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2018年02月21日 23:29:22 | 作者:飞度资讯信息 | 来源:新华社
Forget weeks to find a builder and months for house construction, a machine developed in the ed States can build a 232sq m home layer by layer in a single day.我们不需要再花几周的时间找建筑商或者花数月的时间为房屋施工了。美国研发的一种机器可以在一天之内一层层地打印出232平方米的房子。University of Southern California#39;s Professor Behrokh Khoshnevis has designed the giant robot that replaces construction workers with a nozzle on a gantry, this squirts out concrete and can quickly build a home according to a computer pattern.南加州大学教授比赫洛克·霍什内维斯设计了这种能取代建筑工人的大型机器人。这种机器人的机器臂上有喷嘴,从中喷出混凝土,可以根据电脑图纸快速建造出一栋房屋。The nature of the technology means it will also be possible to create curved walls and architecture that is both ;exotic and #39;beautiful;, according to Prof Khoshnevis.根据比赫洛克·霍什内维斯教授所言,这项技术的本质意味着它也可能创建出既奇异又好看的弯曲的墙壁和建筑。As a result, it could be ideal to print out customised luxury homes.因此,理想中它能打印出私人定制的奢华住所。Prof Khoshnevis claims that Contour Crafting could slash the cost of homeowning, making it possible for millions of displaced people to get on the property ladder.比赫洛克·霍什内维斯教授说,“轮廓工艺”可以大幅度削减拥有住房的成本,让成千上万无家可归的人获得房产成为可能。It could even be used in disaster relief areas to build emergency and replacement housing.它甚至也可在赈灾区被用来建造应急住所和住房置换。Furthermore, Prof Khoshnevis believes that the technology could be applied beyond our planet.而且,比赫洛克·霍什内维斯教授相信这项技术可以被运用到我们的星球以外。;Contour Crafting technology has the potential to build safe, reliable, and affordable lunar and Martian structures, habitats, laboratories, and other facilities before the arrival of human beings,#39; his website s.他的网站上写道,“‘轮廓工艺’技术或许可以在人类登陆其他星球前,先在月亮和火星上建造起安全可靠而且实惠的建筑、栖息地、实验室以及其他设施。” /201401/274269中国正在大力建造清洁城市和宣扬使用可再生清洁能源同时,然而中国的煤炭能源的一步扩大使用正在阻碍这种努力。总所周知,煤炭来来是中国的主要能源之一,仅在”中国火炉”重庆,每年就有几千个矿工因为挖煤而失去自己的宝贵生命,如何减少对煤炭的依赖,快速建立清洁城市呢?Clean Cities and Dirty Coal Power--China's Energy Paradox(矛盾) CHONGQING—This year China surpassed (超越)the U.S. as the world’s largest emitter(释放者) of greenhouse gases. And coal is largely to blame. The dirty black rock is burned everywhere, from industrial boilers to home stoves, and generates 75 percent of the nation’s electricity. More than 4,000 miners die every year digging the fossil fuel (挖煤)out of China’s heartland. One consequence of the country’s reliance on coal is most visible in the air. Smog cloaks cities, reducing the sky to little more than a blue patch amid a blanket of haze. As the pollution builds, it forms a brown cloud, visible from space, that in a week’s time crosses the Pacific Ocean to the western U.S., where it accounts for as much as 15 percent of the air pollution.The haze means no true horizon can be seen when one is walking the streets of Chongshy;qing, an inland port city on the Yangtze River that produces most of China’s motorcycles as well as other industrial goods. It seems the entire Rust Belt (美国工业老区,传统的制造业中心)of the U.S. has been crammed into this “furnace of China,(中国的火炉)” as it is known—a single community of more than 30 million people, twice the size of the New York City metropolitan region.Chongqing’s men, women and children breathe air filled with lung-clogging soot and smoke(可以进入呼吸道的没煤灰微粒). Nationally, health care associated with respiratory ills(呼吸道疾病) costs China an estimated 0 billion a year, according to the World Bank(世界). Furthermore, the foul air can literally stunt the growth of the next generation, according to recent research from Frederica P. Perera of Columbia University and her Chinese colleagues.The Chinese have been burning coal for centuries. They now consume 2.5 billion tons a year—more than double that of the U.S.—and imports are rising despite extensive domestic mining. In 2007 the country’s 541 coal-fired power plants pumped out 554,420 megawatts(兆瓦) of electricity, according to the Chinese State Electricity Regulatory Commission(中国国家电力监管委员会)—roughly equivalent to the output of 550 large nuclear reactors. On average, China opens one coal-fired plant every week to serve its 1.3 billion people and the massive industries that manufacture cheap goods, largely for the U.S. and Europe.Notwithstanding its deeply polluted state, China is also working feverishly(兴奋地) to clean up. It plans to reduce pollutants(污染物) by as much as 10 percent over the next five years. Part of the effort involves creating carbon-neutral cities and expanding renewable energy sources, as described in the stories that follow. Much of the strategy, however, is simply to shutter small, inefficient coal plants and replace them with larger ones that are more efficient. “To close small plants, it will be very effective to improve air quality,” Sarah Liang, a spokesperson in Greenpeace’s Beijing office, tells me. But that still leaves a load of pollution.Greener Generation(更环保的能源生产)Despite the surfeit(过量) of soot(烟灰), the average Chinese citizen accounts for a mere fraction(一小部分) of the greenhouse emissions of the average American. Sheer population overcomes the small per capita number, however, and the country is not bound by any international treaty to reduce its pollution. Nevertheless, the government has at least started to tackle the problem by launching a pilot project to capture and store the carbon dioxide (CO2) produced from burning coal at a demonstration power plant dubbed GreenGen.The project, in the Yellow Sea port city of Tianjin northeast of here, will proceed in three phases. First, a consortium of power and coal companies will construct a so-called integrated gasification (气化)combined cycle power plant. In this design, coal is converted into a gas, and pollutants are removed before the gas is burned. Such technology could cut acid rain–causing sulfur dioxide emissions by more than 90 percent and smog-forming nitrous oxides by 75 percent—as well as capturing more than 80 percent of the CO2 emitted by 2015 and storing it in nearby depleted (大大减少的)oil fields.The -billion GreenGen plant became the world’s leading clean coal project in January after the U.S. government pulled the plug on FutureGen, a similar demonstration plant in Mattoon, Ill., that lost steam as construction costs skyrocketed(突升). The cancellation came despite the fact that the ed Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and leaders of the world’s eight richest nations (the G8), including President George W. Bush, had called the development of clean coal technology essential to preventing the consequences of climate change.Completing GreenGen, which will generate up to 250 megawatts of electricity, may prove daunting, however. “There’s no co-benefit to doing the carbon capture and storage,” says energy technology expert Kelly Sims Gallagher of Harvard University’s Kennedy School of Government. “There’s an argument for doing GreenGen in terms of research and getting experience with it, but from a commercial point of view it doesn’t make sense.” The reason: extra energy is consumed to turn the coal into gas and subsequently to then capture the CO2—in effect requiring the burning of more coal to generate the same amount of electricity.GreenGen is a for-profit power plant, so economic gains or losses will determine whether its owners ever proceed with the capture-and-storage step. One argument in its favor would be to pump the extracted CO2 into underperforming oil wells to recover more of the oil. In an environment where oil is more expensive than ever, that approach could be “economically viable and valuable for nations that are rich in coal,” says Vic Svec, a senior vice president at U.S. coal giant Peabody, which is part owner of GreenGen.Better Enforcement Needed(需要更有效的管理)Residents of Chongqing got a glimpse of cleaner skies in the years leading up to the recent Olympics, as factories were shifted to the outskirts of towns and small, inefficient coal power plants were closed to clear the air for visiting media and tourists. “When I was young, the sky was green, and we [could not] see stars at night,” says local government official David Lee, a lifelong Chongqing resident. “This year we see blue skies and stars. We think it’s much better.”The air can still be tasted on the tongue, however, and felt in the lungs. And it still obscured the horizon for this observer. Among the culprits (罪犯)are companies that flout (轻视)clean air laws—as well as lackluster efforts to enforce those laws. Factories and power plants turn on the pollution-shy;control equipment when government officials visit, but when they leave the controls are shut off to boost power production. “The government cannot check every day,” Lee says. But regulators “need to enforce the environmental laws if they want blue skies,” insists Li Junfeng, secretary general of the Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association.Other cities, such as Zhengzhou in China’s most populous province of Henan, have little hope of clear skies any time soon. The atmosphere in the provincial capital is thick with pollution because the movement of factories and power plants away from signature cities such as Beijing has put them closer to less well-known metropolises.Despite a ban on coal burning and billion spent on clean air measures in the past decade, smog is still an issue in Beijing, in part because cars have proliferated in recent years. “It is bitter air that you can feel,” says resident Timothy Hui, a program manager in the Beijing office of the Natural Resources Defense Council, a U.S.-based environmental group. “People hate it. They complain.”Some analysts place part of the blame on Western countries. A full 23 percent of China’s greenhouse gas emissions can be linked to the production of goods exported to the West, according to the Tyndall Center for Climate Change Research in England. Researchers at Carnegie Mellon University put the share even higher: at 33 percent.That demand doesn’t absolve(赦免) China from cutting back on noxious emissions or taking more responsibility for the fate of the world’s climate, which in no small part will be forged in the crucible of its industrial cities. “Gradual warming of the earth’s atmosphere is caused by the developing countries as well as the developed countries,” says Wang Xiansheng, professor of English at Zhengzhou University. “The whole world should get united to deal with the problem.”Keke View:有关专家预测,在今后50年内煤炭仍将长期是我国的主要能源。煤炭工业要在“十一五”期间实现资源节约型、环境友好型和走新型工业化道路的发展目标,确保国家能源安全,必须大力发展煤炭科技,促进科技成果的转化,不断提高煤炭资源安全开采与洁净利用的水平。成立能源与安全科技园,组建技术研发平台,转化能源科技成果,有利于促进我国煤炭工业、能源工业实现节约发展、清洁发展、安全发展以及可持续发展。 /200907/79659Security breaches at LinkedIn and eHarmony have highlighted an escalation in attacks on social networks from hackers seeking to exploit personal data, according to security firms. 一些安全公司表示,专业交流网站LinkedIn和约会网站eHarmony的安全漏洞突显出,寻求盗取个人数据的黑客加大了针对社交网站的攻击力度。 The professional networking and dating sites have both confirmed that ;some; of their users#39;passwords have been stolen.They have not disclosed how many but security experts said hackers have posted a total of 8m encrypted passwords online, the bulk of which came from LinkedIn. 上述两家网站都已实,“部分”用户的密码失窃。它们没有透露遭窃数量,但安全专家表示,黑客在网上贴出了800万条加密密码,其中多数来自LinkedIn。 LastFM, a UK-based social network focused on music owned by CBS, also said yesterday some of its users#39;passwords had been stolen. Like LinkedIn and eHarmony,it advised users to change passwords. 昨日,CBS旗下、总部位于英国的音乐社交网站LastFM也表示,部分用户密码遭窃。与LinkedIn以及eHarmony一样,该网站建议用户修改密码。 Experts called the LinkedIn hack ;one of the largest we#39;ve seen; and said it was a sign that cybercriminals are showing an increasing preference for targeting social networks, including Facebook, Twitter and Pinterest. ;Now they#39;ve switched over to social networks,;said Graham Cluley,senior technology consultant at Sophos, a security research firm.;The anti-spam features on these sites are nowhere near as mature as places like Hotmail and Gmail.; 专家表示,LinkedIn遭黑客攻击是“我们所见到的规模最大的攻击之一”,他们表示,这是一个迹象,表明网络罪犯越来越喜欢攻击Facebook、Twitter和Pinterest等社交网站。安全研究企业Sophos的资深技术顾问格雷厄姆#8226;克鲁利(Graham Cluley)表示:“现在黑客转移到了社交网站,而这些网站的反垃圾邮件机制远远不如Hotmail和Gmail等网站成熟。” In April, social networks replaced financial organisations as the top target of phishing attacks, according to data from Kaspersky Lab. 卡巴斯基实验室(Kaspersky Lab)的数据显示,4月,社交网站取代金融机构,成为钓鱼攻击的头号目标。 Phishing campaigns are spoof emails or spoof social networking messages that impersonate a business like LinkedIn to trick people into handing over email addresses, passwords and other personal information. 钓鱼攻击使用欺诈邮件或欺诈性社交网络信息,假扮成LinkedIn之类的企业,欺骗人们交出邮箱地址、密码和其他个人信息。 Kaspersky estimates social networks accounted for 28.8 per cent of phishing attacks in April, a 6 per cent increase from March, due mainly to a surge of attacks on Facebook users. 卡巴斯基估计,4月份的钓鱼攻击中,28.8%发生在社交网络,比3月增加了6%,主要是由于针对Facebook用户的攻击猛增。 The cause of this week#39;s hacks are still unknown. LinkedIn has since added enhanced security features to its encryption process, a move Mr Cluley said they ;should have been doing earlier;. Mr Cluley also said that the openness of social networks to external programmers that develop applications left them more vulnerable to hackers. 本周黑客攻击的原因尚不明朗。遭到攻击后,LinkedIn已经加强了加密过程的安全设置,克鲁利称,LinkedIn“早就应该这么做了”。克鲁利还表示,社交网站对外部程序员开放,允许他们开发应用,这也使网站更容易受到黑客攻击。 In addition, the personal nature of social networks makes it easier for criminals to impersonate someone, using their name and photo to contact friends and work colleagues.;If I get a message from someone who is a LinkedIn contact of mine, I#39;m much more likely to respond,;said David Emm, senior security researcher at Kaspersky Lab. 此外,社交网站的个人性质使罪犯更容易假装成某人,使用他们的名字和照片联系朋友和同事。卡巴斯基实验室的资深安全研究员戴维#8226;埃姆(David Emm)表示:“如果我收到了我在LinkedIn上联系人的信息,我更有可能做出回应。” Cybercrime on social networks is turning into its own industry, said Jim Walter, manager for McAfee Threat Intelligence Service, as criminals hire underlings to generate more traffic and even ad revenue from these sites through automated botnets, collection of compromised computers. 迈克菲网络威胁情报务(McAfee Threat Intelligence Service)经理吉姆#8226;沃尔特(Jim Walter)表示,针对社交网络的犯罪正在发展为一个产业。罪犯雇佣人手,通过自动僵尸网络(即大量已被侵入的电脑),在这些网站上制造流量,甚至产生广告收入。 ;There#39;s a whole underground economy around LinkedIn bots, Pinterest bots, Facebook bots, you name it,;he said. 沃尔特表示:“围绕着LinkedIn僵尸、Pinterest僵尸、Facebook僵尸等等,存在着一个完整的地下经济。” /201206/186165

The private jet company owned by Warren Buffett’s Berkshire Hathaway is moving into China, where it sees huge growth potential.沃伦#8226;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)持有的伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)旗下私人飞机业务NetJets正进军中国,在这里看到了巨大的增长潜力。NetJets has secured a licence to fly from the Chinese civil aviation authority, allowing it to set up in a country where there is little private jet activity.NetJets已从中国民航局获得飞行牌照,将在中国展开业务。中国的私人飞机业务几乎还是空白。“With the wealth distribution in China right now, where you have over a million millionaires and quite some number of ultra-high net worth individuals growing each year in leaps and bounds, we see private flying becoming more dominant,” said Robert Molsbergen, chief operating officer of Executive Jet Management, the brand under which Netjets will operate in China.Netjets的在华业务品牌为“Executive Jet Management”。在华公司首席运营官罗伯特#8226;莫尔斯伯根(Robert Molsbergen)表示:“根据目前中国的财富分配状况,中国拥有100万名百万富翁,还有很多超高净值个人,他们的数量每年都在飞速增加,我们认为私人飞机业务将变得更为重要。”Over time, Mr Molsbergen said he believed China could provide more business than NetJets’ main market in the US.莫尔斯伯根表示,他认为,假以时日,中国的业务规模可能会超过该公司的主要市场美国。China’s vast distances and potential demand for corporate aviation could make it a lucrative market, but the main barrier to setting up in the country has been government regulation.中国地域辽阔,企业航空业务潜在需求巨大,可能成为一个利润丰厚的市场,但在中国开展业务的主要障碍是政府监管。NetJets has been trying to win its operating certificate for two years, and to make its venture work it has partnered with two Chinese companies that together own a majority stake in the business – private equity firm Hony Capital and investment fund Fung Investments.NetJets用了两年时间获得运营牌照,并让该公司与中国两家公司联手创建的合资公司开始运转。这两家中国公司是私募机构弘毅投资(Hony Capital)和投资基金冯氏投资(Fung Investments),它们持有该合资公司的多数股权。“If they’ve got a licence, that’s a start,” said Gerald Khoo, analyst at Liberum. “But there are all sorts of operational and regulatory restrictions. There is an awful lot of regulation over who can fly where – the Chinese military doesn’t like the idea of people flying wherever they like.”“如果他们获得牌照,只是个开始,”Liberum分析师杰拉德#8226;邱(Gerald Khoo)说。“中国有着各种各样的运营和监管限制。对于谁可以飞到哪里,有着大量规定,中国军方不喜欢看到人们随意飞行。”China also lacks a developed infrastructure network for private aviation, although Mr Molsbergen said there were 200 airports private jets could fly to.中国还缺乏完善的私人航空基础设施网络,不过,莫尔斯伯根表示,目前私人飞机可以在200个机场起降。NetJets has begun operations in China by basing two aircraft at Zhuhai Jinwan airport in the wealthy southern province of Guangdong, and will initially offer charter flying and services such as maintenance, crewing and storage of jets.NetJets目前在富有的中国南方广东省的珠海金湾机场拥有两架飞机,最初将推出包机和维修、机组人员配备以及飞机存储等务。Ohio-based NetJets was set up 50 years ago and its biggest market is in the USIn Berkshire Hathaway’s annual report, NetJets’ 2013 revenues were recorded as increasing 7.5 per cent to 8m. Earnings were up 7 per cent to an undisclosed figure.NetJets总部位于俄亥俄州,创建于50年前,最大市场在美国。在伯克希尔哈撒韦公司的年度报告中,NetJets 2013年的收入增长7.5%,至2.88亿美元。收益增长7%,但具体数字未披露。 /201409/331605

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