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Germany and the euro德国和欧元You Kant do that请依法办事Many Germans fear that the European Central Bank is not on their side很多德国人担心欧洲央行不是他们这一阵营的HORST SEEHOFER, premier of Bavaria, sums up German attitudes to the European Central Bank (ECB). Based in Frankfurt, but run by Mario Draghi, an Italian, the ECB said on September 4th that it would cut its interest rate to 0.05% and start buying asset-backed securities from banks to get them to lend. By opening the money tap, taking on debt and buying “junk”, Mr Seehofer told Bild, Germanys biggest tabloid, the ECB frightens people. “It must be our job to criticise these policies.”巴伐利亚州州长霍斯特·泽霍费尔向欧洲央行(ECB)表明了德国的态度。坐落于法兰克福,但如今却被意大利人马里奥·德拉基掌舵的ECB,在9月4日公开表示,将基准利率下调至0.05%并从放贷购买资产抵押债券。泽霍费尔向图片报透露,ECB借着开通资金流、承担债务和购入“低档债券”的方式来恐吓民众。他表示“我们的职责就是批评这些政策。”Like others on the centre-right, Mr Seehofer frets that a new anti-euro party, the Alternative for Germany, will poach voters by bashing the ECB. The Alternative has just got into its first state parliament and may get into two more on September 14th. But scepticism about the ECB is growing across the country. Hans-Werner Sinn, boss of Munichs Ifo Institute and an economist, echoes Mr Seehofer: the ECB has “cut interest rates by too much”; and it is not authorised to buy bonds “as this is a fiscal and not a monetary-policy measure. Such a policy would be at the expense of European taxpayers, who would have to pay for the losses incurred by the ECB.”与其他中右翼党派一样,泽霍费尔同样忧心德国新选择党—一个新的反欧元党派—会借机抨击ECB来拉拢选民。而新选择党才刚刚成功进入第一个州议会,在9月14日新选项党还可能会成功进入另外两个。但是ECB质疑论正在这个城市大肆传播。慕尼黑经济研究所所长汉斯-维尔纳·辛恩也在泽霍费尔之后随声附和:ECB已经“降低基准利率太多”;而且ECB并未得到购买债券的授权,因为这并不是一个货币政策措施而是一个财政法令。而这样的一个政策将以欧洲的纳税人为代价,让他们不得不为ECB引起的损失买单。Mainstream views in Germany are diverging from those elsewhere in the euro zone and in Anglo-Saxon countries. The world outside Germany is afraid of deflation. Germans, however, worry that cheap money could lead eventually to inflation. This may be surprising, since prices in the euro zone are rising by only 0.3% a year, far below the ECBs 2% target. But inflation fears have been etched into the German psyche since the hyperinflation of 1922-23.现今德国国内的主流观点便是与那些欧元区的其他国家和盎格鲁-撒克逊国家分道扬镳。除德国之外,全世界都惧怕通货紧缩。然而,德国人忧心的却是宽松货币政策最终可能引发通货膨胀。由于欧元区的价格一直在不断上涨,每年涨幅仅为0.3%,这相较于ECB2%的目标已经是很低了,在这种状况下,德国人的此种担忧让人颇感意外。但是自从经历过1922-1923年的恶性通货膨胀之后,德国人对通货膨胀的恐惧已经深入骨髓。Many are cross that cheap money is crushing interest rates on savings accounts and capital life-insurance policies, a common form of retirement planning. Real returns on such savings are laughable, just when greying Germans need them. Low rates may boost shares and property, but ordinary Germans shun such assets. One argument they use against low rates, indeed, is that they create asset bubbles.也有许多人持相反的观点,他们认为宽松货币政策正压制储蓄账户和资本人寿保险政策的基准利率。这种储蓄的实际回报效果却让人觉得可笑,仅仅是在头发花白的德国人需要之时才会出现。低利率可能会刺激股票和房地产行业,但是普通的德国人还是会避开这两样资产。而实际上这些普通人用来反对低利率的一种说法便是,这样做会引起资产泡沫。But the roots of German scepticism are more fundamental, argues Marcel Fratzscher, head of the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin, in a forthcoming book, “The Germany Illusion”. Anglo-Saxon economists are guided by the utilitarian philosophy of John Stuart Mill or Jeremy Bentham, asking merely if a policy works. Germans side with Immanuel Kant, believing that nothing works except through law, and are horrified when the ECB strays from its narrow mandate.但是,马塞尔·弗雷兹策尔—柏林德国经济研究所所长—在他即将出版的书《德国的幻象》中表示,德国质疑论的来源更加坚实。盎格鲁-撒克逊那群仅要求这政策能奏效的经济学家们,皆以约翰·斯图尔特·密尔或是杰里米·边沁的功利主义哲学为指南。那些拥护伊曼努尔·康德的德国人,坚信任何事情只有借以法律手段才能奏效,而且在ECB打破自身的局限颁布条令之时,他们也被震惊了。Germans felt it was doing this in 2012 when Mr Draghi announced that the ECB would, under certain conditions, buy the bonds of euro countries in crisis. Outside Germany, this is considered the most effective step in the euro crisis to date. Inside Germany, it is seen as illegal. The ECB would indirectly finance governments when it may only manage the money supply, ruled the German constitutional court in February (though it referred the issue up to the European Court of Justice).当德拉基宣布ECB会在某些情况下购买身处危机中的欧元区国家债券之时,德国人意识到ECB曾在2012年就这样做了。在德国之外,这种举措被认为是迄今为止在欧元危机之中最奏效的一步。而在德国国内,这种行为却被认为是违法的。当ECB仅能控制货币供应之时,它会间接的向政府融资,对此,德国宪法法院已在二月份作出裁决。Buying asset-backed securities from banks is, by this logic, another step in the wrong direction. Worse, Germans fear that it could lead to “quantitative easing”: printing money to buy bonds. “Breaking the rules destroys trust,” warns Ralph Brinkhaus, a Bundestag member from the centre-right party of Chancellor Angela Merkel. And it sends the wrong message to crisis countries, he adds, by reducing the pressure on them to reform.按照这种“德国认为是违法的”的逻辑,那么ECB从购买资产抵押债券也是在错误方向上的另外一步了。更糟的是,德国人害怕的是,ECB的这种做法会导致“量化宽松”:也就是印钞买债券。德国总理默克尔所属基督教民主联盟籍议员Ralph Brinkhaus 提出警告 “打破规则摧毁信任”。而且他补充道,这些做法通过减少改革的压力,给那些身处欧元危机中的国家发送了错误的信息。 /201409/328760A self-styled armed militia continues to occupy a wildlife refuge building in Oregon. The FBI says it is hoping for a peaceful end to the occupation.The story out of Oregon got us wondering about Michigans history of militias, and whether whats happened in the Beaver State could happen here as well.Amy Cooter is a faculty member in Vanderbilt Universitys Sociology department. She did field work with the Michigan militia as part of her dissertation research.Cooter tells us its ;certainly possible; that Michigan could see some sort of militia activity, but its unlikely that it would play out the way it has in Oregon.What makes a militia?Cooter says theres a lot of debate over how to define a militia, but to her mind, a militia is, ;a group of people who are armed, who practice with firearms regularly and who meet not just for training purposes, but also to discuss political and other ongoing events.;She tells us there are similar groups all over the country who dont incorporate any sort of training into their operations, adding that many members of the aforementioned group in Oregon do not appear to have received any such training. ;So its debatable whether the militia label is really the best fit for them, but well go with that for now,; Cooter says.;Theres a little bit more faith in the state government in Michigan than what were seeing happening right now in Oregon.;According to Cooter, groups who fall under the general ;militia; umbrella can be broken into two categories: Millenarians and Constitutionalists.Constitutionalist groups, she explains, are typically made up of people who believe that Americans should follow the Constitution to the letter of the law. She tells us most militia groups fall under this category.;The Millenarian groups tend to take it a step further,; Cooter says. ;[They] think that things are kind of more urgent, more pressing, that they need to enact something, whether its violence in some cases, whether its a protest, to make the government pay attention to their needs.; She tells us these are usually the groups that show up in the news.According to Cooter, both types of groups exist in Michigan, but the majority are of the Constitutionalist variety.Militia in Michigan;There have been active militias in all 50 states for a long time, but Michigan in particular has a long history of its own,; Cooter says. ;It really first started around 1994 in the wake of several different events including Waco, Ruby Ridge and the Brady Bill.;She tells us different groups appeared around the state and eventually came together over common concerns, eventually forming the group we know now as the Michigan Militia.Michigan Radios Rina Miller spoke with members of the Southwest Michigan Volunteer Militia in 2010:Shortly after the Oklahoma City bombing in April of 1995, news sp that bomber Timothy McVeigh had attended a number of militia meetings in Michigan prior to attacking the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building.Michigan militia members who were around at the time told Cooter that the group was skeptical of McVeigh and at one point asked him to leave one of the meetings.But regardless of how involved McVeigh was in Michigan, Cooter thinks his presence shaped the Michigan Militia in ways that set it apart from militias in other states.;Because of all the fallout that happened from McVeigh from the Oklahoma bombing, I think militia members in Michigan today are much more careful about getting involved in certain events, making sure they really understand who the players are, what their motivations are, what the consequences might be before they get involved in some big picture actions,; she says.Cooter tells us that militia membership tends to be cyclical, fluctuating in response to state- and federal-level political occurrences. For example, she says that even without the recent militia activity in Oklahoma, militia membership would be expected to rise in response to President Obamas announcements about gun control.Alternatively, in times of Republican leadership and when political focus shifts away from gun control and other issues that are of concern to militia groups, she tells us membership tends to decline.Michigans militia members today view themselves ;almost as supercitizens,; Cooter says.;They really think about themselves as trying to be real Americans, as trying to understand the Constitution and what good citizens are supposed to do to take care of themselves, their family, and their country,; she tells us. ;They really think that its their job to watch out for government infringement even if some of their neighbors are being complacent about it.;Cooter tells us its important to understand that militia groups are varied in their practices and beliefs, ;just like most other kind of organizations that people join when they have a common interest.; She also warns us against letting the vocal minority set the tone for how we see militia around the country.;A lot of the ones that end up on the news who are in trouble, who are doing something that we may not agree with, are not necessarily representative of the brunt of militia members,; she says.;We may have to think about our terminology and keep that in mind before we get necessarily afraid of what theyre up to or maybe what is happening in our own community.;—Ryan Grimes, Stateside201601/420774

Charter Schools特许学校Big, not easy大,但并不简单Revolution and innovation in some of Americas toughest neighbourhoods美国的一些“老大难”街区的改革和创新AS PUPILS file into their classroom at Kipp Renaissance, a high school in a battered corner of north-east New Orleans, each one stops to shake the hand of a history teacher. “Changes”, a rap song by Tupac about the struggles of being poor and black in America, plays quietly in the background. Within a minute or two, the dozen teenagers—all black—are busily filling in test papers. Soon afterwards, Mr Kullman, the teacher, begins rapping himself—hopping around the room demanding quick-fire answers to questions about the civil war. Pupils shout back answers in chorus.知力复兴(Kipp Renaissance)高中座落在新奥尔良东北角的一个破旧的角落里,那儿小学生们排队进入他们的教室,每个人还要停下来和历史老师握手。“改变”,是一首来自Tupac的饶舌歌曲,悄然地播放在校园中,讲述关于在美国穷困的黑人如何生存。几分钟内,那群黑人青少年就忙于填写测试答卷。很快,考尔曼老师开始开始唱起Rap,在教室里小幅跳动着,要求学生快速回答关于内战的问题。学生们则不整齐地回答出来。Kipp Renaissance is one of New Orleanss newer high schools. Since Hurricane Katrina hit in 2005, only six traditional public schools, directly run by the city, remain. Instead 94% of pupils now attend charter schools, which are publicly funded but run by independent non-profit organisations such as Kipp (in full, the “Knowledge is Power Programme”).知力复兴高中是新奥尔良市一所历史较短的高中。自从2005年卡特里娜飓风袭击后,直属市辖的高中仅剩下六所传统的公立学校。取而代之的是94%的小学生现在都报名特许学校,这些学校是由公众资助,但由独立非盈利性组织例如知力经营(全称是,“知识就是力量项目”)。Change began in 2003, when Louisiana created a Recovery School District (RSD) to take over and turn around failing schools across the state. Katrina dramatically accelerated the process: the RSD now controls most schools in New Orleans. Since 2008 alone, it has closed about 50 and presided over the opening of an equal number of charters. The district organises admissions and expulsions, and helps allocate school buildings. But staffing, teacher training, transport, catering and much else are left in the hands of schools and the charter chains which run them.改变从2003年开始了,那时路易斯安那州创办了一个叫复原学校街区(RSD)组织,目的是取代并扭转整个州立失败的教育。卡特里娜飓风戏剧性地加速了这一进程:RSD现在经营新奥尔良市大部分学校。从2008年一年来说,它关闭了将近50所学校并主持开班了同样数量的特许学校。街区制定了准入令和驱逐令,帮助分配学校建筑。但是员工雇佣,教师培训,交通,饮食提供和很多其他的事情都被下放到学校掌管,连锁的特许学校经营它们。A decade ago, teachers in New Orleans were demoralised. The citys school district had eight different superintendents in the decade to 2005, none of whom managed to curb corruption or control waste. Affluent whites had fled the system: before Katrina New Orleans was roughly 67% black and 28% white, yet only 6% of public-school pupils were not black.十年前,新奥尔良市的老师士气低沉。市里学校街区竟在2005年之前十年有八个主管,没有人遏制腐败或是控制浪费。富裕的白人则逃离这一系统:在卡特里娜飓风来临之前新奥尔良市有大概67%的黑人和28%的白人,然而只有6%的公公学校的学生不是黑人。Under the new regime, schools have sharply improved. In 2004 just 16.5% of pupils in New Orleanss schools beat Louisianas state performance score; by the end of the most recent school year, 31.1% did, according to the Cowen Institute at Tulane University. High-school graduation rates have risen from 55% before Katrina to 73% now; drop-out rates have fallen by half.在新策略下,学校则大幅改观。2004年,新奥尔良市只有16.5%的小学生达到了路易斯安那州成绩考核;在最新的学年里,根据杜兰大学科文中心数据,31.1%的学生做到了。高中毕业生比例从卡特里娜前的55%增至现在73%;辍学人数则下降了一半。After Katrina, most of New Orleanss 7,500 unionised teachers were, in effect, fired. Charter schools have hired some back—but they have also hired plenty of new, young ambitious teachers, often straight out of college, who work the long days and extra hours without complaint.在卡特里娜之后,新奥尔良市7,500名教师中大部分实际上被解雇。特许学校返聘了一部分回来——但他们也雇佣了很多新的、年轻有志的老师们,通常是刚从大学毕业,可以工作很久、加班没有怨言。The ability to choose a school matters less than you might expect. Autonomy and central scrutiny matter more. New Orleanss charter schools are probably more closely watched than public schools ever were, and those that fail to meet targets do not get their charters renewed. With academic targets set centrally, schools tend to agree on what works best.择校能力仅仅和你可能预想中的部分相关。自治权和中央审核关联更大。新奥尔良市的特许学校可能会比以前的公公学校受更紧的监察,那些无法达标的学校无法更新特许件。将完成学术目标设立为中心,学校倾向于许可工作最好的部分。The challenge now is whether improvement can be sustained. On national tests, Louisiana still comes last or nearly last on a range of measures. What the state deems “mastery” of a subject barely passes for acceptable in other states: by the standards of Massachusetts or Maine, schools in New Orleans remain terrible. Middle-class whites still mostly send their children to private schools.现在面临的困难是进步能否被保持住。在国家性考试中,路易斯安那州仍然垫底或是在一定范围检测里将近垫底。这个州里被认为是高级学科的课程在其他州仅仅被认为是可以接受的课程:通过对比马萨诸塞州和缅因州,新奥尔良的学校仍然很渣。中产阶级白人们仍然可能将他们的孩子送往私立学校。One worry is money. Before Katrina, spending per pupil in New Orleans was 7,900 per year, about the same as in Louisiana at large. Last year the figure was 12,797—much more than the state average. Federal money, doled out to help rebuild after the hurricane, now pays for repairing almost all the citys school buildings. But it will not last for ever.另一担心则是钱的问题。卡特里娜之前,每个小学生身上每年花销7,900刀,路易斯安那州每个小学生基本相同。去年这个数字是12,797刀—远远超出其他州平均水准。用于救助灾后重建的联邦拨款现在正应付着修建城里的学校建筑。但是这不会持续到永远。At some point, the citys overworked teachers may begin to struggle. Some critics say reform has been imposed paternalistically by white reformers on black communities, and so has only limited support. Yet in a vote on December 6th a new tax for school maintenance was easily approved by the citys voters. They, and their children, seem to like what they are getting.某些观点上,城里过度劳累的老师们可能开始抗议。一些批评家认为改革是白人改革者家长式作风,强加于黑人社区,而且持效果有限。然而在11月6日的城市投票中,针对学校维修的新税法投票中被轻易审核批准。他们以及他们的子女看来是喜欢正享受的东西。By:彭威 译文属译生译世 /201412/349264

Military uniforms军装Out of sight真正隐形Expense and stupidity too big to camouflage迷也不再能伪装目标巨大的出和愚蠢“I WEAR camo so I can feel safe,” says Sean, a member of the navy reserve. He cannot quite fathom why his combat uniform is different from that of other American servicemen in the field, depending on whether they are members of the army, the air force or the marines. And soon it may be different no longer; for after years of ludicrously expensive design rivalry, the defence appropriation for 2014 prohibits the services from designing new uniforms, unless they will be used by all members of the armed forces.海军预备役成员肖恩说:“迷让我觉得安全。”他始终不能理解,为何根据军种的不同,作战的陆军、空军和海军的作战样式不同。但这种现状即将改变,在数年荒唐可笑、花费巨大的设计竞赛之后,2014年国防拨款严禁军队设计新制,除非该种制能够用于全军。Remarkably, the Department of Defence has no single department dedicated to researching, developing and procuring the best uniforms for all troops. This caused no problems before 2002, when nearly every serviceman had a choice between a greenish camouflage uniform or a “coffee stain” desert pattern. But over the past 12 years the services have each created their own style of camouflage. The effect has been both costly, and occasionally embarrassing.但请注意,国防部并无专门部门负责研发和生产适用于全军的装。在2002年之前,这不是问题,因此那时每个军人只有两种选择---绿色迷或者咖色沙漠迷。但十二年过去了,各个军队都设计了自己的迷。这不仅带来了浪费,有时还意味着尴尬。The marines led the way in 2002 with a versatile and effective new combat uniform, which also served to boost corps morale because the marine insignia was embedded in the design. This inspired a cascade of one-upsmanship among the other services. The air force, for instance, spent several years and more than m designing a new “tiger-stripe” uniform that proved unsuitable for combat—the camouflage was ineffective, the trousers were uncomfortable and the fabric was too heavy, leading to “heat build-up”. The navy spent a lot less money developing the “aquaflage” uniform; but that is a silly blue ensemble that works best where sailors may least wish to blend, in the water.海军陆战队在2002年率先发布了一款全能高效的新型作战,该款饰的设计包含了海军陆战队的队徽,因此对鼓舞士气也有奇效。这在全军掀起了一股争先浪潮。比如,空军部队耗时数年,斥资逾300万美元,设计了一种新型“虎纹”制,但这种制却不适合作战---它的保护色无用,裤装不舒适,布料太厚不利散热。海军用较少的花费,设计了所谓的“水蓝”军(aquaflage),这套愚蠢的蓝色制看上去只有在水中—海军最不愿意隐藏的地方—隐藏效果最好。The worst offender has been the army. The service spent years and about .2m developing its own “universal” camouflage. This pattern was designed to work anywhere, but proved useless nearly everywhere. Soon after it was introduced in 2005, soldiers in Iraq and Afghanistan began complaining that the pattern turned them into targets. Troops from Syria and China were clearly better equipped. Reports suggest that a high-ranking military official had chosen the pattern without consulting the data from years of studies. The army is said to have spent at least billion on uniforms and equipment printed in this camouflage, which is still in use. In an emergency measure, the army kitted out soldiers in Afghanistan in a new pattern starting in 2010, spending more than .8m on replacement gear in fiscal 2010 and 2011.最糟糕的设计来自陆军。陆军花费数年和约320万美元设计了一种所谓的“通用”迷。按照设计,它本该适用所有地形,但最终发现,它几乎在所有地形都派不上用场。2005年,在该种迷推出后不久,伊拉克和阿富汗的美国士兵就开始抱怨,说这种制使他们成了活靶子。连叙利亚和中国的军队都明显比美军军备精良。调查显示,一位位居高位的军官在没有参考多年调查数据的情况下就选定了这种设计。据称,陆军至少砸了50亿美元在该种制和迷上印的设备上。目前,这种迷仍在使用中。2010年,作为应急措施之一,陆军为驻伊拉克的士兵换上了新型样式的装,据称这个过程花费了2010、2011年的财政中的388万美元。Part of the problem, explains Timothy ONeill, a retired lieutenant-colonel and camouflage expert, is that officers can be a bit too preoccupied with a uniforms “CDI [chicks dig it] factor”. This vanity, together with bungled trials, missteps and a lack of co-operation, put the cost of developing these uniforms at more than m, according to a report from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) in 2012. This does not include the extra costs—which the GAO estimates in the tens of millions of dollars—of managing the stock and supply of so many different combat uniforms. Nor does it include the high costs of replacing ineffective camouflage in the field. The armed forces spent around 0m on camouflage uniforms in 2011 alone.退休上校、迷专家蒂莫西·奥尼尔指出,问题一部分出在军官们过于关注军装华而不实的效果。根据美国政府问责局(GAO)2012年的一份报告,这种虚荣心,加上被搞砸的实验,失误和欠缺合作,使得开发这些制的费用超过了1200万美元。这还不涵盖其他额外费用(根据政府问责局估计,单单这一块费用就数以百万),包括管理这些种类繁多的作战的储存和供应。更不要提替换在战场上效果不佳的迷的费用了。仅仅在2011年一年,全军花费在迷上的费用就高达3亿美元。Stunned by these price tags, Congress in 2010 directed the Department of Defence to raise standards and cut costs. But little has been done. Many soldiers see the wisdom of returning to a shared uniform. But not the marines, who will stick to their pattern “like a hobo on a ham sandwich”, in the words of General James Amos, commandant of the marine corps.被这些价格标签吓到,国会在2011年令国防部提高标准,降低成本。但应对措施不多。许多士兵看到了重新开始共享同款军的好处。但海军陆战队不这么想,海军陆战队总司令、上校詹姆斯·阿莫斯说,海军陆战队队员对他们自己的设计就像“流浪汉对火腿三明治”。It is unclear what all this means for the army, which has been spending millions of dollars testing different patterns for a new camouflage since 2010. It recently started tests for possible new uniforms, which will continue until the end of September. Replacing the services flawed camouflage and equipment could cost another billion over five years, according to the GAO. “Research and development in government is always a long and painstaking process,“ says Mr ONeill. “But if it were easy, then the government would waste even more money, and faster.”这一切对全军意味着什么,现在还不清楚。自2010年以来,全军在一种新型迷的测试上已经花费了上百万资金。最近,它又对一种疑似新军装展开了新一轮测试,测试将一直持续到九月底。政府问责局称,在未来五年,替换军队中存在缺陷的迷和装备将花费400万美元。奥尼尔说:“政府的研发过程总是路漫漫其修远兮,但如果这个过程过于简单,那么政府会浪费更多的资金,更加草率。”译者:杨雪 译文属译生译世 /201601/423333

  Foreign entrepreneurs in China在中国觅食的外国企业家Small is not beautiful小并不是美It is hard for small businesses to break into the Chinese market对于小盘生意来说,要打入中国市场难如登天ENTREPRENEURS do more with less, proclaimed Fiona Woolf this week on a visit to Shanghai. Lady Woolf, the current Lord Mayor of the City of London, was speaking at an academic conference devoted to helping small and medium enterprises (SMEs) flourish in China. These businesses face all of the same obstacles as big firms trying to enter China but have far fewer resources.本周,现任伦敦金融城市长Fiona Woolf在上海进行访问,而在一个致力于帮助中小企业(SMEs)在中国发展扩张的学术研讨会上,Woolf市长声称企业家们都是能“花小钱办大事”的人。这些中小企业在进入中国市场之时,面临着与大公司一样的困难,但前者所拥有的资源却比后者要少得多。Intellectual-property rights are hard and costly to defend. The tangle of red tape involved in tax, compliance, customs clearance, business registration and so on can overwhelm small firms. Alexandra Voss of the German Chamber of Commerce points out that local firms often work overtime and on weekends during negotiations—and that foreign SMEs with staff shortages and little local knowledge can quickly get overwhelmed.捍卫知识产权不仅困难重重,其代价也非常高。税务、行政法规、海关、工商登记等等,各式各样的官僚行径交织成一团乱麻,令小公司无法存活。德国商会的Alexandra Voss指出,本地公司常常让员工在平时加班或者在周末上班,而这正是令员工短缺以及缺乏本地业务情况的外国中小企业迅速被打垮的原因。A bigger snag is that getting China right demands a huge amount of attention from the top brass, explains Franklin Yao of Smith Street Solutions, a consulting firm that advises firms keen to enter China. The problem is that the market is enormous, complicated and opaque. It is also hyper-competitive, thanks to a proliferation of both low-cost locals and deep-pocketed multinational companies.一家为热衷于进入中国市场的公司提供务的咨询机构Smith Street Solutions,其分析员Franklin Yao解释道,眼前一个更大的阻碍在于,如果要与中国搞好关系,就必须得到国家高层的大量关注。而问题就在于市场是无比巨大的,是复杂的,同时也是不透明的。同时,高度竞争也是市场的特点之一,而这要归功于廉价的本地劳动力和财力雄厚的跨国公司两者之间的共同成长。For intrepid SMEs still keen to try, help is at hand. All developed countries have trade offices and business chambers devoted to helping smaller firms clear the many hurdles. Consultants are also coming up with new ways to connect these firms to unfamiliar customers.对于勇敢无畏的不停尝试的中小企业来说,还是能够获得帮助的。所有发达国家都成立了商贸部门以及商业协会,以帮助较小的公司清除大部分发展障碍。商业顾问也想出了许多新方法,让这些公司与未曾接触过的客户取得联系。Deb Weidenhamer runs iPai, a trailblazing foreign auction house in China. Her outfit holds dozens of auctions a year, run simultaneously online and at a trendy site in Shanghai, mostly peddling excess inventories from distributors of fashionable goods. For 15,000, she will add a foreign SMEs product to three of her auctions over several weeks and get user feedback. The result, she says, is that her clients learn quickly and easily if and how much Chinese customers will pay for their novel products and what they think of them.Deb Weidenhamer,目前在中国运营一家开创性的外国拍卖行。她的机构不仅每年要处理许多拍卖业务,同时也在网上经营,并且是在上海的一个时尚的网站里进行销售,大部分是在兜售时髦产品经销商手中多余的存货。仅需15000美元,她就能让一项外国中小企业产品登陆到自己的拍卖品展示区长达数周,并获取用户的反馈。她表示自己的机构能够最终帮助客户快速轻松地了解到中国顾客的情况,包括他们是否会购买该公司的新产品、出价几何以及他们对该产品的看法。Another encouraging development for smaller firms is the rise of e-commerce in China. Frank Lavin of Export Now, an e-commerce firm, argues that going directly to online sales lets foreign newcomers build a national brand far more quickly and cheaply than through bricks-and-mortar outlets. For 17-20% of a firms Chinese revenues, he will take care of the regulatory filings, product testing, warehousing and so on required for online sales.对于小型公司来说,另一个利好因素莫过于中国电子商务的发展。来自电商公司Export Now的Frank Lavin表示,通过网络渠道直接销售,不仅可以使新入境的外国竞争者迅速建立国际品牌形象,并且其花费的代价也大大降低,这两大优势都令传统实体营销策略黯然失色。目前该公司在中国的总收入当中,网络渠道的销售额已经占到了约17%至20%,而为此他会处理好政府监管备案、产品测试、仓储等等的一系列网络销售所需要解决的问题。Alibaba, a Chinese e-commerce giant that recently went public in America, is explicitly courting foreign SMEs. A recent success story involves sales of imported fresh foods on its Tmall portal. Keith Hu of the Northwest Cherry Growers, which represents American farmers of the fruit, explains that selling to China was made even more difficult as the fruit ripens only during an eight-week period each year. But a clever collaboration with Tmall helped his farmers reach customers even in smaller Chinese cities, boosting sales over fourfold in the past year to over 600 tonnes.中国电商巨头阿里巴巴(Alibaba,近期在美国上市)已经明确地对外国中小企业抛出了橄榄枝。最近,该公司在旗下“天猫商城”所推广的进口新鲜食品已经成为了成功的典范。Northwest Cherry Growers的Keith Hu,美国果农的代表,对外解释称,以前向中国销售新鲜水果是件非常困难的事,因为每年产出的水果只有八周的成熟期。但现在通过与“天猫商城”的精明协作,美国的果农甚至能够把产品卖给中国偏远城市地区,而这令美国果农去年在华的销售量提升了四倍,超过了600吨的大关。While it is possible to make it, Mr Yao is blunt about the chances: “If your firm doesnt have at least 100m a year in sales, dont bother trying.” Life is hardly a bowl of cherries for most small entrepreneurs trying to enter the Middle Kingdom.虽然进入中国市场是很有希望的,但Yao先生也率直地评价道:“如果你的公司每年营业额连1亿美元都达不到,那还是不要白费力气了。”对于想要瓜分天朝的小企业家来说,创业总是比较艰难。译者:颜士竣 201410/337076

  And the last time you are here you sang, right? Yes.上次来这儿的时候 你唱歌了 对吗 是的And so now are you still singing?Is there still music in your future?你现在还在唱歌吗 未来还有做音乐的计划吗Yeah. Yeah.Next album is almost done.Which Im so excited for.Its like 90 percent there.是的 还有 下一张专辑的制作就快完成了 我特别激动 制作完成了九成多So I cant wait to share music.Like next two months.我迫不及待想和大家分享里面的音乐 大约两个月后Wow. So you doing that still and you are doing Undateable.哇 所以你准备新专辑的同时 还在出演;约会杀手;Yeah. Good for you.Thats amazing.Thank you very much.是的 太棒了 太不可思议了 非常感谢Also when that comes out youll come back and sing again for us.专辑出来后 你可以来这儿给大家唱歌吧If you have me.Er, well, of course we will have you.Why wouldnt we have you? I dont know, you know.只要你找我 额 当然 我们当然会邀请你 怎么会不请你呢 我不确定 你懂的And thank you for more underwear, by the way.Anytime, I think thats why people do the show.顺便要谢谢你 我又能得到新内衣了 我想大家之所以愿意参加艾伦秀Cause they get the free underwear.I actually think people want to be on the show是因为他们可以得到免费的内衣 实际上我觉得大家想上艾伦秀的理由just for the free underwear they get.Next time, walk slowly.也仅仅是为了能得到免费的内衣 下次来的时候 走慢一点Okay. - And take your time,And Ill see you next time when you sing for us.好的 -慢慢来别着急 下次见时 你要给大家唱歌哦Fabulous. - Sing for your underwear.You can catch on Bridgit every Tuesday night on Undateable at night on N.Well be right back.太好了 -为得到免费内衣而唱 各位观众 你可以在每周二晚上打开N频道 收看由布莉姬主演的;约会杀手; 我们稍后回来 /201601/424293。

  And now, 25 years later,here on the Heldenplatz, the Heroes Square in front of the Hofburg Palace,more than 200,000 people gathered to see Hitler.在25年后在霍夫堡皇宫前方的英雄广场,20多万人聚集于此只为目睹希特勒。In this city, Hitler had once longed to be a hero.希特勒曾在这城市做过英雄梦。And now, to the cheering crowd in front of him, he was one.眼前欢呼的人群,将此梦变成现实。All the most important elements of Hitlers charismatic attraction were on show here in Austria.希特勒领袖气质的所有重要因素都在奥地利得到体现。His mission to unite all Germans under his rule.他秉承团结所有日耳曼人民的使命。His ability to establish a connection and express what his audience were wanting and feeling.他具有让观众产生共鸣,表达他们心声的能力。His vision of a racist state,他有建立种族主义国家的愿景,filled only with those he thought ;true; Germans.希望里面只有他眼中真正的德国人。The hope he offered these people in their economic crisis.他给经济危机中的人们以希望。His certainty that all would come well...now that Germany and Austria were united.他顺利推进一切的坚定信念,现在,德国和奥地利已合并。A final part of Hitlers charisma was also on show-one that appealed to peoples prejudice.他魅力的最后一个元素亦显露无遗,他对异见人士极具;魅力;。His capacity to hate.就是仇恨的能力。 译文属201601/420525

  Business this week本周经济要闻The saga at Valeant rumbled on. Michael Pearson decided to quit as chief executive of the troubled Canadian drugmaker. He acknowledged that the past few months, during which time the company has been criticised for introducing whopping price increases on heart medicines and has come under federal investigation for its ties to an online pharmacy, have been “difficult”. He will stay until a successor is named. The company blamed the “tone at the top of the organisation” and pressure to achieve targets as factors causing it to restate its earnings. William Ackman, an activist investor whose hedge fund owns 9% of Valeant, was appointed to the board.加拿大制药公司瓦兰特的故事仍在继续。该公司如今深陷困境,执行总裁迈克尔·皮尔森(Michael Pearson)离任。在过去几个月里,该公司由于大幅度上调心脏病药物的价格而饱受指责,并因为与某家网上药店的交易而受到联邦调查。皮尔森承认这几个月十分“难熬”。他将继续掌管公司直到新总裁上任。瓦兰特将公司重申收益归咎于“高层的决策制定”以及达标压力。激进投资者威廉·阿克曼(William Ackman)被任命为董事会成员,其麾下的对冲基金拥有瓦兰特9%的股份。IHS and Markit, two providers of market and financial data, agreed to merge in a transaction they valued at billion. IHS is based in Colorado but will move to London, where Markit has its headquarters, thus allowing it to lower its corporate-tax rate considerably. It is the latest in a series of “tax inversion” deals that have attracted political controversy in America. The new IHS Markit will compete with Bloomberg and Thomson Reuters for business.两家市场与金融数据供应商IHS和Markit就价值130亿美元合并案达成共识。IHS位于科罗拉多州(Colorado),合并后将迁至Markit总部所在地伦敦,以此大幅度降低企业税率。这是一系列“税负倒置”案中的又一新例,在美国引发了政治上争论。新公司IHS Markit将与彭(Bloomberg)和汤森路透(Thomson Reuters)展开商业竞争。Apple went back to basics, unveiling a new iPhone, the SE, which comes with a smaller screen than the iPhone 6 and is billed by the company as the cheapest iPhone ever. Meanwhile, Americas Supreme Court agreed to hear Samsungs appeal against the penalties it has incurred for copying Apples patented designs on the iPhone.苹果公司(Apple)回归最初,发布新款iPhone SE。该款手机屏幕比iPhone 6小,并且是苹果有史以来价格最便宜的一款手机。与此同时,美国最高法院(Americas Supreme Court)同意受理三星公司(Samsung)的上诉。三星认为对其抄袭苹果iPhone专利设计的处罚不合理。Marriott increased its offer for Starwood Hotels to .6 billion in order to fend off a rival bid from Anbang, a Chinese insurance company. Starwood, which counts the Sheraton and Westin chains among its brands, accepted Marriotts new deal, which was discussed by the companies bosses when they accompanied Barack Obama on his visit to Cuba. Starwood also announced that it had struck a deal with the Cuban government to operate hotels on the island, the first American hotelier to do so since the revolution in 1959.为了阻止中国保险公司安邦(Anbang)收购喜达屋酒店(Starwood Hotels),万豪(Marriott)将其收购报价提升至136亿美元。喜达屋和万豪的高层在陪同巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)访问古巴(Cuba)期间不断商讨,最终喜达屋接受了万豪的提案。同时,喜达屋还宣布与古巴政府达成协议,进军古巴从事酒店经营。喜达屋将成为自1959年古巴革命以来第一家进驻古巴的美国酒店经营商。喜达屋旗下拥有喜来登(Sheraton)和威斯汀(Westin)等连锁品牌。The minutes from the latest meeting of the Bank of Englands policy committee showed that its members think uncertainty in the markets over the outcome of the June referendum on Britains membership of the European Union is a “significant driver” behind the fall of the pound. The central bank, which is officially neutral in the Brexit debate, said the uncertainty was also causing some businesses to delay spending decisions.英格兰(Bank of England)政策委员会最新会议纪要显示,6月英国退欧公投所造成的市场不确定性正是英镑贬值的“主要原因”。中央对英国退欧问题保持中立态度,并表示这种不确定性同时也导致一些企业放缓了出决策的制定。In a surprise move, Nigerias central bank raised its benchmark interest rate by 1 percentage point, to 12%. Nigerias currency, the naira, has been hurt by the fall in oil prices. That has helped push up inflation to 11.4%.尼日尼亚央行将基准利率调高1个百分点至12%,此举令人倍感意外。尼日尼亚货币—奈拉因油价下跌而受到重创,致使该国通胀率高达11.4%。 译文属译生译世201604/435956Military operations in the Turkish town of Cizre continued on Sunday as security forces clamped down on Kurdish militants. 周日在土耳其吉兹雷镇军事行动仍在继续,安全部队对库尔德武装分子进行压制。Cizre has been under curfew for more than a month. Clashes between security forces and PKK fighters are still being reported.吉兹雷镇实施宵禁已经超过一个月。安全部队与库尔德工人党之间的冲突仍在报道。On Saturday 12 militants were killed in Cizre according to an army spokesperson.周六,据军方发言人称,12名武装分子在吉兹雷被杀。And in Diyarbakir, the biggest city in the mainly Kurdish south east, protesters were dispersed by water cannon.在库尔德东南部最大城市迪亚巴克尔,军方用高压水驱散抗议者。Earlier a court had remanded in custody two suspects in Thursday’s truck-bomb attack on a police station that killed six people.此前,法院判处两名犯罪嫌疑人拘留候审,因其周四在警察局制造汽车炸弹袭击并造成6人死亡。译文属。201601/422929On Friday, fire officials said that a wildfire has continued to advance near the coast of Santa Barbara, California, ripping through over 1,400 acres and forcing homeowners to flee. 周五,消防官员称大火已经持续推进,靠近加利福尼亚圣巴巴拉海岸,覆盖1400余亩,迫使房主逃离。About 140 homes and ranches are at risk in the coastal canyons of an area that hasnt seen a fire this big in 60 years. 沿海峡谷约140户家庭和农场面临危险,该地区60年未见如此大火。According to the Santa Barbara County Sheriffs Office, mandatory evacuations were called late Thursday for the communities of El Capitan, Refugio, Venadito and Las Flores canyons. 据圣巴巴拉县警长办公室称,周四晚些时候要求埃尔卡皮坦、雷富希奥、维纳帝托和拉斯弗洛雷斯峡谷社区强制撤离。The so-called Sherpa Fire, which began Wednesday afternoon and has been driven by 40 mph wind gusts, is being fueled by hot and dry weather.所谓的Sherpa大火于周三下午开始,在40英里每小时的风力下推动,炎热和干燥的天气助长燃烧。译文属。201606/449883

  Seizing this long-awaited opportunity, the Ladakhis marched across the border of Guge, overcoming each fortress and embattlement in their path until they reached the capital Tsaparang.逮住等待已久的好机会,拉达克人挥军越过古格王朝的边界打败所有要塞及士兵抵达首都札布让。By this time, Guges economic and political resources were strained.此时古格王朝的经济及政治资源已经告急。No reinforcements would be coming as Tsaparang would have to face the invaders on its own.没有援军札布让必须孤军奋战。But taking Tsaparang would not be easy.但要拿下札布让并不容易。The capitals western and southern approaches are sheer vertical walls, virtually attack-proof.札布让的西边及东边都是陡峭的城墙,几乎无法攻击。At the summit, the royal palace was protected by a defensive wall running along its parameter.山顶的王宫被一道防御城墙保护着。The only possible approach for the Ladakhi forces was up a gently sloping here on the northeast, but even this route was blocked by a substantial wall.拉达克人只能想办法从东北边的缓坡攻入札布让,但这条路也被一道高墙挡住了。The Ladakhi armies reached Tsaparang.当拉达克大军抵达札布让时。They were flushed with victory.他们可是胜券在握。They had conquered all of the satellite fortresses.当时他们已经征附近所有的卫星城。They were now primed for the final battle.现在正整装发动最后一场战役。How this final battle began is a matter of some uncertainty.这场战役如何开始仍不确定。But scholars believe the entrance to the city was stormed by the Ladakhis.但学者相信拉达克人攻下了札布让的城门。 译文属201605/441047

  

  Plants attract fruit eaters–or “frugivores”–by packing valuable resources into their fruits like sugar and water or important nutrients such as carotenoids, vitamins and minerals.植物通过将糖分,水分等有价值的资源或类胡萝卜素、维生素及矿物质等重要营养素打包到果实吸引以水果为食者或“食果动物”。Plants often target specific animals that will give their seeds the best chances for germination, and discourage or repel animals that wont.植物通常将目标锁定为给自身种子带来萌芽最佳机会的特定动物,并阻止或排斥其他无所作为的动物。Plants that want to attract birds rather than mammals might produce thorns or have fruits that taste unpalatable to most mammals but tasty to birds.植物如果想吸引鸟类而非哺乳动物可能产生荆棘或味道令大多数哺乳动物不快,但鸟类尝起来美味的水果。Plants that want to repel birds but attract mammals might have fruits with thicker, tougher outer skins.植物如果想驱赶小鸟,但吸引哺乳动物可能就会使水果更厚,外表皮更硬。Dont forget that selective breeding by humans has dramatically changed many fruits from their wild state, often resulting in larger, sweeter fruits with fewer seeds.不要忘记人类的选育配种已经极大地改变了很多水果原先的样子,现在的水果经常个头更大,更甜而且所含种子较少。201501/356668。

  The Oscar nomination was last week, but I got say上周奥斯卡提名揭晓了 我必须得说I am shock you were not nominated for an Oscar,我很震惊你居然没被提名奥斯卡And everyone else is.The feed- It actually has to feels good.大家都很震惊 这应该感觉不错Cause there are so many people talking about The fact that you didn‘t get nominated.因为好多人都在讨论 你没被提名这件事That in itself has to be a win for you.Yeah, Im the No.1 snapped.这对你来说已经是胜利了 是的 至少我是;最;衰的Yeah, you’re the No.1 snapped.Thats a silver lining. --Thats. It is.是的 还有个;最; 这是好的一面 -嗯 没错Right?But listen, if you You were nominated for a Golded Globe,对吧 不过听着 如果你 你得到了金球奖的提名And I saw you there and we will talked about that.而且我在那儿看见你了 我们一会会聊到这个You were beautiful,And you were nominated for Golden Globe and S Award.那天你超美 你入围了金球奖和美国演员工会奖If you have not seen. Oh, its not out yet, is it?如果你还没看过的话 这电影好像还没上映吧It hasnt even come out.Thats the crazy thing.是的 还没上映 真的很让人惊讶I mean, even Critics That we were so shocked and amazed that we have gotten我的意思是 连家们 我们自己都被能得到这么多提名惊呆了Oh, Critics Choice Award too, yes.That we have had this much love at all,对了 还有家选择奖 我们已经得到很多人的认可和喜爱了For a movie that it even hasnt been released yet, that对于一部还未上映的电影来说 这真的Well, its brilliant. When I saw it,I immediately texted you.我看过 这部电影确实很棒 我看完后立刻就给你发短信了That Portia and I were, like, Blown away.波西娅和我都赞不绝口Because you really disappeared,And I did not see my friend Jean at all in this.因为你确实消失了 在这部电影里我压根没看到我的朋友詹妮弗I want to show you a clip,Because you just strip down everything,我想给大家看个剪辑 因为你刚刚把悬念都揭开了And then we will talk about the movie.Okay, -Thats the clip from ;Cake;.然后我们再聊电影吧 好的 -下面是;蛋糕;的剪辑片段 /201512/416693

  

  

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