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来源:飞度管家养生问答    发布时间:2018年11月18日 02:02:59    编辑:admin         


To understand the way in which lawlessness,violence and chaos did make an impact要理解无法律约束 暴力和混乱on the not-so-rosy world of 15th-century England,对于十五世纪的英格兰所产生的影响we have something incomparably richer than the list of battlefields and barons,kings and kingmakers.我们掌握了比战役和贵族 君主以及拥立国王者的名单 更加详实丰富的资料We have, in the letters of the Paston family of Norfolk,the very first private correspondence in English,来自于诺福克的帕斯顿家族通信 是最早的英文私人信件the authentic voice of middling folk farmers, lawyers, would-be gentry, social climbers.真正反映了中层民众的心声 包括农民 律师 想成为绅士和攀龙附凤的人Like many an anxious wife and mother,the Wars of the Roses worried Margaret Paston如同其他焦虑的妻子与母亲 玫瑰战争令玛格丽特·帕斯顿担忧不已because they were making England a bad place to make and keep a little fortune.因为战争使得英格兰的人们 无法获取和积攒财富God, for his mercy, give grace,for I never heard say of so much robbery and manslaughter in this country as is now.仁慈的上帝 请赐予我们恩典 因为在这个国家 我从未像现在这般 目睹这么猖狂的抢劫与杀戮And as for gathering of money, I never saw a worse season.这绝非积累财富的好时节 Seen through Margarets eyes,The Kingdom for England might be up for grabs,but the real disaster was shopping.在玛格丽特眼中 英格兰王国到处烧杀掠夺 但真正的灾难在于物资短缺As for cloth for my gown,I pray you that you will buy for me three yards and a quarter of such as it pleaseth you that I should have.用作晚礼的布料 我希望你能够买足3.25码 并且布料任我选For a good favor I have done all the drapery shop in this town,and here is right feeble choice.我已寻遍镇上所有布店 无甚收获 /201612/482753。

原味人文风情:In many ways, plastic is the perfect material—we can make it strong and rigid enough to build spaceships and replace bones, or thin and flexible enough to make shopping bags that weigh as much as a nickel but carry up to eight kilograms. And unlike other materials, plastic doesnt rust or rot. It can last for centuries, even when we only need it to last a few seconds. We make tons of plastic precisely because its cheap, durable and yet expendable. But the features of plastic that make it so useful to us have also transformed life in the oceans, where as much as 10 percent of our discarded plastic, millions of tons per year, ends up.就许多方面来说,塑胶是完美材料--我们可以让它强韧坚固到足以建造宇宙飞船和替代骨骼,或让它够轻薄且有弹力,可以做出和五分钱硬币重量相同但却能耐重到八公斤的购物袋。和其它材料不一样,塑胶不会生锈或腐坏。它可以存在好几世纪,即使当我们只需要它存在几秒钟时。我们正是因为塑胶便宜、耐用但又可抛弃才大量制造。不过这些让塑胶对人类而言如此有益的特性也改变了海洋中的生命,我们抛弃的塑胶有差不多百分之十,也就是每年数百万吨,最后沉入海洋。Big pieces of plastic are definitely bad news for marine animals like whales, albatross, and sea turtles, which risk getting tangled in the debris or ingesting large pieces of it. Yet, despite the publicity about huge garbage patches in the sea, most of the oceans plastic isnt big. Our castaway shopping bags and soda bottles get weakened by sunlight and torn apart in the wind and the waves into little bits of plastic confetti. On the microscale, though, its still super durable. The microorganisms that decompose ripped-up bits of wood and seaweed down into simpler organic compounds cant easily digest plastic. So while the plastic confetti gets broken into smaller pieces, it doesnt go away. It just sps out over time, which is why weve found microplastics pretty much everywhere in the oceans, from the Arctic to the Antarctic, and from the seafloor to the surface.大型塑胶对像鲸鱼、信天翁和海龟这些海洋动物来说无疑是坏消息,牠们会有困在垃圾残骸或吞下大块塑胶的风险。然而,尽管人们关切大面积的海洋垃圾带,大多数的海洋塑胶并不庞大。我们丢弃的购物袋和汽水瓶会因阳光变脆弱,接着在风及海浪中被分裂成微小的塑胶碎屑。虽然体积变得极为微小,塑胶还是能撑超级久。将木头和海草碎屑分解成更简单的有机化合物的微生物无法轻易消化塑胶。所以尽管塑胶碎屑被分解成更小块了,它还是不会消失。它只会随着时间扩散,这也就是为什么我们几乎在海洋的每个角落都发现微塑胶,从北极到南极,从海底到海面。Unlike the easy-to-observe impacts of large plastic trash, the effects of microplastics are as subtle and difficult to trace as the fragments themselves. The durable fragments can serve as new real estate on which small ocean creatures grow and multiply, or choke slightly larger ocean creatures that think the plastics are food, or attract and collect toxic chemicals which become introduced into the food chain if the particles are eaten, and probably a million other problems we havent noticed yet, because weve only recently started paying attention to all these microplastics in the oceans. But its undeniable how much plastic trash weve introduced into marine ecosystems, and the wonderful durability of plastic guarantees itll be an issue for years to come.和大型塑胶垃圾很容易就能观察到的影响不同,微塑胶的影响就和那些碎屑本身一般微妙且难以追踪。这些能存在很久的碎屑可以作为小型海洋生物生长和繁殖的新家,或让以为这些塑胶是食物的稍大型海洋生物噎死,或引来和收集若塑胶颗粒被吞下时就会进到食物链的有毒化学物,或许还有一百万个我们还没注意到的其它麻烦,因为我们是在最近才开始注意到海洋里这所有微塑胶。不过我们带给海洋生态系统多少塑胶垃圾是无可否认的事实,而塑胶极佳的耐用度也保了它在未来几年会是一项议题。Its possible we can decrease further impacts by switching to biodegradable plastics, dumping less plastic in the oceans, or cleaning up the patches of sea most strewn with plastic. But until we do, the question is, Will the oceans be plastic enough to deal with our favorite material?我们有可能可以藉着改用可生物分解塑胶、丢较少塑胶到海洋里来减低更长远的冲击,或清理散布最多塑胶的海洋区。但直到我们那样做之前,问题是,海洋有跟塑胶一样顽强到能对付我们最爱的材料吗?201706/513271。

The highly controversial dog meat festival in Yulin, China, is, in fact, happening.事实上,在中国备受争议的肉节仍在上演。Rumors started circulating in May that selling dog meat would be banned for the duration of the festival. But recent photos and show dogs were y for purchase even before the event began.5月有传言称节日期间将禁止售卖肉。但最近的照片和视频显示,在活动开始前正准备出售。The officially named Lychee and Dog Meat Festival happens every year to mark the summer solstice in China. In peak years, an estimated 10,000 dogs were killed for the celebration.正式命名为荔枝肉节,中国每年以此庆祝夏至。在高峰年,估计有10,000只为庆祝被宰杀。Activists have tried to get it shut down for years, claiming the dogs are treated and killed inhumanely. Theyve also claimed pet dogs are stolen and sold for consumption, but vendors and participants dispute that.多年来活动家试图让它关闭,称杀害不人道。他们还称,宠物被盗卖来消费,但摊贩和参与者对此有争议。Yulins government cant shut down the festival because its not a state-sponsored event. Plus, eating dog meat isnt illegal in China.activists estimate more than 10 million dogs are killed every year for food.玉林政府不能关闭该节日,因为它不是一个国家主办的活动。另外,在中国吃肉并不违法,活动分子称每年有一千万只被杀害食用。Still, for years animal rights activists in China and internationally have called for an end to the annual event.然而多年来,中国和国际动物权利活动家一直呼吁结束每年的肉节。译文属。201706/515088。

So about 6.30, got a phone call from Mr Zou saying youd disappeared.大概六点半的时候,我接到了邹老师的电话,他说你没去上课It just wasnt your normal behaviour or attitude to school to ever disappear off.这不像是你平时的表现啊,居然逃课Youve never left a lesson, have you?你从来没有逃过课的,对吧And Mr Zou said that you have a lot to contribute to the class邹老师还说你在课堂表现挺不错and that youre very quick to learn.你学得很快Its just sort of about helping you see that theres more to today than just the next five minutes.我们只是想让你知道,你要为将来做打算,而不只是得过且过Can we put that away, please? Thank you.能先把手机放一边吗?谢谢Hes got a few days yet to pick up his socks,他还有几天时间可以补上落下的课程so theres always hope that hell improve.但愿他能有所进步Is this you writing all this?这些都是你写的吗,Yeah. Thats really good.是啊,很棒啊And all that. You wrote all this? Yeah.还有那些。都是你写的吗?没错And this is Mandarin, yeah?这是普通话,对吧All right, this is a three.你看,这是中文的三Ill never have, like, three lessons in a row when Ive been good.我从来没有连着三堂课都能做到集中精神听讲Its always been one little thing.这个小毛病一直存在Or its been a big thing, like it has been this time.但有时候也会很严重,就像这次Seeing Mr Zou annoyed made me feel a bit upset and unfair.看到邹老师生气让我觉得有点难过,有点不公平Not like - oh, what hes doing is unfair, but what Im doing is unfair.并不是说他做的事情不公平,而是我这么做对他来说不公平You are very smart, do you know that?你非常聪明,你知道吗Me? Yeah, of course! You are smart.我吗?当然啊,你很聪明You have to learn. Be smarter.但你要学习,才能更聪明We do NOT ignore any student. And we hope we can help them in some way.我们绝不忽视任何一个学生,也希望自己能够帮助他们改进You never know what you will do in the future.你不知道你以后会做什么You might feel regret. ;I should have learned hard.;你也许会后悔 ;我当年要是好好学习了该多好啊;Yeah. OK? So.是啊。对吧,所以Are you willing to change? Yeah.你愿意改变吗?愿意Just be more focused.集中精神听课Ill try my best.我会尽最大努力Try your best.加油When someone tells me that Ive got potential,当有人对我说我有潜力there is that bit inside that says, ;OK, yeah, I can do this.;我心里就会想 ;我能做到的,没问题;And if its a teacher saying that, then it must be true.如果是老师对我这么说,那一定是真的It means...it just means that I can do it.我一定能做到So I just might as well do it.那我就好好表现吧201606/449548。

Imagine you take two dogs and put them in two different areas...设想一下,把两只小放在两个不同的地方…You shock the first dog and you give him an option to escape.电击第一只小,让它可以选择逃跑。He tries to escape, hes successful, and he gets away from the shocks.它尝试并成功逃离了电击。The second dog however, you put in a place where no matter what he does, he cannot escape the shocks.然而第二只小,把它放在一个无论做什么都无法逃脱的地方。He soon figures out that theres nothing he can do, he gives up, and hell just sit there and accept the shocks.它很快就发现什么也做不了,于是放弃了,坐在那默默承受。Now you take these two dogs and put them in two new areas again, but this time they can both escape.现在把它们放在两个新地方,但这次它们都可以逃走。The first dog, who had learned that he was able to escape, will get out of there like usual.第一只已经学会逃跑的小,会像往常一样逃离那里。But the second dog will just lay there and accept the shocks, even though in this new environment he could just escape.但是第二只小就只会趴那继续承受,尽管这次它可以逃跑。This is what is known as learned helplessness, and you probably know people who act like the helpless dog.这就是习得无助,你可能知道有些人的行为很像那只无助的小。The opposite of this is learned optimism.与之相反的是习得乐观。Learned Optimism is basically the idea that you can learn to be optimistic, and positive, and happy.习得乐观基本的就是你可以学会乐观,积极和高兴。You can cultivate these things.你可以培养这些心态。And this is exactly what Seligman was trying to do, by running a workshop.塞利格曼通过运行工作组来尝试这种培养。The results of the workshop were promising...结果很有前景。Thirty-two percent of the students in the control group had a moderate to控制组中32%的学生有中度severe episode of depression in contrast to 22 percent of the group that was in the workshop.到重度的抑郁症状,对比来看,工作组中的比例占有22%。Also... 15 percent of the controls had an episode of generalized anxiety disorder而且…控制组中15%的学生有广泛性焦虑症的症状versus only 7 percent of people who took the workshop.工作组中的这部分比例只有7%。They also found that it was the change from pessimism to optimism that caused the prevention of depression and anxiety.他们还发现从悲观到乐观的转变,阻止了抑郁和焦虑的发展。And these studies are great, but even when I look at my own life, happiness, positivity, optimism...这些研究很棒,但即使当我审视自己生活的时候,高兴,积极,乐观…These are the things that Ive had to learn and that I have to keep cultivating.这些是我不得不学习并一直在培养的东西。When I was a kid, I hated my life. I was constantly depressed and anxious.当我还是个孩子的时候,我讨厌生活。一直很沮丧和焦虑。I had suicidal thoughts for the majority of my childhood.我童年的大部分时间里都有自杀的想法。But thats all gone now and my life just keeps getting better, but this is something that you need to put effort into.但现在那些都消失了,我的生活也越来越好,但是这是一件值得你为之努力的事情。This is something that can be learned. So now lets look at the benefits of optimism...这也是值得学习的。所以我们来看一下乐观的好处…Optimists on average achieve more, have better overall health, and just lead a more enjoyable life.通常来说乐观者会获得更多,身体更健康,生活更愉悦。Pessimists, on the other hand, are more likely to give up, are more likely to suffer from depression,另一方面,悲观者更有可能放弃,也更容易沮丧,and just lead a not really enjoyable life.所以生活也不是那么愉悦。And the big difference between pessimists and optimists悲观者和乐观者的最大差距comes from their explanatory styles about whether things are permanent, pervasive, and personal...在于他们对于事物永久性,普遍性以及个体性的归因方式…So lets say you walk up to a girl, and you just get humiliated and rejected...比如你靠近一个女孩,受到了羞辱还被拒绝了…If youre a pessimist youll think that its permanent: Ill never be able to attract a girl.如果你是个悲观者,你就会认为那是永久的:我从来都不能吸引女生。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt permanent: There are going to be plenty of girls who like me.如果你是个乐观者,你会想那不是永久的:以后会有很多女生喜欢我的。If youre a pessimist youll think that its pervasive: Im just not an interesting person.如果你是个悲观者,你会认为那是个普遍现象:我是个很无聊的人。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt pervasive:如果你是个乐观者,你会想那不是普遍的:It was just one isolated situation. It doesnt mean that Im not interesting.只是个例罢了。并不意味着我很无趣。If youre a pessimist youll think that its personal: Im ugly. Of course shes going to humiliate me.如果你是个悲观者,你会认为那是个人原因:我很丑。她当然会羞辱我。If youre an optimist, youll think that it isnt personal: Well, she might have been in a bad mood...如果你是个乐观者,你会觉得那不是个人原因:可能是她的心情不好…And Ive seen this so many times. If you have a pessimistic explanatory style, youre going to have your soul crushed.我见过很多次这种情况。如果你用悲观的归因方式,你的灵魂会受到创伤。Every single friend Ive had who was good with women always had an optimistic explanatory style.我认识的每一个和女性相处很好的朋友都具有乐观的归因方式。So optimism is much more helpful to you than pessimism but you also NEED BALANCE,所以乐观主义比悲观主义对你的帮助要大,但是你也需要平衡二者,Just like with everything else, YOU NEED BALANCE…和其他事物一样,你需要平衡…Otherwise, you can get really delusional and actually end up hurting yourself.否则,你会变得妄想,而且会伤害到自己。Imagine if you have a really bad business idea and youre just a naive optimist…想象一下如果你有一个非常差劲的生意点子,你只是一个幼稚的乐观主义者…The business isnt going anywhere and you say, ;Well, this isnt permanent...;生意发展并不好,你说,“这种情况不会持续很久的…”And you keep wasting resources on a stupid idea.然后你继续在这个糟糕的点子上浪费资源。Youve put in six months aly and it hasnt gone anywhere and you say,你已经投入了六个月的时间,依然没有进展,你说,;Well, its just this part of the project thats slow, but the project as a whole is amazing.;“嗯,只是项目的这一部分进展比较慢,但是从整体上来看这个项目还是不错的。”Or you try to get support and no one wants to go along with your terrible idea and you say,或者是,你想获得持,但没人愿意附和你那个糟糕的想法,你会说,;Well, they were probably just in a bad mood today.;“可能他们只是今天心情不好吧。”I dont know if I would call this person an optimist or just an idiot.我真不知道是应该把他称之为乐观主义者呢,还是笨蛋。The biggest problem with optimism is when its not balanced,乐观主义最大的问题就是在它没有得到平衡的时候,because you might end up not taking responsibility when you need to.因为你可能最终没有承担应有的责任。So I would absolutely recommend being optimistic but at the same time balancing it out with pessimism,所以我肯定还是建议要保持乐观理念,但是同时要维护好它和悲观主义的平衡,or not even pessimism in my opinion, but just simply realism.或者是在我看来不叫悲观主义,可以简单理解为现实主义。201706/515716。

栏目简介:Top officials of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization gathered at the Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences today to mark the 15th anniversary of its establishment. They vowed to further improve ties between member states and work together to ensure security in Central and East Asia. Reporter Wu Ying was there. 201701/488455。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghais English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。201606/447232。