是这个接壤4个欧盟国家的4600万民众也可能会受到波及。The person best-placed to avoid that outcome is Mr Yanukovych.可以最好的避免这种后果的人是亚努科维奇。His record—nobbling courts and the media, persecuting opponents, coddling cronies—justifies the protesters call for a snap presidential vote.诈骗法院和媒体,迫害对手,纵容亲信,他的这些记录都作为据让抗议者呼吁提前举行总统选举。The same goes for parliamentary elections: the Rada, Ukraines parliament, is a nest of scoundrels and oligarchs placemen, who should be replaced.同样的还有议会选举,拉达,包含一群乌合之众和寡头政治执行者的乌克兰议会应该被取代。Mr Yanukovych is unlikely to allow either sort of election, but even he must see that his country is becoming ungovernable.亚努科维奇是不可能允许进行这任何一种选举,但是他必须明白他的国家正变得不受控制。This week his government survived a no-confidence vote.本周他的政府得到的投票数不太乐观。He should sack it anyway and, as a minimal political concession, bring the main opposition parties into a new coalition.作为一个最小的政治让步,无论如何他应该解散它,将主要的野党加入新的联盟。And the West should ensure that any further violence has a high price.西方国家应该明白进一步的暴乱将会产生高昂的代价。By coincidence the OSCE, an international forum, was holding a powwow in Kiev on December 5th and 6th.巧合的是欧安组织,一个国际论坛,于12月5日和6日在基辅举行一场仪式。The EUs envoys should be at the barricades, facing down the skull-crackers—not in support of any politician but in the cause of peaceful protest.欧盟特使应该会遇见路障,面对暴乱,不应该持任何政党而是弄清和平抗议的原因。And the Europeans should make clear to Mr Yanukovych and his henchmen that, in the event of an escalation, they will be punished where it hurts—through travel bans, and asset and bank-account freezes.欧洲国家应该让亚努科维奇和他的追随者清楚的意识到事件的不断扩大,他们将会受到旅游禁令,冻结资产和账户的相应惩罚。The country may be almost bankrupt, but its ruling clique is not.这个国家很有可能会破产,但它的统治集团却不会。America should do the same.美国也应如此,But the onus is on the EU. Having helped to precipitate this crisis, it cannot walk away from it.但是责任在于欧盟,它加速了这场危机的发生,但却又离不开它。Even Mr Putin, who likes his neighbours weak, should recognise that his meddling, and Ukraines own pathologies, have brought it to the brink of tragedy.即使是喜欢邻国较弱的普京也必须承认他的干涉和乌克兰自己的病症最后导致了这场悲剧的爆发。 201401/272529

And among the loot, was Josephus himself, carried to Rome and installed in the Flavian family compound.而在战利品中,约瑟夫将自己带到罗马,并且受命于弗拉家族。But no one in Rome thanked him for doing the right thing.但是罗马没有人因为他所做的事情而感谢他。The kind of people youd expected him to hang out with, historians, philosophers, playwrights and politicians, all despised the Jews.你会希望同历史学家,哲学家,剧作家和政治家一起出去,而单单唯独犹太人例外。And they didnt mind saying so.他们不介意这样的说法。At some point, Josephus had had enough of all this ignorance and gloating.在某些时候,约瑟夫已经受够了这一切的无知和幸灾乐祸。About 20 years after he wrote the Jewish Wars, he took up his pen again, this time to explain with patient dignity and a note of firm defiance and over considerable length just what Judaism was and what it did.大约20年之后他写了关于犹太人的这场战争,再次拿起笔的他这次以耐心和坚定的无视以及相当大的篇幅来解释犹太教是什么,它做了什么。 201406/308411

Finance and economics财经商业Copper铜Broken contacts破碎的联系Finance, not economics, may explain coppers recent plunge金融市场而非经济状况造成了近期的铜价下滑THE copper price has long been held to signal the state of the global economy as reliably as the metal conducts electrons.铜价一直以来都是全球经济形势的信号,它的这个作用正如导电性能一样可靠。But that reputation—never fully deserved—is now in tatters. Coppers plunging price says a lot about China, but little about the rest of the world.如今这个本就不甚牢固的地位已经岌岌可危。一路下滑的铜价折射出中国的许多问题,不过与世界形势则关系不大。China consumes about 40% of global copper production.中国消耗着全球40%的成品铜。But not all of that goes straight into manufacturing or construction.但并非所有的铜都被立即用于制造业以及建筑业。Chinese companies have also been using copper as collateral for their hard-currency loans: “buy, store, hedge and pledge” in the words of one trader.中国的公司还将铜作为硬通货贷款的抵押品。用一位从业者的话说,就是“购买,储存,用来对冲和抵押”。That has led to an overhang, with far more of the metal stockpiled than users need.铜的库存量已经远远超过使用需求,已经造成了过量储存。Any change in the conditions that created this stockpile can have a big effect on the price.造成这种储存的各种因素稍有变化就会对铜价造成重大影响。A sign of this is that when the Chinese economy slows, as seems to be happening now, with manufacturing activity weakening for a fifth consecutive month, those stockpiles rise.其中一个例子就是当中国经济增速放缓时,库存就会增加。CRU, a metals researcher, now says the copper-market surplus this year will be four times bigger than it previously estimated, with forecast production outpacing demand by 140,000 tonnes.金属研究机构CRU最近表示今年的铜剩余量将是其之前预计的4倍,预计产量将超过需求量140,000吨,。Chinese data are notoriously opaque, so judging the real health of the countrys copper-consuming industries is hard.鉴于中方的数据是出了名的不透明,所以很难判断该国铜消耗产业的真实规模。A rebound in growth later this year could revive demand for the metal.今年随后的经济增长反弹或许能重新刺激铜材的需求。But other factors are piling pressure on to the copper price.但其他因素也在给铜价施压。One is a growing wariness among creditors, following a corporate-bond failure this month.其中之一就是于本月发生了中国国内20世纪90年代以来首次的企业债券违约,这使借债机构变得愈发谨慎了。As banks worry about their customers abilities to service debts, Chinese firms are finding it harder to get loans.由于担心客户的偿还能力,中国公司发现贷款更难了。This is making some sell their copper to raise cash.这使不少公司抛售储存的铜来套现。Another factor is that Chinese regulators are cracking down on companies using copper stockpiles for speculation.还有一个因素是中方的监管机构正在打击公司们利用铜存储进行投机活动的行为。Joel Crane of Morgan Stanley, an investment bank, argues that the authorities are targeting the “shadow-banking network” used by companies to evade controls on hard-currency lending.投行根斯坦利的Joel Crane说,政府已经盯上了公司们用来逃避硬通货借贷管制的“影子网络”。Chinese importers have long used letters of credit issued by banks for raw-material imports as a way of raising funds which they then use for other purposes.中国的会发行原材料出口的信用来募集资金,而进口商们却长期把这些信用用于其它目的。Such shadow banking created lucrative arbitrage possibilities for those able to take advantage of the difference between local and international interest rates.这样的影子系统为那些能利用国内外利率差的人提供了通过套利牟取暴利的机会。This is a useful dodge when times are good, not so when scrutiny increases.当时机合适时,这是很有用的逃避方式,可监管严格时就不是了。A reform in mid-2013 made companies holding copper for collateral keep it onshore, rather than in bonded warehouses, raising the cost of storage.2013年中的一次改革要求持有铜作为抵押品的公司将铜保存在大陆地区,而非保税仓库,这也增加了储存的成本。A similar story seems to be unfolding with iron ore.铁矿石也在发生类似情况。China accounts for half of world steel production, so the iron-ore price is hypersensitive to any downward flicker in demand.中国占到了世界钢材产量的一半,所以铁矿石价格对于一丝一毫的需求减少的苗头都极度敏感。Iron-ore stocks at Chinese ports are at record highs.中国码头上的铁矿石储存量达到了创纪录的数值。China is also trying to substitute its own, lower-quality ore for the higher-grade imported stuff.中国正在试图用进口的高纯度矿石替代低质量的本国矿石。It wants to cut overcapacity and pollution, including using the financial markets to put pressure on the steel industry through higher interest rates and tighter credit.政府想要采取措施对付产能过剩和环境污染问题,包括在金融市场利用高利率和信贷紧缩来给钢铁行业施压。Companies who used iron ore as collateral for their borrowing may now have to use it for debt repayments instead.将铁矿石用作贷款抵押品的公司如今或许要将其转用作贷款偿还了。Copper bears fear that this could easily get out of hand.铜金属持有者担心这会造成情况失控。But the likelihood is more a slow unwinding of positions than a crash.但哪怕要失控,也将是一个缓慢的头寸解除过程而不会突然全部抛售。Goldman Sachs, another bank, notes that it is not in the Chinese authorities interest to shut down commodity-financing deals altogether.另一家高盛集团表示中国政府并不打算完全废除商品金融。It makes more sense just to increase the hedging and storage costs of those firms using commodities to speculate.更像是只让使用商品进行投机的公司对冲和储存的成本上升。Stephen Briggs of BNP Paribas, also a bank, notes that the “few hundred thousand tonnes” involved in these deals is only a small part of a 20m tonne market.法国巴黎的Stephen Briggs则认为这些交易涉及的“几十万吨”不过是铜材市场两千万总数的极小部分。The truth may be that jitters in China have just accelerated a change in perceptions about copper: from chronic deficit to surplus.现实或许是,中国国内的神经敏感只是加速了对于铜的观念的改变:从长期供应不足到存储过多。This stems from the impending extra metal coming this year and next from new mines in places such as Mongolia, Peru and Mexico.原因在于今年和明年将从蒙古、秘鲁、墨西哥的新建矿场中增加进口许多矿石。Speculators may come and go, but at least copper, unlike gold, has a comfortably wide range of uses.或许铜的投机生意难以预料,但和金子不同的是,铜至少有着大量的用途。 /201404/285007

People who think about language talk about how the sounds of words bear no relation to objects in the world.人们认为谈论语言的单词读音和世界上的所指物之间不存在必然关系。Indeed, this has been a leading assumption in much of modern literary criticism, philosophy, and even linguistics. 事实上,这一直是众多现代文学批评、哲学,甚至语言学的一项主要假设。Not necessarily so, says Brent Berlin, an anthropologist at the University of Georgia in Athens.然而雅典乔治亚大学的人类学家布伦特·柏林却表示未必就是如此。Berlin suspected that there was more than an arbitrary connection between word sounds and the physical characteristics of objects being described,柏林怀疑单词读音和被描述对象的物理特征间不只是随意关系,and he set up an experiment to test his hypothesis.而且他以实验来验自己的假说。First, he examined the words for two animals, the tapir and the squirrel, in 19 South American Indian languages.首先,他仔细检查了19种南美印第安语言中貘和松鼠两种动物的单词。He was searching for similarities in sound-pattern.他正在寻找的是相似的语音模式。In 14 of those languages, the tapir--which is a big, slow-moving beast--was given a name with the sound ;aah,; whereas the small, quick squirrel was given a name based on the sound ;ee.;在14种语言中,体型庞大,缓慢移动的野兽貘的名字中被赋予了“aah”,而体型娇小,行动迅速的松鼠则被冠以“ee”的名字。Next, to see if these sound-meanings could be generalized,接下来要做的是验这些声音的含义是否可能具有广义性,Berlin the unfamiliar words to a group of English speaking test subjects,柏林为一群英语口语测试者朗读不熟悉的单词,asking them to guess which word meant ;squirrel.;让他们猜猜哪个词的意思是“松鼠。”He reasoned that if word and object are arbitrarily connected by language, the result should be random; sometimes right, sometimes wrong.他推断如果单词和对象之间通过语言是随意的关系存在,那结果应该是随机的;时对时错。In fact he found a greater-than-chance-level number of correct guesses.但事实上他发现大于偶然次数的正确猜测。And something else interesting showed up: when he used words from the five languages that didnt fit the original ;aah;-;ee; pattern,而且更为的有趣发现是:当他使用来自五种语言不符合原来的“aah”- “ee”模式单词时,the subjects responses were indeed random--unless the ;ee; sound happened to be present, in which case they tended to guess ;squirrel.; 受试者们的反应确实是随机的,除非“ee”声碰巧出现,在这种情况下,他们更倾向于猜测“松鼠”。 201311/263762

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