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2018年07月16日 14:37:24来源:飞度搜病网

THE delicateposturing began with the phone call.微妙的故作姿态始于一通电话。The proposal wasthat two buddies back in New York City for a holiday break in December meet tovisit the Museum of Modern Art after its major renovation.两个在去年12月的假期回到纽约的朋友,决定约着一起去全面装修后重新开门的现代艺术物馆(Museum of Modern Art)看看。;Heexplicitly said, #39;I know this is kind of weird, but we should probablygo,;#39; said Matthew Speiser, 25, recalling his conversation with JohnPutman, 28, a former classmate from Williams College.他也说了,‘我知道这有点怪怪的,但是我们应该去看看,’25岁的马修·斯潘塞(Matthew Speiser)谈到当时与28岁的约翰·普特曼(John Putman)通话时说道。两人在威廉姆斯大学(Williams College)念书的时候是同班同学。The weirdness wasapparent once they reached the museum, where they semi-avoided each other asthey made their way through the galleries and eschewed any public displays ofconnoisseurship. 来到物馆,怪怪的气氛就变得很明显了。他们在展厅里走动时,有些特意避开对方,并且尽量避免让自己看上去很会欣赏的样子。;Wedefinitely went out of our way to look at things separately,; recalled MrSpeiser, who has had art-history classes in his time.我们特地各看各的,曾经上过艺术史课的斯潘塞说道。;We shuffled.We probably both pretended to know less about the art than we did.;我们拖着步子,假装自己并不太懂艺术。Eager to cut thetension following what they perceived to be a slightly unmanly excursion -- twoguys looking at art together -- they headed directly to a bar. 两个男人一起去看艺术展,这种行为让他们觉得有点不太爷们儿,因此急切地希望缓解那种紧张状态,于是他们又去了一家酒吧。;We couldn#39;tstop talking about the fact that it was ridiculous we had spent the whole daytogether one on one,; said Mr Speiser, who is straight, as is Mr Putman. 我们不停地说,我们俩黏在一起已经一整天了,这太扯了,斯潘塞说道;他和普特曼都是直男。;We werepurging ourselves of insecurity.;我们这是在清除自己的不安全感。Anyone who finds adate with a potential romantic partner to be a minefield of unspoken rulesshould consider the man date, a rendezvous between two straight men that iseven more socially perilous.如果你觉得与潜在恋爱对象约会是一个充满了潜规则的雷区,那就想想男男约会,两个直男的约会在社交上的风险甚至更大一些。Simply defined aman date is two heterosexual men socializing without the crutch of business orsports. 你可以把男男约会简单地定义为两个异性恋男子,进行与生意和体育无关的社交活动。It is two guysmeeting for the kind of outing a straight man might reasonably arrange with awoman. 两个男性一起出去玩,做一些放到男女之间恐怕就显得合情合理的事情。Dining togetheracross a table without the aid of a television is a man date; eating at a baris not. 比如在同一张桌子上面对面地吃饭,但又没有在看电视,这就是男男约会;在酒吧吃饭就不是。Taking a walk inthe park together is a man date; going for a jog is not. 一起在公园里散步是男男约会;慢跑不是。Attending themovie ;Friday Night Lights; is a man date, but going to see the Jetsplay is definitely not.去看电影《胜利之光》(Friday Night Lights)是,而一起去看航空展肯定不是。;Sideways,;the Oscar-winning film about two buddies touring the central California wine countryon the eve of the wedding of one of them, is one long and boozy man date.奥斯卡获奖影片《杯酒人生》(Sideways)讲述了一名即将结婚的男子与另一名男子前往加州中部的葡萄酒产地旅行,这就是一次漫长的、酒意袭人的男男约会。Although ;mandate; is a coinage invented for this article, appearing nowhere in theliterature of male bonding (or of homosexual panic), the 30 to 40 straight meninterviewed, from their 20#39;s to their 50#39;s, living in cities across thecountry, instantly recognized the peculiar ritual even if they had notconsciously examined its dos and don#39;ts. 尽管男男约会的说法是为了写这篇文章生造出来的,从未出现在关于兄弟情谊(或者同性恋恐慌)的文献里,但受访的30至40名直男——年龄在20几岁至50几岁之间,居于全国各地的城市——立刻就辨别出了这种约会的特别礼仪,即便他们此前并未有意识地审视过参与者该做什么、不该做什么。Depending on theactivity and on the two men involved, an undercurrent of homoeroticism that maybe present determines what feels comfortable or not on a man date, as MrSpeiser and Mr Putman discovered in their squeamishness at the Modern.就像在现代美术馆时刻小心翼翼的斯潘塞和普特曼所发现的那样,男男约会中可能出现的一股同性爱暗流,决定着在整个约会过程中什么是让人感到自在或不自在的,具体情况则视约会所牵涉的活动和两个男人而定。Jim O#39;Donnell, aprofessor of business and economics at Huntington University in Indiana, whosaid his life had been changed by a male friend, urges men to get over theirdiscomfort in socializing one on one because they have much to gain from theemotional support of male friendships. 印第安纳州亨廷顿大学(Huntington University)商科和经济学教授吉姆·奥唐奈(Jim O#39;Donnell)说,一个男性友人改变了他的生活,他极力主张男人应该克在一对一社交活动中产生的不适感,因为男性友谊所能带来的情感持会让他们获益良多。(Women understandthis instinctively, which is why there is no female equivalent to the awkwardman date; straight women have long met for dinner or a movie without a secondthought.)(女人生来就明白这一点,因此女女约会从来都没有男男约会的那种尴尬;直女们总是不假思索地相约共进晚餐或者看电影。 /201610/473177。

  • After years of development, protest and regulatory red tape, the first genetically modified, non-browning apples will soon go on sale in the US.历经多年研发、非议以及监管部门设置的重重障碍,首款防褐变转基因苹果很快将在美国开售。The fruit, sold sliced and marketed under the brand Arctic Apple, could hit a cluster of Midwestern grocery stores.这款备受争议的“北极苹果”会在美国中西部的一些杂货店以切片形式进行初期的试点销售。The limited release is an early test run for the controversial apple, which has been genetically modified to eliminate the browning that occurs when an apple is left out in the open air.因为经过了转基因改良,这种苹果的果肉暴露在空气中也不会变成褐色。Critics and advocates of genetic engineering say that the apple could be a turning point in the nation#39;s polarizing debate over genetically modified organisms (GMOs).基因工程的批评人士与持者均表示,美国国内对转基因作物的争论已呈两极化,而这种苹果可能会成为这一局面的转折点。While genetic modifications have in the past been mainly defended as a way to protect crops, the Arctic Apple would be one of the first GMOs marketed directly to consumers as more convenient.过去人们主要因为转基因是保护农作物的一种手段而为其辩护,而“北极苹果”或成首款直接向消费者出售的转基因作物之一则是由于其更加便捷。;What companies are desperate for is some really popular GMO product to hit the market,; said McKay Jenkins. ;Any successful product could lift the cloud over GMOs.;麦凯·詹金斯表示:“企业渴望的是真正受市场欢迎追捧的转基因产品。任何转基因商品在市场上的成功都可能会打消人们对转基因生物的疑虑。”Industry executives predict the apple could open a whole new trade in genetically engineered produce, potentially opening the market to pink pineapples, antioxidant-enriched tomatoes, and other food currently in development.业内高管预测,“北极苹果”可以为转基因农产品打开一个全新市场,同时也为今后把粉色菠萝、抗氧化西红柿等尚在研发的转基因食物推向市场做好了铺垫。 /201702/492480。
  • The invention of ‘heterosexuality’异性恋的历史The 1901 Dorland’s Medical Dictionary defined heterosexuality as an “abnormal or perverted appetite toward the opposite sex.” More than two decades later, in 1923, Merriam Webster’s dictionary similarly defined it as “morbid sexual passion for one of the opposite sex.” It wasn’t until 1934 that heterosexuality was graced with the meaning we’re familiar with today: “manifestation of sexual passionfor one of the opposite sex; normal sexuality.”1901版的《道兰氏医学词典》将“异性恋”定义为“对于异性的一种不正常的或变态的兴趣”。二十多年后,也就是1923年,《韦氏词典》对“异性恋”也给出了类似的解释,即“一种对于异性的病态的情欲”。直到1934年,人们才开始尊重异性恋,并将其定义为“对异性性欲的表现;一种正常的性取向”Whenever I tell this to people, they respond with dramatic incredulity. That can’t be right!Well, it certainly doesn’t feel right. It feels as if heterosexuality has always “just been there.”当我告诉人们这件事的时候,他们的反应都是难以置信。这不可能!是的,这看起来的确不可能。我们觉得似乎异性恋是自古以来就存在的。While heterosexual sex is clearly as old as humanity, the concept of heterosexuality as an identity is a very recent invention (Credit: Getty Images)尽管异性恋从人类产生那天就一直存在,关于它的定义却是最近的产物。There are many reasons for this educational omission, including religious bias and other types of homophobia. But the biggest reason we don’t interrogate heterosexuality’s origins is probably because it seems so, well, natural. Normal. No need to question something that’s “just there.”我们在这方面的教育有许多缺失,造成这些缺失原因有许多,包括宗教偏见和其他类型的同性恋恐惧症。But heterosexuality has not always “just been there.” And there’s no reason to imagine it will always be.但是异性恋并非“生来如此”,并且我们也没有理由觉得它永远都会存在。When heterosexuality was abnormal异性恋的“非正常时期”The first rebuttal to the claim that heterosexuality was invented usually involves an appeal to reproduction: it seems obvious that different-genital intercourse has existed for as long as humans have been around – indeed, we wouldn’t have survived this long without it. But this rebuttal assumes that heterosexuality is the same thing as reproductive intercourse. It isn’t.第一项对“发明异性恋”这一话题所提出的反驳,通常和对繁殖的诉求有关:很明显的是,异性性交活动的历史和人类历史一样长——确实,如果没有异性间的性交活动,我们也不可能存活如此之久。而对此提出的驳斥性观点是,异性恋和以繁殖为目的的性交活动是一样的。但事实却并非如此。“Sex has no history,” writes queer theorist David Halperin at the University of Michigan, because it’s “grounded in the functioning of the body.” Sexuality, on the other hand, precisely because it’s a “cultural production,” does have a history. In other words, while sex is something that appears hardwired into most species, the naming and categorising of those acts, and those who practise those acts, is a historical phenomenon, and can and should be studied as such.密歇根大学的同志理论家大卫·霍尔柏林(David Halperin)写道,“性没有历史,”,一方面因为性“是身体的基本功能”。另一方面,正是因为性倾向是一种“文化产物”,它有自己的历史。换句话说,尽管性是一种大部分物种身上都存在的现象,对于性行为及其实施者的命名及分类,都应历史地看待,我们可以并且应该进行调查和研究。Or put another way: there have always been sexual instincts throughout the animal world (sex). But at a specific point in time, humans attached meaning to these instincts (sexuality). When humans talk about heterosexuality, we’re talking about the second thing.换一种说法:性本能一直存在于动物世界(指“性行为”)。但就在某个特定时间点,人们对这种性本能赋予了其他含义(即“性取向”)。因此当人们谈论异性恋时,实际上是在谈论后者。So what changed? Language.那么,是什么发生了改变?是语言。In the late 1860s, Hungarian journalist Karl Maria Kertbeny coined four terms to describe sexual experiences: heterosexual, homosexual, and two now forgotten terms to describe masturbation and bestiality; namely, monosexual and heterogenit. Kertbeny used the term “heterosexual” a decade later when he was asked to write a book chapter arguing for the decriminalisation of homosexuality. The editor, Gustav Jager, decided not to publish it, but he ended up using Kertbeny’s novel term in a book he later published in 1880.19世纪60年代末,匈牙利记者卡尔·玛利亚·柯本尼(Karl Maria Kertbeny)造了四个词来描述性体验:异性恋、同性恋,单性恋和人兽恋(即手淫和兽奸),其中后两个词已经被人们遗忘。十年后,柯本尼才首次在书中使用了“异性恋”这个词,当时编辑要求他为一本持同性恋合法化的书撰写其中一章节。虽然当时的编辑古斯塔夫·耶阁(Gustav Jager)决定不出版这些内容,但不久后,他在1880年出版的一本书中还是用到了这个柯本尼创造的新词。The next time the word was published was in 1889, when Austro-German psychiatrist Richard von Krafft-Ebing included the word in Psychopathia Sexualis, a catalogue of sexual disorders. But in almost 500 pages, the word “heterosexual” is used only 24 times, and isn’t even indexed. That’s because Krafft-Ebing is more interested in “contrary sexual instinct” (“perversions”) than “sexual instinct,” the latter being for him the “normal” sexual desire of humans.这个词再次出现是在1889年,那时奥地利——德国的精神病学家理查德·克拉夫·埃宾(Richard von Krafft-Ebing)在一本名为《性精神病态》的描述性障碍的书中,中使用了这个词语。但在这本将近500页的作品中,“异性恋”这个词仅被引用了24次,并且也没有被编入索引之中。这是因为,相对于“性本能”,克拉夫·埃宾对“相反性本能(性变态)”更感兴趣,他认为后者才是人类“正常”的性欲表现。Until this point in our Earth’s history, the human species has been furthered by different-sex reproductive intercourse. About a century ago, we attached specific meanings to this kind of intercourse, partly because we wanted to encourage it. But our world is very different now than what it was. Technologies like preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) and in vitro fertilisation (IVF) are only improving. In 2013, more than 63,000 babies were conceived via IVF. In fact, more than five million children have been born through assisted reproductive technologies. Granted, this number still keeps such reproduction in the slim minority, but all technological advances start out with the numbers against them.历史发展到现在为止,以生殖为目的的异性性活动对人类这一物种的进化已经起到了积极作用。大约一个世纪以前,我们就对这类性活动赋予了特殊的含义,一部分原因是我们想要鼓励这种性行为。但是,现在的世界已经大不相同。胚胎植入前遗传学诊断(PGD)和体外人工受精(IVF)等科学技术都在不断发展。到2013年,超过63,000名婴儿通过体外人工受精出生。事实上,超过500万婴儿是在辅助受技术的帮助下诞生的。诚然,这在总出生人数上还是一个小数字,但是技术一直在进步。The line between heterosexuality and homosexuality isn’t just blurry, as some take Kinsey’s research to imply – it’s an invention, a myth, and an outdated one. Men and women will continue to have different-genital sex with each other until the human species is no more. But heterosexuality – as a social marker, as a way of life, as an identity – may well die out long before then.根据金赛(美国性学家)的研究,异性恋和同性恋之间的分界线不仅仅是模糊的——它更像是一个虚构出来东西,一个神话,一个过时的观念。男性和女性仍然会发生异性性关系,直到人类不复存在那一天。但是异性恋——作为一种社会特征、一种生活方式、一种性取向——很可能在人类灭绝前就已经完全消失了。 /201705/507994。
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