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Theresa May was central to pushing through the new spying laws in her job as home secretary Getty Images特蕾莎·梅在她担任内政大臣期间,是推动新监视法案的核心人物The UKs Investigatory Powers Act is now in effect, placing Britain under some of the widest-ranging spying powers ever seen.英国的调查权力法案已经生效,英国情报机构正式被赋予史上最极端的侦查权力。The law passed last month but going into effect on 30 December is intended as an update to Britains often unwieldy surveillance legislation. But it also includes a large set of new powers including the ability to collect the browsing records of everyone in the country and have them by authorities as diverse as the Food Standards Agency and the Department for Work and Pensions.该法案于上个月通过,但是将20日开始生效,是目前英国繁琐的监视法案的升级版。该法赋予了政府新的监视权力,包括强制要求互联网务供应商保存所有用户网页浏览的完整记录。有关部门可以调取这些记录,包括英国食品标准局以及劳动与养老金部。Most of the central parts of the act are now in force. That includes new powers to gather and retain data on citizens, and new ways to force technology companies and others to hand over the data that they have about people to intelligence agencies.该法案的大部分核心条款都已经生效。这包括赋予权力收集并保存公民信息,以及强制要求科技公司等其他单位向有关部门上交他们所拥有的用户信息。Many of the most invasive powers in the bill havent yet gone into force. That includes, for instance, the collection of those Internet Connection Records, which has been postponed until the government and internet companies have worked out how they can collect such information safely.法案中那些最具侵入性的权力条款还没有生效。这包括,例如,互联网连接数据这部分将等到政府和互联网公司测试到能够安全的收集信息的时候再启用。The government has argued that the powers introduced in the bill are necessary to allow intelligence agencies and police to stop modern crime and prosecute the people involved in it.政府强调该法案中描述的权力对于持监视机关和警察部门来阻止现代犯罪并起诉相关嫌疑人是非常必要的。But Bella Sankey, Amnesty’s policy director, said that it was a ;sad day; when the bill passed into law last month.但是大赦政策顾问Bella Sanky表示,上个月通过该法案的那天是“悲哀的”一天。“The Home Secretary is right that the Government has a duty to protect us, but these measures won’t do the job,; she said then. ;Instead they open every detail of every citizen’s online life up to state eyes, drowning the authorities in data and putting innocent people’s personal information at massive risk.“内政大臣说政府有保护我们的义务,这倒是没错,但这些措施达不到保护我们的目的。相反,这些措施使得每位公民的网上生活的所有细节被一览无余,加重政府部门处理数据的负担,并且给无辜群众的个人信息带来极大的泄露风险。;This new law is world-leading but only as a beacon for despots everywhere. The campaign for a surveillance law fit for the digital age continues, and must now move to the courts.;“这部新法律世界领先,但只是从专制上做到了领先。我们仍然需要一部适应这个数字化时代的监视法律,而现在必须去法院来解决问题。”The law has been opposed by tens of thousands of people in a public petition. But much of that opposition only started after the bill was quietly passed into law by MPs, meaning that it was unlikely to have any effect.该法案收到了数万人的反对请愿书,但是大部分的反对声音是在法案悄悄通过以后才发出的,所以没产生什么影响。But some of the central powers of the law were criticised by European courts earlier this month. As such, the law is set to face a range of legal challenges and could be changed in the coming months and years.但是该法案的部分核心条款本月受到了欧洲法院的批评。照这样下去,该法案将不得不面对大量的法律挑战,并且可能在接下来的岁月里进行调整。来 /201701/487507

THE EFFECT OF RAPID CHANGE 飞速变化的效应Social scientists, after crunching data from both sides of the Atlantic, have discovered something surprising: it’s not the amount of racial or ethnic diversity in a community that predicts white resentment and support of anti-immigrant policies, but the pace of change.社会科学家们分析了来自大西洋两岸的数据,发现了一些惊人的事情:在社区内,引起白人不满,并令他们持反移民政策的,并不是多样化民族或种族的人数,而是变化的速度。Denmark, for instance, is 88 percent white Danish today hardly a majority in jeopardy. But a generation ago, in 1980, it was 97 percent white. The anti-immigrant Danish People’s Party is now the second-largest party in the Danish Parliament. In Germany, where the foreign-born population shot up by approximately 75 percent between 2011 and 2015, the anti-immigrant, populist Alternative for Germany party is now drawing record support.以丹麦为例,如今8%的丹麦人口都是白人——这样的多数地位很难动摇。但980年,也就是上一代人的时候,丹麦7%的人口是白人。反移民的丹麦人民党(Danish People’s Party)现在是丹麦议会中的第二大党。在德国,从2011年到2015年间,非本土出生人口激增了大约75%,反移民的民粹政党德国另类选择Alternative for Germany)如今获得了破纪录的持率。Britain saw a 66 percent increase in its foreign-born population between 2004 and 2014. Voters who chose “leavein the recent referendum overwhelmingly cited immigration as their main concern.在英国,004年到2014年,非本土出生的人口增长6%。最近的全民公投中,投票选择“离开”的人大都说移民问题是自己最大的顾虑。Professor Kaufmann and a colleague, Gareth Harris, found that white Britons who lived in areas that are rapidly diversifying became more likely to vote for the right-wing British National Party. Daniel Hopkins, a professor of political science at the University of Pennsylvania, found a similar pattern of ethnic change leading to anti-immigrant politics in the ed States.考夫曼和同事加雷#8226;哈里Gareth Harris)发现,居住在那些人种快速多样化地域的英国白人更倾向于投给右翼的英国国家British National Party)。宾夕法尼亚大学政治学教授丹尼尔#8226;霍普金斯(Daniel Hopkins)在美国发现了相似的民族变化导致反移民政策的规律。Immigrant populations in Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee have more than tripled since 1990, noted Lee Drutman, a senior fellow at the New America Foundation, in an analysis for Vox. Anxiety over those changes may explain why the Republican Party became so much more focused on limiting immigration over that period and why white voters in those states overwhelmingly support Mr. Trump.新美国基金会(New America Foundation)高级研究员李#8226;德鲁特曼(Lee Drutman)在一份给Vox的分析文章中指出,在阿肯色州、北卡罗莱纳州和田纳西州,移民人口是1990年的三倍以上。围绕这些变化产生的焦虑或许可以解释共和党为什么在这个阶段更关注限制移民问题,还有这些州的白人投票者们何以压倒性地持特朗普。THE WHITENESS TABOO “白”之禁忌For decades, the language of white identity has only existed in the context of white supremacy. When that became taboo, it left white identity politics without a vocabulary.几十年来,白人身份认同话语只存在于白人至上论的语境之中。当白人至上论成为禁忌,白人身份政治就陷入一种失语状态。If you are a working-class white person and you fear that the new, cosmopolitan world will destroy or diminish an identity you cherish, you have no culturally acceptable way to articulate what you perceive as a crisis.如果你是一个工薪阶层的白人,担心这个充满国际性的新世界会摧毁或贬抑你所珍视的身份认同,那么你并没有一种在文化上能够被接受的方式,去阐明自己内心感受到的危机。Some of these people have instead reached for issues that feel close to their concerns: trade, crime, the war on drugs, controlling the borders, fear of Islamist terrorism. All are significant in their own right, and create very real fears for many people, but they have also become a means to have a public conversation about what society’s changes mean for white majorities.这些人当中,有些人会借助另一些问题表达他们的忧虑:贸易、犯罪、毒品战争、边境控制、对伊斯兰恐怖主义的恐惧。诚然,这些问题都很重要,也为许多人带来了真切的恐惧,但是它们已经变成一种方式,公众借助这些问题来讨论社会变革对于占多数的白人群体的影响。Professor Ivarsflaten cited the U.K. Independence Party, whose official platform focused on Brexit but whose pitch to voters emphasized immigrantseffects on the economy and culture, as an example of an effective hybrid populist pitch.伊法斯夫拉腾以英国独立党(U.K. Independence Party)为例,它的官方平台力主脱欧,但是面向选民的宣传中又强调移民对经济与文化的影响,她说这是一种混合了务实与民粹的论调。The approach has in some cases moved from the political fringes into the mainstream. Some leaders from Britain’s center-right, governing Conservative Party, for example, helped push a British exit, and since the referendum the new Conservative prime minister, Theresa May, has signaled sympathy with white identity politics.在许多情况下,这种做法已经渐渐从政界边缘进入主流。比如说,英国的执政党保守党立场是中间偏右,它曾经推进英国脱欧,公投之后,新的保守党首相特丽#8226;Theresa May)表现出对白人身份政治的同情。Mrs. May’s government proposed a rule that would publicly shame employers who hired foreign workers. And her first major speech was full of barbs directed against multiculturalism, including a jab against people who claimed to be “citizens of the world,whom she called “citizens of nowhere.”梅的政府提出了一条规则,以公开羞辱雇佣外国工人的雇主。她的第一次重要讲话中充满了对多元文化主义的尖锐讽刺,比如讽刺那些自称“世界公民”的人其实“哪儿的公民也不是”。But the struggle for white identity is not just a political problem; it is about the “deep storyof feeling stuck while others move forward.但是白人身份认同的斗争不仅仅是个政治问题,它也是一个“深藏的”故事,一个看到别人都在向前,自己却感觉困在原地的故事。There will not likely be a return to the whiteness of social dominance and exclusive national identity. Immigration cannot be halted without damaging Western nationseconomies; immigrants who have aly arrived cannot be expelled en masse without causing social and moral damage. And the other groups who seem to be “cutting in lineare in fact getting a chance at progress that was long denied them.回归白人占统治地位的社会,实施排外的国民身份认同,这样的事情不太可能发生。移民一旦停止,肯定会损害西方国家的经济;如果大举驱逐已经到达的移民,肯定会引起社会与道德上的损失。那些看似来“插队”的人群其实是在寻觅一个机会,加入到一个长久以来把他们拒之门外的进程中来。Western whites have a place within their nationsnew, broader national identities. But unless they accept it, the crisis of whiteness seems likely to continue.在西方国家更新、更广泛的国民身份认同里,白人们也有自己的一席之地。但是除非他们接受这一点,“白”的危机仍会持续存在下去。来 /201611/475994

BATON ROUGE, La. Three law enforcement officers were fatally shot and three others wounded Sunday in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, the East Baton Rouge Parish Sheriff’s Office said, less than two weeks after a black man was killed by the police here, sparking nightly protests.路易斯安那州巴吞鲁日——东巴吞鲁日县警长办公室表示,周日,路易斯安那州巴吞鲁日市的三名执法人员遭击身亡,另有三名执法人员受伤。事发不到两周前,这里的一名黑人男子被警察打死,此后每晚都会举行抗议活动。The gunman, who was identified as Gavin Long, of Kansas City, Missouri, was killed by the police.手已被警方击毙,其身份经确认是密苏里州堪萨斯城的加文·龙(Gavin Long)。Police said initially that they were looking for other possible suspects, but the superintendent of the Louisiana State Police, Col. Michael Edmonson, said at a news conference that the person who attacked the officers had been shot and killed at the scene.警方最初表示,他们正在寻找其他可能的嫌疑人,但路易斯安那州警的迈克尔·埃德蒙Michael Edmonson)警司在新闻发布会上说,袭击执法人员的人已被当场击毙。“There is not an active shooter scenario in Baton Rouge,Edmonson said in a day punctuated by rumors and misinformation.“目前巴吞鲁日不存在仍在活动的手,”埃德蒙森在不时有谣言和错误的信息传出之际表示。Edmonson said that a call came in to police dispatch early Sunday reporting “a guy carrying a weaponnear the Hammond Aire Plaza shopping center on Airline Highway.埃德蒙森说,周日早上,警察调度指挥中心接到电话称,在民航高速路上的哈蒙德艾尔购物广Hammond Aire Plaza)附近有“一个拿着武器的男人”。Around 8:40 a.m., law enforcement officers observed the man, wearing all black and holding a rifle, outside a beauty supply store, he said. Within the next 4 minutes, there were reports of shots fired and officers struck, said Edmonson, whose agency will take the lead on the investigation assisted by local and federal investigators.他说0分左右,执法人员在一家美容用品店外发现了那个一袭黑衣、手持一把步的男人,接下来的四分钟时间里,传来了开火和执法人员中的消息。埃德蒙森所在的警局将在地方和联邦调查人员协助下主持调查工作。Asked if investigators believed that the police had been targeted, Kip Holden, the mayor-president of East Baton Rouge Parish, noted that the police were responding to a report of a man with a weapon. Louisiana is an open-carry state.当被问及调查人员是否认为手以警员为目标时,东巴吞鲁日县县长基普·霍尔Kip Holden)表示,警员是在接到一个男人持有武器的消息后采取行动的。路易斯安那州允许公开携。“Based upon that, it would not seem that they were targeted,Holden said. “They responded to a call that said there’s this guy walking along the street in these dark clothes, carrying a rifle.”“基于此,当时不会想到他们将成为目标,”霍尔登说。“他们出警的原因是有人打电话来,说一个持有一把步的黑衣人在街边走。”Violence against law enforcement, Gov. John Bel Edwards of Louisiana said, “doesn’t address any injustice, perceived or real. It is just an injustice in and of itself.”路易斯安那州州长约翰·贝尔·爱德华John Bel Edwards)说,针对执法者的暴力“并不能解决任何真实或想象的不公,它本身就是一种不公”。Just five days after traveling to a memorial service in Dallas for the five police officers killed there, President Barack Obama addressed the killings of police officers Sunday afternoon. In remarks from the White House, he said they were “an attack on all of us.”前往达拉斯参加五名被杀警员的追悼会仅仅五天后,也就是周日下午,巴拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)总统就巴吞鲁日警员遇袭身亡事件做出了回应。他在白宫发表讲话时表示,这是“针对我们所有人的袭击”。来 /201607/455049

A study by the Small Arms Survey and the Armament Research Services (ARES) revealed a growing number of arms trades made online in Libya. Facebook, WhatsApp and other social media sites and apps are becoming online black markets for weapons.近日,小型武器调查与武器研究公司(ARSE)进行的一项研究显示,利比亚地区网上交易军火的现象越来越多,Facebook、WhatsApp等社交媒体网站和应用正沦;网络军火黑市;。ARES tracked groups and individual arms traders active online in Libya, recording 1,346 illicit sales in just one year.ARSE对利比亚地区活跃的网络军火交易个人与团体进行追踪,发现在短短一年内就有1346起非法交易。N.R. Jenzen-Jones, director at ARES, said the report provides only a snapshot of how armed groups use social media to trade weapons online.ARES董事N.R. Jenzen-Jones表示,该研究仅仅揭示了武装集团如何利用社交媒体进行网上军火交易的;冰山一;。He said data gathered by ARES suggest very similar trends in other conflict zones, including Syria, Iraq and Yemen.他表示,该公司搜集的数据显示,叙利亚、伊拉克和也门等冲突地区也存在类似的趋势。And its not just small arms that are sold online. The study, first reported by the New York Times, found sales of heavy machine guns, rocket launchers, grenade launchers, anti-tank guided weapons and portable air defense systems.该研究发现,在网上不仅仅能买到轻武器,甚至可以买到重机、火箭发射器、榴弹发射器、反坦克制导武器和移动式防空武器系统等。The report said the arms trade was tightly regulated in Libya during the Qaddafi regime era. But after the 2011 revolution, the regimes massive arsenal was raided by illicit arms traders and armed groups, and the black market started to flourish. The online black market for arms has grown in recent years, as internet connections have become more available.该研究表示,在卡扎菲政权时期,利比亚的军火贸易受到了严格的管制。但是在2011年革命之后,该政权的大规模军火库遭到了非法军火商和武装团伙的袭击,黑市也从此开始蓬勃发展起来随着互联网变得越来越普及,网络军火黑市近年来也发展了起来。Facebook and Instagram banned private firearms sales in January, hoping to crack down on the peer-to-peer sales of weapons on their platforms.Facebook和Instagram等社交媒体则表示,已于今月起封锁了私人兜售军火行为,希望以此禁止各自网站上的P2P式的军火贸易;We remove any such content as soon as we become aware of it. We encourage people to use the reporting links found across our site so that our team of experts can review content swiftly,; Facebook told CNNMoney on Thursday.Facebook代表在接受CNNMoney周四采访时表示:“对于类似的行为我们一旦发现,就会立即移除相关内容。我们鼓励网友积极举报,以便我们的专家们能够够快更好的检查并删除相关信息。”来 /201604/437594

U.S. President Barack Obama will discuss his new initiatives to curb gun violence in remarks Tuesday at the White House, as he works to detail to Americans the executive orders he says will not step on Constitutional rights.美国总统奥巴马星期二将在白宫讨论有关遏制暴力的新计划,努力向美国民众详细阐述他将颁布的控行政令。他表示,控令不会侵犯宪法所赋予的权利。Some of the measures, first announced by the White House on Monday, include expanded background checks, more effective enforcement of gun laws, increased mental health treatment and more research into gun safety technology.白宫星期一宣布的一些措施包括扩大对购者的背景调查,提高管理法规的有效执行,加强精神疾病治疗,以及扩大对安全技术的研究。Obama presented the recommendations, discussed during a White House meeting Monday, with top officials including U.S. Attorney General Loretta Lynch and FBI Director James Comey.奥巴马星期一在白宫召开的会议上,与美国司法部长林奇和联邦调查局局长科米等政府高层官员提出了相关建议;Although we have to be very clear that this is not going to solve every violent crime in this country. Its not going to prevent every mass shooting. Its not going to keep every gun out of the hands of a criminal. It will potentially save lives in this country, and spare families the pain and the extraordinary loss that theyve suffered as a consequence of a firearm being in the hands of the wrong people.;他说:“尽管我们必须明确,这些举措不会解决这个国家的所有暴力犯罪问题,不会阻止一切大规模杀事件,也不会阻止任何落入罪犯的手中,但是这些措施有可能拯救美国人的生命,使很多家庭免遭因为落入坏人之手而带来的痛苦及巨大损失。”One key element of the plan includes requiring any business selling firearms, including at gun shows, to get a license and conduct background checks.这个计划中的一个关键部分是要求任何销售的商主,包括展销会,都必须获得执照并对购者进行背景调查。Recent polls show an increase in the number of Americans who support background checks on those seeking to purchase a firearm. But many gun owners in the country feel that any attempt to regulate firearms violates their constitutional right to own guns.最新民调显示,持对购者进行背景调查的美国人有所增加。但是,许多有的人却觉得,任何对的管控都违反宪法赋予他们拥有的权利。The Republican-led Congress opposes more restrictions on gun ownership, and any actions planned by the president likely will face legal challenges.共和党控制的国会反对加强限制拥有权,奥巴马总统计划采取的任何行动都可能面临法律挑战。Each year, tens of thousands of people are killed by guns in the ed States, including in mass shootings and suicides, committed at far greater rates than in other countries around the world, said the president.奥巴马总统表示,美国每年都有数以万计的人死于击,包括大规模击事件和自杀,这个比率远远超过世界其他国家。来 /201601/422189A great deal of Donald Trumps political success can be put down to his body language and the unusual ways he uses his face. The first thing we notice about Trumps facial expressions is the sheer variety. The second is their dramatic, often over-stated character. This was evident before and during the presidential election. But what are Trumps signature facial expressions, and what do they tell us about him?特朗普的政治成功很大程度上可以归功于其肢体语言和与众不同的面部表情。首先,我们发现他的面部表情非常丰富。其次,这些面部表情都很做作夸张。这一点在大选前和大选期间都非常明显。但是特朗普最有特色的面部表情是什么?你知道这些表情向我们透露什么?1. Alpha face阿尔法表情During the campaign, Trump eclipsed Clinton in the macho stakes. He did this by adopting an ;alpha face; of lowered brows, narrowed eyes and a firmly set mouth. This expression is the antithesis of submissiveness. Psychologists have discovered that smiling men are widely perceived as less dominant and that powerful men show reduced levels of smiling. Individuals who want to demonstrate that they are not a threat are more likely to raise their eyebrows, widen their eyes and flash a smile the precise opposite of what Trump does in this effort to remind everyone that he is not the kind of guy you can push around.论气势,特朗普在竞选过中盖过了希拉里。他压低眉毛、眯起眼睛、嘴角僵硬,用盛气凌人的“阿尔法表情”压制了希拉里。心理学家发现,人们普遍认为爱笑的男性没那么强势,而有权有势的男性较少微笑。当人们想表示自己不具有威胁时,会挑起眉毛,睁大眼睛,露出微笑——特朗普所做的恰恰相反,这是为了提醒所有人他不是那种任人摆布的人. Angry face愤怒的表情Most politicians, when they are angry, will allow themselves a modicum of indignation. Thats not enough for Trump. When hes incensed, he pulls out all the stops and produces a larger-than-life spectacle of fury - eyes narrowed, brows tightly knitted together, mouth open and jaw tense. It is tempting to think that Trumps outbursts come from a lack of inhibition, but their true source is more likely to be his realisation that exhibitions of anger reinforce an impression of dominance. This is certainly in line with research by psychologists, which shows that people with a strong sense of entitlement, or who see themselves as powerful and unchallenged, are more y to engage in public displays of anger than others.大部分政客在生气时会表现出些许愤慨。但特朗普不满足于此。当他被激怒时,他会眯眼皱眉、大张嘴巴、绷紧下巴,使尽浑身解数做出极其夸张的愤怒表情。人们很容易认为特朗普发火是因为缺乏自制力,但真正的原因很可能是他知道表现愤怒会深化他的强势形象。这点与心理学家的研究相吻合,研究发现一个权利意识很强的人、或者认为自己有权有势、无可匹敌的人比其他人更容易在公众面前表现愤怒. Chin-jut下颌微抬One of the ways that Trump tries to look like a tough politician is by jutting out his chin. The chin-jut relies on the fact that men with bigger chins have higher levels of testosterone and, partly for this reason, are more likely to reach positions of power. In a study at West Point military academy in the US, for example, it was discovered that male cadets who had larger chins were more likely to reach the rank of general in later life than their small-chinned peers. By using the chin-jut, Trump is taking full advantage of this fact tilting his head back, thrusting out his lower jaw and attempting to give the impression that he deserves to be in charge.特朗普试图让自己看起来像一位强势政治家的方法之一是微抬下巴。这是因为下颌大的男性睾丸素含量更高,在一定程度上,这样的男人更有可能获得权力。比如,美国西点军事学院的一项研究发现,与下巴小的同伴相比,下颌较大的学员日后更有可能获得上将军衔。特朗普充分利用了这点——他向后仰头,微抬下巴,试图给人一种应该由他做主的印象. Big smile灿烂的笑容Although Trump instinctively recognises the demeaning potential of smiling, there are occasions when he is prepared to throw caution to the wind and give a full-blown smile, with his teeth on display and wrinkles around the corners of the eyes - the latter being the feature that defines a genuine as opposed to a fake display of happiness. Trump tends to produce these beaming smiles when he is in a convivial setting and when he doesnt feel the need to look like a leader, or when he is with people whose company he enjoys - as demonstrated by his post-election photograph with Nigel Farage.虽然特朗普本能地认为微笑似乎有失身份,但是他也会在一些场合放松警惕,展开笑容,亮出牙齿,笑到眼角露出皱纹。与皮笑肉不笑相比,笑容满面让人感到真诚。特朗普一般在交际以及不需要像个领导人时、或者和喜欢的人在一起时会露出热情的笑容。大选后他与奈杰法拉奇的合照明了这一点. Zipped smile抿嘴微笑This is the smile that Trump defaults to when he is in the public eye: the mouth is closed and the teeth remain hidden. Thats because the risorius muscles, which pull the corners of the mouth sideways, are much more active in this case than the zygomatic major muscles, which pull the corners of the mouth upwards and are otherwise involved in a full-blown smile. The result of this is that the zipped smile appears more guarded and because the mouth is stretched sideways, it makes the face look slightly wider.嘴巴紧闭、笑不露齿是特朗普在公众面前常见的微笑。这是因为抿嘴笑时,向两侧拉伸嘴角的笑肌比向上拉伸嘴角让笑容绽放的颧大肌更活跃。抿嘴微笑看起来更慎重,且嘴向两侧拉伸使脸部看起来略宀?There could be several reasons why Trump is so attached to the zipped smile. One is that it makes him look less submissive. By avoiding a full-blown smile, he is able to appear circumspect, while keeping his options open - something he evidently likes to do.特朗普之所如此钟情于抿嘴微笑有几个原因。其中之一是这让他看起来不那么唯唯诺诺。避免笑容满面让他显得谨慎,却又给自己留有余地——这显然是他喜欢做的事。Trump might also be unconsciously attracted to the zipped smile because it increases the apparent width-to-height ratio of his face, which in turn makes him look more masculine and macho. Psychologists have consistently shown that men with a high facial width-to-height ratio are not only seen as tougher and more attractive, they also have higher levels of testosterone and are actually more competitive.特朗普也可能在不知不觉中就想要抿嘴微笑,因为这样增加了面部宽高比,让他看起来更加阳刚且有男子气概。心理学家一贯认为,面部宽高之比高的男性不仅看起来更强壮、有魅力,而且他们的睾丸素水平更高,实际竞争力更强. Puckered chin缩下颌Some of Trumps zipped smiles are straightforward, but a large proportion of them are accompanied by a puckerechin. These are what psychologists call ;blended facial expressions;. The presence of this additional facial expression is quite significant because people often pull their chins in when they feel threatened - its a way of tensing the chin in anticipation of being symbolically punched in the face. The fact that a puckered chin features in so many of Trumps zipped smiles suggests that he frequently feels threatened. Because zipped smiles are so effective at capturing people’s attention, they provide a perfect vehicle for Trump to disguise his feelings of vulnerability.特朗普有时只是单纯抿嘴微笑,但大部分时候,他在笑的同时还会缩下巴。心理学家称之为“复合面部表情”。这一附加的面部表情的意义很重要,人经常会在感受到威胁时缩下巴——这是预计自己会被“打脸”时绷紧下巴的一种方式。特朗普在抿嘴微笑时多次缩下巴说明他时常感受到威胁。因为抿嘴微笑非常引人注意,所以这成为特朗普掩饰其脆弱情感的最佳方式. Exaggerated mouth夸张的嘴型You cant help notice the way Trump protrudes and contorts his mouth. In fact, his lips appear to have an almost prehensile quality, as if they were an extra pair of hands, reaching out from his face to manipulate the world around him. There are, however, at least two explanations we might consider. One is that Trump amplifies his lip movements because he is not completely convinced that people fully understand what hes saying. Studies have shown that when mothers are talking to their infants, they often protrude their lips and make exaggerated mouth movements in an attempt to make themselves better understood.你会忍不住注意特朗普撅嘴和咧嘴的样子。事实上,他的嘴唇似乎可以缠绕起来,就像是脸上长出的两只手,操纵着周围的世界。而我们至少可以从两点来看待这一表情。一是特朗普放大其嘴部动作是因为他不完全相信人们充分理解了他的话。研究表明,当妈妈和婴儿说话时,她们常常撅起嘴巴,做出夸张的嘴型以试图让婴儿更好的理解。It is also conceivable that Trumps exaggerated mouth movements are simply another example of a generalised strategy that involves using ;supernormal stimuli; to attract attention to himself. Recent research on humans suggests that, like birds and fish, we too have an innate orienting reflex to supernormal stimuli, and that we respond more powerfully to things that are larger-than-life, whether in the realm of luxury goods, food or sex. Maybe Trumps mouth movements - together with his histrionic hand gestures and overstated opinions - are all unknowingly designed to capitalise on this human reaction.特朗普夸张的嘴型也可能是一种广义上的战术,即用“超常刺激”来取人们的注意力。近日一项人类研究显示,与鸟、鱼一样,人类对于奢侈品、食物、性等方面的“超常刺激”也具有天生的定向反射,对于惹人注目的事物反应更加强烈。也许特朗普的嘴型及其做作的手势和夸张的言辞都在不知不觉间利用了人类的自然反应。So which facial expressions will Trump opt for during his inauguration? Will he try to present himself as a tough guy by putting on his alpha face and jutting out his chin, or will he embrace everyone with a big smile, or possibly even a zipped smile, with or without a puckered chin? Whatever happens, Trumps face is sure to provide important clues about his attitude to the occasion and what is going through his mind. Having chosen to be everyones face, theres really nowhere for him to hide.那么特朗普会在就职典礼上选择哪种表情呢?他会微扬下巴,摆出阿尔法表情以强势的形象现身,或是用灿烂的微笑面对所有人,还是缩下巴或不缩下巴的抿嘴微笑?无论发生什么,特朗普的表情一定会显示他对就职典礼的态度,以及他脑中的想法。既然选择当一个公众人物,那他真的无处可藏。来 /201701/489200

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