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河南哪个医院做双眼皮好飞度技术权威医院焦作市人民医院脱毛手术多少钱

2018年07月16日 14:45:40来源:度排名永州新闻

  • The Way into Crisis:That such a vast empire like Qing China would meet conflicts with neighboring people is a natural cause. Aly the occupation of the Yili Territory in the west has been without consequences for the loyalty of Muslim people of Chinese Turkestan. But expanding Russia also claimed these territories of In-ner Asia.走向危机:清朝时期的中国如此辽阔与周边国家发生擦是再自然不过的事情了。尽管清朝在西部拥有伊犁地区,但却不能使中国土耳其斯坦的穆斯林效忠 清朝。扩张中的俄罗斯也声称拥有中亚地区。Treaties with the Russian tsars helped to settle the border conflicts. Ch卜 nese troops proved the Qing sovereignty over Burma and Nepal. Chinese settlers in Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan and Taiwan met rebellions of the aboriginal tribes that could only be subdued by military force. Muslim people stood up against the Qing regime in Gansu and Xinjiang.清朝政府和沙皇俄国签订的条约有 助于解决边境争端。中国军队保了清朝对波尔玛和尼泊尔的统治,但是在云南、贵州、四川和台湾等地遇到了当地居民的强烈反抗,而这些只能用武力解决。穆斯 林也在甘肃、新疆起来抗击清朝统治。A Weakening China: The 19th century brought developments over China, which worsened the economical backwardness that was aly seen after the long and glorious reigns of the three emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong.逐步衰弱的中国:19世纪给中国带来了发展,也加剧了中国经济的倒退,这一 点在清朝长时期统治和繁荣的康熙、雍正和乾隆三位皇帝时期既有显现。The two main problems are the question of centralized or decentralized administration, and to what extent the state should control the economy for the sake of the population and to fill the state treasure. Both questions should also be crucial for the economical, technical and political backwardness of the 19th century China.清朝时 期两大主要问题是高度的中央集权制或者说高度分散的集权制以及为了国民和充 实国库应该如何控制国民经济的问题。这两大问题对19世纪的中国经济、技术、 政治的落后都起着决定性作用。A political ,economical and social system that had been proved effectively for two thousand years seemed to have no need for change or modernization. In the eyes of the Westerners, therefore, the political and social sphere of China had been unchanged for thousands of years. The economical sphere meanwhile seemed to have been influenced by Europeans, and at least experienced some modernization after Chinese mandarins became aware of China’s economical backwardness.2000年来明在中国行之有效的政治、经济、和 社会制度似乎无需改变或实现现代化。因此,在西方人的眼里,中国政治、经济已 经2000年没有任何变动。中国经济似乎是受欧洲的影响,至少当清朝大臣们意识 到中国经济落后时中国还是体验了一下现代化。But in fact, economical changes aly took place since the mid of 18th century. The long period of peace and the introduction of new crops from the America(peanuts, corn, and taro) resulted in a steady rise in the population.事实上,18世纪中期中国经济就 发生了重大变化。长期和平和从美国引进的农作物(如花生、玉米、芋头)使中国人 口稳步上升。With an increasing population ,there was also the need for a widesp commerce and trade network covering whole China, especially along the waterways of the great rivers and channels. Merchants needed banks for their funds to finance their business.随着人口的增长,需要在中国广开商路和建立贸易网,尤其是要在长 江和运河地区开辟水路。商人需要为他们提供资金以资助企业发展。The industry of Qing China was a highly sophisticated system of division of labour. Chinaware, tea, brocades and cotton was produced greatly in specialized regions and cities. Merchants and producers formed non-governmental guilds with comprehensive administratorial functions. While in the west of the USA, a lack of labour force led to the development of industrial agriculture, the surplus of labour force in China was an impediment for technification.清朝时 期,中国手工业就有高度复杂的劳动分工。中国器具、茶叶、织锦和棉花生产在一 些专业生产地区高度发展。商人和生产商组成了非官方的具有广泛管理职能的行 业协会。在美国西部,因缺乏劳动力而促成了机械化农业发展的同时,中国劳动力 的剩余则阻碍了技术的发展。And moreover, the social groups making profit and living in wealth, like fhe salt traders of the lower Yangtze valley, did consume their income rather for luxury instead of investing in long-term business like a heavy industry. The lack of governmental interference into the sphere of the economy left this field a prey for the penetrating Western merchants.此外,那些挣了钱而生活奢靡的商人,如长江下游的 盐商们,大肆挥霍钱财,过着奢侈生活,而不是把资金投资到像重工业这样的长期 企业上去。政府也缺乏对经济的干预,这使得这一领域逐步为西方商人所渗透。The Opium Wars and the Unequal Treaties:China as a country with a highly developed manufacturing industry had no need for imported cotton fabrics or similar items produced in the West. The British merchants, especially the East India Company, saw their chance in the import of opium.鸦片战争和一系列不平等条约的签订:中国,作为一个有着高度发达的手工制 造业的国家,无须从西方进口棉纺织品或诸如此类的产品。于是英国商人,特别是 东印度公司,看准只有向中国进口鸦片。As the import of opium had been prohibited by the Chinese government aly during the 18th century, the only way to make profit by selling Indian opium was the smuggling business. Opium does not only mean a danger for health, but also has a deep impact on public moral. Moreover, the export of tea, silk and chinaware was not able to cover the costs for opium imports: the Chinese trade balance tended to become negative.由于中国政府在18世纪就曾下令禁止进 口鸦片,所以出售印度鸦片挣钱的唯一办法就是走私。鸦片不仅危害人身健康,并 且对社会公众道德也有极其深刻的影响。但是,茶叶、丝绸和瓷器的出口总额弥补 不了鸦片一项进口的差额:中国贸易出现逆差。The court in Beijing was divided between ministers proposing a forced barter (opium against Chinese products) ; allowance of opium import but imposing high taxes on the drug ; or confrontation with the British merchants.朝庭中的大臣分成两派,一派主张 强行物物交换(用鸦片换中国商品),主张鸦片可以进口,但是要征收高额关税;另 一派主张直接反对英国商人经营鸦片。A representative of the last group was Lin Zexu who acted as commissioner in Guangzhou (Canton) in 1839, the main import harbour of the south. He confiscated opium cases and tried to banish British merchants. However under the protection of their government, the Britain Captain Elliott attacked some small harbors, occupied islands and threatened the port of Tianjin with canon boats: the so-called Opium War began.后一派则以林则徐为代表。1839年他被 派到南方重要港口广州任两广总督,没收鸦片并极力驱逐英国商人。在英国政府 的庇护下,英国军队在伊里尔特上尉的统领下进攻几个小港口,占领了一些岛屿, 并直接用炮舰威胁天津港——鸦片战争开始。A British fleet, commanded by Henry Pottinger, proceeded until Nanjing, when the Chinese government finally gave in and signed the Nanjing Treaty in 1842, the first of a long line of shameful treaties for the Qing government, called 4tunequal treatiesFor twenty centuries, Chinese emperors had dealt in the same way with penetrating M barbarians : making concessions to them by granting them material presents like Chinese silk or sending them princesses.1842年,一英国舰队,在亨利? 鲍丁格尔的指挥下,一直打到南京,中国政府投降并签定了《南京条约》。这是中国 清政府所签署的丧权辱国的第一个不平等条约。2000多年来,中国的皇帝一直以 同样的方式来对应入侵的蛮夷,即以赏赐财物,如丝绸或送公主和亲的办法与他们 达成妥协。In 1842, nobody in China was aware that the danger coming from the West was much deeper than a few nomad barbarians attacking the Chinese frontiers.In the Nanjing Treaty, the Qing government granted the British free (opium)trade in the harbors of Xiamen (Amoy), Shanghai, Ningbo, Fuzhou and Guangzhou, abolishing the monopoly of the Chinese merchant guilds in these cities. British goods were imposed with a very low import tax, and British subjects were allowed to move freely inside China. As a trade base, the island of Hong Kong was handed over to Great Britain.1842年,中国没人意识到来自西方的危险远比几个游牧族侵扰边境深 远的多《南京条约》规定,清政府允许英国在厦门、上海、宁波、福州和广州进行鸦片自 由贸易,取消中国商会在这些城市的垄断。对英国商品征收很低的进口税,英国人 可以在中国自由往来。作为商埠,香港岛由英国管辖。The financial damages China had to pay for the war counted 21 million silver dollars. Great Britain was officially recognized by the Qing government as a foreign power with equal rights. In an additional treaty, the Humen Treaty, Great Britain was allowed to establish concessional settlement territories where British subjects were exempt of Chinese jurisdiction.中国赔偿战争损失费2 100 万两白银。大清政府承认英国和中国享有同等权利。在附加条约《虎门条约》里, 大英帝国允许在中国建立租界,租界内的英国公民不受中国司法管辖。But the most important item of this treaty was the Most Favorite Clausula, allowing Great Britain to obtain every contractual concession any other country should obtain. Following the British, France Treaty of Whampoa, the USA Treaty of Wangsha, and the minor European states forced treaties with the Chinese allowing them free trade inside a handful of harbor cities.该条约中 最重要的一条就是最惠国待遇,即英国享有所有和其他国家签定的条约中的一切 权利。继英国之后,法国签定了《黄埔条约》,美国鉴定《望厦条约》,其他几个欧洲 国家也强行和中国签定了允许在中国众多港口自由贸易的条约。In 1856, British and French saw their chance to revise the Nanjing Treaty. Unifying their armies, British and French occupied Guangzhou and forced the Qing government to sign the Tianjin Treaty in 1858 after their canon boats had bombarded the Tanggu Forts near Tianjin.1856年,英法联 军认为改写条约的时机成熟,于是英法联军炮轰天津附近的塘沽港。1858年,英 法联军占领广州强迫清政府签定《天津条约》。But the French army invaded Beijing and burned down and plundered the Qing emperors’ summer residence in the Yuanmingyuan Garden; the court had fled to Jehol. These military actions are called the Second Opium War. Signed in I860, the Beijing Treaty.但是,法国军队入侵北京,火烧和洗 劫了大清皇帝在圆明园的夏日行宫,清政府逃到了热河,这些军事行动称为第二次 鸦片战争。I860年签定《北京条约》。Meanwhile, Rus-sia also claimed rights on Chinese territory. The treaties of Nerchinsk was signed between Russia and Qing Government in 1689. In 1858 Russia occupied the territory north of the River Amur and claimed this territory as Russian, ensured in the Aihui Treaty.与此同时,俄罗斯也到处强占中国土地。 1689年签定《尼布楚条约》,1858年俄罗斯占领阿穆尔河以北的领地,并声称归己 所有,并在《瑷珲条约》中加以强调。 /201603/428573。
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