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2018年11月18日 03:52:37来源:飞度新闻快咨询

Technology and civil liberties技术与公民自由Donrsquo;t shoot不要拍摄!Police may not like being filmed, but they had better get used to it警察可能不喜欢被人拍摄,不过他们最好习惯之WHAT is the most striking image to emerge from this autumnrsquo;s Occupy protests? Was it the campus police officer in Davis, California, casually pepper-spraying a line of seated protesters? Or the white-shirted cop in New York, doing the same to a pair of unarmed, penned-in women? Perhaps it was a street in Oakland, deserted except for protesters and a line of black-helmeted riot police, the silence broken when one of the cops fires a rubber bullet at a protester filming him. Protesters have complained, as ever, about police infiltration, but as these s make clear, protesters and other citizens are keeping their eyes on police, too.今秋的;占领;抗议中哪个场面最引人注目?是加利福尼亚州戴维思的校园警察随意地往一排坐在地上的抗议者喷洒胡椒喷雾剂?还是纽约身穿白衬衣的警察以同样的手段对待两位手无寸铁、被关着的女士?或许是在只有抗议者和一排戴着黑色头盔的防暴警察的奥克兰街头,其中一个警察向一位拍摄他的抗议者射出的一枚橡胶子弹将沉默瞬间打破。一如往常,抗议者抱怨他们时刻处在警察的监视之下,但这些视频清楚地表明,抗议者与其他市民同样在密切关注警察的一举一动。More than two-thirds of Americans own digital cameras. Around one-third of adults own a smartphone. Most of these devices can record and easily transmit audio and . Recording police has never been easier, and thanks to social-media and activist networks such as Copwatch, which monitors police activity and posts s to the web, neither has publicising these recordings.在美国,超过三分之二的人拥有数码相机,约有三分之一的成年人拥有一部智能手机。这些设备大都能录音及摄像,并方便地传送音频与视频。记录警察的一举一动从未如此轻易,而由于社交媒体及Copwatch(此网密切关注警察的活动并将有关视频上传至网络)这种积极分子网络的存在,公开这些视频记录也比从前任何时候都要容易。That does not always go over well. People peaceably filming police have been handcuffed, beaten, had their cameras seized, and been arrested for obstructing governmental administration, obstructing an investigation, interference, disturbing the peace, or for illegal wiretapping. In taking such action the police are on shaky legal ground. The right to photograph people, including police officers, in public places, is relatively clear.但要记录警察的行为并上传至网络并不总是那么容易的。那些安分守己地拍摄警察的人,却被警察戴上手铐、殴打、没收相机及逮捕,理由如下:妨碍政府管理、妨碍调查及警方介入、扰乱秩序或非法窃听。警察采取这些行动并没有可靠的法律依据。而在公共场所拍摄他人(包括警察及官员)的权利却是相对比较明确的。Adding audio, however, raises a new set of legal issues. Most states have single-party consent laws concerning audio recording, meaning that as long as one party consents to being recorded, the taping is legal. In most of the 12 states in which all parties must consent to be recorded, a violation occurs only if the subjects being recorded have a reasonable expectation of privacy. Arguing that police officers carrying out their duties in public have such a right is a challenge. The attorney-general in Maryland, an all-party-consent state, wrote in 2010 that few interactions with police could be considered private.不过,若在拍摄的同时进行录音便会引起一系列新的法律问题。大部分的州实行关于音频记录的单方同意法,这意味着只要单方同意,录音就是合法的。而在大部分须经所有当事人同意才能录音的12个州中,只有被录音的内容具有合理的隐私预期,录音才是违法的。但要明在公共场所履行职责的警察有这种权利相当困难。马里兰州是须征得所有当事人同意才能录音的州,该州司法部长在2010年时写道:民众与警察的接触几乎都不会被视为隐私。And challenges are mounting in two of the states;Illinois and Massachusetts;without expectation-of-privacy clauses. In Massachusetts last August, a federal appeals court upheld a lower courtrsquo;s ruling that a citizenrsquo;s right to film police in public is protected by the first and fourth amendments.而且,在伊利诺州和马萨诸塞州这两个没有隐私预期条款的州中,人们的质疑越来越多。去年八月在马萨诸塞州,一地方法院作了以下判决:公民在公共场所拍摄警察的权利是受到宪法第一及第四修正案保护的。一个联邦上诉法庭对此判决表示持。During oral arguments, one of the judges hearing the challenges to the Illinois Eavesdropping Act worried that allowing recording might hinder the ability of the police to do their jobs. He gave the example of a policeman talking to a confidential informant. Police have also expressed concern about recording, and hence exposing, undercover officers. But of course police can still speak in private. Given the actions of some police officers when confronted with a camera, filming cops may not be prudent. But neither should it be illegal.在口头辩论时,其中一个对人们质疑伊利诺州窃听法案进行听的法官担心,允许民众记录警察的言行可能会妨碍警察工作。他举了一个警察与秘密线人交谈的例子。警方也对此表示关注,担心一些卧底警察的身份会因此曝光。不过,警察当然仍可以私下交谈。有些警察在遭人拍摄时行为恶劣,所以拍摄警察可能并非明智之举。话虽如此,此举也不应是违法的。164537。

  • 应国务院总理温家宝邀请,日本首相麻生太郎29日中午乘专机抵达北京,开始对中国进行为期两天的正式访问。Wen urges Japan to properly handle historical issues Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao has called on Japan to honor its promise and handle historical issues in an appropriate way. In his talks with his Japanese counterpart Taro Aso in Beijing on Wednesday, Wen Jiabao said historical issues are highly sensitive and affected people's feelings. He called on governments and political figures on both sides to stick to the principles of the four China-Japan political documents, and make unremitting efforts to push forward bilateral ties. The premier said China is willing to cooperate with Japan to expand youth and non-governmental exchanges, to boost understanding between the two peoples. Aso is in China for a two-day visit, his first official visit to China since he took office in September.WHO raises pandemic alert level to Phase 5As the swine flu situation is continuing to worsen, the World Health Organization (WHO) has raised the pandemic alert level to Phase 5, indicating that a full pandemic is imminent. WHO Director-General Margaret Chan told a teleconference for the media that influenza pandemics must be dealt with seriously and precisely because of their capacity to sp rapidly to every country in the world. This is the second raise of the WHO's pandemic alert system in three days, indicating the quick worsening of the global swine flu situation. Meanwhile, the US has reported its first death from the swine flu virus.The victim is a 23-month-old child from the state of Texas.Costa Rica has become the first Central American country, to confirm a case.And Germany and Austria, have joined the growing list, of infected countries.China is offering Mexico humanitarian aid worth five million dollars.The virus is costing Mexico, close to 60 million dollars, in lost daily tourism income.The world is still developing a vaccine for the virus.China urges swine flu prevention education in schools nationwide The Chinese government has called for education campaigns in schools nationwide to teach all students about the swine flu and its prevention.A circular jointly issued by the ministries of education and health says the campaigns should be launched as soon as possible, in all schools, to raise awareness of prevention and avoid causing unnecessary panic among teachers and students.It says schools should emphasize teaching students to develop good hygiene habits, frequently washing hands with soap and fresh water, and covering the mouth with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. China has no reported swine flu cases, but the possibility could not be ruled out as the swine flu is transnational and aly sping in some countries, according to the circular.04/68453。
  • A terror attack in Norway last week, which was carried out by an extreme right-wing Norwegian man, has raised questions about security threats in Europe. Is the perceived threat from Islamic extremism has overshadowed security threats from the extreme left and right? 挪威上周发生的恐怖袭击是由一名极右翼挪威男子制造的,这次事件使人们提出欧洲的安全威胁问题。Non-Islamist threats After last week's attack in Norway, the European Union's criminal intelligence agency Europol said it would set up a team of experts to investigate non-Islamist threats in Scandinavian countries. It said that task force may in the future stretch to a larger range of European nations. 欧盟刑事情报机构欧洲刑警组织说,它将组建一个专家团队来调查北欧国家面临的非伊斯兰威胁。该机构表示,这个特别小组的调查范围未来可能扩展到其他欧洲国家。Blanka Kolenikova, a Europe analyst at IHS Global Insight in London, says expanding the focus of security reviews may be useful. IHS环球透视驻伦敦的欧洲事务分析师布兰卡·科勒尼克娃说,扩大安全审查的焦点可能会有帮助。"It can be said that maybe that there is a feel that the threat of Islamic extremism was recently in the center of the attention and maybe other forms of extremism, like this far right extremism, has slipped from the radar of the security agencies," Kolenikova said. 科勒尼克娃说:“可以这么说,我们可能感到来自伊斯兰极端主义的威胁是人们最近关注的焦点,而其它形式的极端主义、例如极右主义躲过了安全机构的雷达侦察。”In a report this year Europol said there were no European right-wing terror attacks in 2010. It said extreme left wing groups carried out 45 attacks. 欧洲刑警组织在今年发布的一份报告中称,2010年欧洲没有发生右翼恐怖袭击。该机构说,极左翼组织发动了45次袭击。The overall view was that right-wing groups didn't have cohesion or public support. But it did say those on the right were increasingly active on the web. 总的看法是右翼组织没有凝聚力或公共持。但该机构确实指出,右翼势力在网络上日渐活跃。201108/146768。
  • US House Adjourns as Democrats, Republicans Feud Over Health Care, Other Measures 众院休会 两党就医保等分歧严重 Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. Congress engaged in procedural battles and traded allegations on Wednesday as lawmakers attempted to conclude work on legislative priorities near the end of the congressional session. Senate Republicans used procedural tactics to delay Democrat's efforts to move toward a vote on health care reform, while House lawmakers approved a defense bill and a job creation measure amid partisan bickering over responsibility for the U.S. economic situation.星期三,美国国会议员试图在议会会期结束之前完成对一些当务之急法案的审议工作,民主共和两党议员打程序战,并且互相指控。参议院共和党人试图利用程序手段来拖延民主党试图尽快对医保法案投票的努力。在就谁该对美国经济现状负责的争论中,众议院通过了一项国防出法案以及一项增加就业机会的法案。In a day of frenetic activity before it formally adjourned for the year, the House approved the last of 12 government spending bills for the 2010 fiscal year that began last October.众议院在今年正式休会之前,度过了紧张的一天,通过了2010财政年度12项政府出议案的最后部分。2010财政年度由今年10月份开始。The 6-billion defense appropriations measure includes 8 billion for the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. The Senate began considering the bill late on Wednesday before adjourning.这个高达6360亿美元的国防拨款中,有1280亿用于伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争。参议院星期三晚些时候在休会之前就此议案开始审议。Congress will have to approve more money for Afghanistan in the new year, estimated at between billion and billion, to support President Obama's 30,000 U.S. troop surge. As part of a package of bills, the House also approved a 4 billion measure aimed at easing the difficult U.S employment picture by creating new transportation and other infrastructure jobs, providing more financial aid to U.S. states and local governments and expanding unemployment benefits.作为成套议案的一部分,众议院也通过了一项总值1540亿美元用于缓解美国就业困难的议案。其中包括创造新的交通和其他基础设施建设工作,为州政府和地方政府提供更多的财政援助,以及扩大失业救济。Debate on this and other matters was marked by complaints from the Republican opposition about what they call out-of-control spending by Democrats and President Obama. Republican Jeb Hensarling of Texas:关于这个议案及其他问题的争论,一个特点是,共和党抱怨民主党和奥巴马总统的出失控了。来自德克萨斯州的共和党议员贺萨林说:"You cannot spend your way into more jobs, you cannot borrow your way into more jobs, you cannot bailout your way into more jobs," said Jeb Hensarling. "That is not the recipe."“你不能花钱来买工作,你不能借钱来买工作,你也不能靠救济来创造工作。这根本就不是解决办法。”12/92582。
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