2019年05月21日 21:33:56|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞度技术健康门户
Women and work女性和工作Girl talk女人之间的事Working women today have it better than ever before. But few agree on how to help them rise further—or whether they still need help at all今天,职场女性的地位比过去已经有了显著进步。但关于怎样帮助她们进一步攀登职业生涯的更高峰,或者她们到底还需不需要帮助,仍然存在着很大的意见分歧。Work With Me: The 8 Blind Spots Between Men and Women in Business.和我一起工作:男性和女性在职场中的八大盲点By Barbara Annis and John Gray. Palgrave Macmillan; 272 pages; .作者:芭芭拉·安妮丝,约翰·格雷。麦克米伦出版社;272页;27美元。To be published in Britain by Piatkus next month; 13.99.下月将由Piatkus出版社在英国出版;13.99英镑。Buy from Amazon.comAmazon.com有售A Rising Tide: Financing Strategies for Women-Owned Firms.新潮:女性主导公司的金融策略By Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb.作者:苏珊·科尔曼,艾丽西亚·罗布。Stanford University Press; 288 pages; and 77.50.斯坦福大学出版社;288页;85美元/77.5英镑。Buy fromAmazon.com, Amazon.co.ukAmazon.com, Amazon.co.uk有售The XX factor: How Working Women are Creating a New Society.XX因子:职场女性如何创造新社会By Alison Wolf. Profile; 464 pages; 15.99. Buy fromAmazon.co.uk作者:艾莉森·伍尔芙。Profile出版社;464页;15.99英镑。Amazon.co.uk有售PEOPLE have been holding heated discussions recently about women’s experience in the workplace.最近,关于女性职场角色的讨论尤为火热。The catalyst? A single Silicon Valley executive.点燃这场讨论的是一位硅谷的女主管。Last month Sheryl Sandberg, chief operating officer at Facebook, published “Lean In”, a controversial manifesto on why women have not ascended to the most senior positions at companies.上月,Facebook的首席营运官雪莉·桑德伯格发表了颇受争议的新书《跻身:女性、工作与领导意愿》,讲述女性难以在公司担任高层职位的原因。She concludes that it is partly women’s own fault: they do not “lean in” and ask for promotions, pipe up at meetings and insist on taking a seat at the table.在书中,桑德伯格女士总结说,这一部分是女性自身的问题:她们不愿“跻身”,不主动要求升职,不积极在公司会议上发言,甚至在开会时都不愿上桌。Three new books will not have the same impact as “Lean In”, but they offer some interesting new perspectives on how women are coping at work, and what is holding them back.本文要介绍的三本新书虽然无法在影响上与《跻身》相媲美,但也为我们了解女性如何适应职场、是什么阻碍了她们晋升提供了一些有趣的新视角。Some of it is down to simple miscommunication.有时这仅仅是因为简单的沟通障碍。Barbara Annis and John Gray argue in “Work With Me” that men and women are biologically wired to think and react differently to situations, and have “gender blind spots” when it comes to understanding their co-workers’ behaviour.芭芭拉·安妮丝和约翰·格雷在《和我一起工作》一书中说,男人和女人因为生理结构的差异而注定对同一情况有不同的看法和反应,并且在理解异性同事的行为时,会存在“性别盲点”。Ms Annis, who leads workshops on gender for big companies and governments, and Mr Gray, author of “Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus”, a bestselling book in 1992 about relationship problems, have collaborated to produce an easy-to- guide to workplace communications.安妮丝女士平时经常为大公司和政府机构主持关于性别问题的研习班,格雷先生则是《男人来自火星,女人来自金星》一书的作者,这本书出版于1992年,是一本讲述恋爱关系中存在的问题的畅销书。这样的两个人合作出一本关于职场沟通的简明指南,可谓是珠联璧合。Women ask more questions, gather more people’s opinions and seek collaboration with co-workers more frequently than men.和男性相比,女性通常更喜欢提问题,更多地寻求他人的意见,并且也更愿意与同事合作。Men view these preferences as signs of weakness, and women, in turn, grow annoyed by how competitively men work, and how quickly and unilaterally they arrive at conclusions.这些特点在男性看来是软弱的标志,而女性同样也很讨厌男人工作时的好胜心,以及他们不征求别人意见、迅速作出自己单方面结论的作风。If both female and male employees became more “gender intelligent” about how their work and behavioural preferences are hard-wired, it would contribute to a more harmonious workforce.如果男女职员都能够更加明智地认识到性别对他们的工作和行为习惯的固定影响,或许工作团队中的关系会更加和谐。Women have been choosing to leave companies at twice the rate of men, and more than half the women whom the authors met in workshops were considering leaving their firms.女职员主动辞职的比率是男职员的两倍,本书作者在研习班里接触的女职员中也有一半以上都在考虑离开现在的公司。Women often tell their bosses that they are quitting for personal reasons, but the majority actually leave because they feel excluded from teams and not valued for their contributions.她们通常会对老板说,自己辞职是出于私人原因,但实际上,大部分人真正的理由是她们在团队中没有参与感,而且感到自己的贡献没有得到重视。Yet the reality is that women often have trouble communicating with other women at work as well, though the authors do not explain in quite as much detail why this is so.其实还有另外一个现实的原因,女职员经常在工作中与其他女性也存在沟通问题,尽管这一点在本书中并没有详细阐述。Communication and gender equality are not just problems at large firms.沟通和性别平等不是只有大公司才存在的问题。In “A Rising Tide” Susan Coleman and Alicia Robb look beyond women’s experience at big companies.在《新潮》一书中,作者苏珊·科尔曼和艾丽西亚·罗布关注的就是女性在大公司之外的经历。They focus instead on women entrepreneurs, who have the potential to become leaders in their field, earn a high income and hire more women.她们的兴趣点在女企业家身上,这些女性拥有成为本行业领袖的潜力,收入高,并且倾向于雇佣更多的女性为自己工作。In a positive shift, women have been starting more firms in the past decade.过去的十年见了一个积极的转变—女性正在创办越来越多的公司。However, these tend to be in the service and retail industries.然而,这些公司大多从事的是务业和零售业一类的传统产业。They also remain smaller than men’s firms.而且通常在规模上也比不上男性主导的公司。Ms Coleman and Ms Robb point out that part of this may be by design; women sometimes want to keep their businesses small in order to balance their family responsibilities.科尔曼女士和罗布女士指出,这种情况一部分可能是有意为之;女老板们有时就是想要保持公司较小的规模,以便兼顾自己的家庭责任。However, women also often lack the financing that male entrepreneurs enjoy.除此之外,女老板们也经常缺少男老板们所拥有的那样充足的资金。They have fewer savings, so usually launch their businesses with less capital than men, and are less likely to apply for a loan for fear of being denied.她们的存款较少,所以经常在创办公司时,启动资金就比不上男企业家。And they have not had as much access to the masculine world of Silicon Valley: in 2000 they obtained only 5% of funding from venture capitalists, a notoriously male-dominated industry.而且,因为害怕被拒绝,她们也不太愿意去申请贷款。因此,在硅谷这个男权世界中,女性的跻身空间很小。2000年,她们仅从风险投资家手中获得了5%的资金。During their first year of operation men raised 27 times more equity from outsiders for their start-ups than women.众所周知,风险投资也是一个男性主导的行业。新公司运营第一年里,男老板们从公司外部募得的投资是女老板们的27倍。How has the success of high-achievers differentiated them from other women?那么,成功的女性精英们与其他女性有什么不同呢?In “The XX Factor”, Alison Wolf, the director of public policy and management at Kings College London, argues that there are now around 70m highly educated, high-earning women around the world.伦敦大学国王学院公共政策与管理系负责人艾莉森·伍尔芙在《XX因子》一书中说,目前全世界大约有七千万接受过高等教育、拿高收入的女性。They have more in common with elite men than with other women.与其他女性相比,她们与男性精英拥有更多相同之处。These grandes dames tend to marry more often and have fewer children than less-educated women.这些“女强人”通常会比教育程度不高的女性结更多次婚,生更少的孩子。They spend more time working, and, unexpectedly, more time parenting.她们花在工作上的时间更多,但令人意外的是,她们花在养育儿女上的时间也更多。Ms Sandberg also makes this point.桑德伯格女士也表达过同样的观点。As the demands on women in the workplace have increased, so too have the standards for being a good, involved mother—which adds to the challenges for women at the top.随着职场对女性的要求越来越高,要做一个合格的、全身心投入的母亲也越来越难。这也增加了女高管们面临的挑战。Ms Wolf and Ms Sandberg ultimately differ, however, on whether the glass is half full or half empty for women.但是,在对待女性职场前景的态度上,伍尔芙女士和桑德伯格女士有着很大的差别。Ms Sandberg’s book is a call to female arms to change their behaviour so they can rise further.桑德伯格女士的书意在呼吁女性改变她们的一些做法,以便攀登事业的更高峰。Ms Wolf concludes with an economist’s detachment. She says that given how much things have improved for women in the past century, it is “a little surprising to find so many elite women still arguing passionately for directed, top-down social change—change designed to improve things for female elites”.而伍尔芙女士的结论则显示出一位经济学家所拥有的淡然和超脱。她说,在过去一个世纪里,女性地位已经有了很大提升,考虑到这一点,她“有些不理解为什么很多女性精英仍然在乐此不疲地要求有序的、自上而下的社会变革,要求进一步改善女性精英的处境”。Most people agree that more needs to change in the workplace. Men still occupy most top jobs, do not feel comfortable mentoring younger women and judge young men differently from young women.大多数人都同意,职场确实还有很多需要改变的地方。男性仍然霸占了大多数的高层职位,不愿意指导年轻的女职员,并且在评价年轻的男女职员时采取双重标准。However, after decades of women failing to gain equal representation in executive suites, it is notable how many books now focus on women altering their behaviour, rather than men changing their way of doing things.但是,在女性奋斗了几十年,仍然未能在主管办公室打下半壁江山之后,我们应该注意到,现在的很多书只关注女性如何调整自己的行为,而不是男性怎样改变他们的行事风格。Women cannot change their fate on their own. What happened to the responsibility for men to “lean in” to listen and advance women in the workforce, as well?女性仅靠自己改变不了命运。难道男性不是也有责任要主动倾听女性的声音,帮助女性在职场进步吗? /201404/285006The World Cup世界杯Pitch imperfect球场不够完美They think its all over budget他们认为超出预算Down to the finishing touches开赛在即,已到最后收尾工作FOOTBALLS World Cup was meant to display Brazils coming-of-age as a global player. Instead, the preparations have illustrated the improvisation for which the country is nearly as famous as its footballers. With less than a month to go, organisers are scrambling to get everything y. A swanky new terminal opened at Guarulhos Airport in Sao Paulo on May 11th. But just eight airlines will be operating there next month, not 25 as planned. Chunks of the airport in Belo Horizonte, another host city, are wrapped in scaffolding and sprinkled with dust—and will remain so well after the tournament ends in July.足球世界杯是巴西这个世界足球强国显示其成熟老道的绝好时机。然而,其糟糕的筹备,就像其足球运动员即兴表演那样闻名于世。距世界杯开幕已不足一个月,可是组委会正仓促地想要一切在一个月内各就各位。5月11日,位于圣保罗的Guarulhos机场,一个超炫豪华的机场航站楼建成开始对外开放。然而下个月,只有8个而不是计划的25个航空公司可以在这里起落。而位于另一个主办城市贝洛哈里桑塔的机场,绝大部分依然围着脚手架,到处是灰尘,而这个状态可能直到六月世界杯赛结束都不大会有所改观。Unfinished work at Arena Corinthians stadium in Sao Paulo means only 40,000 fans will attend a pre-tournament test game on May 18th, well shy of the 68,000 expected at the opening match on June 12th. The media centre at the stadium in Curitiba wont be y for the event; journalists will slum it in a tent.圣保罗哥林蒂安斯体育场作为世界杯的竞技场现在尚未完工,这意味着仅有4万球迷可以参加5月18号举行的赛前测试,这远远少于六月12号世界杯首场赛事的6.8万人。库里蒂巴市体育场的媒体中心届时可能无法为大赛务,记者只能挤在自搭的帐篷中。Red tape and overlapping federal, state and municipal fiefs have snarled projects. Jerme Valcke, secretary-general of FIFA, footballs governing body, has described dealing with Brazilian authorities as “hell”. Eight construction workers have died in accidents, six more than in South Africa four years ago. FIFA insists stadiums will be y when fans start pouring in. But delays have left little time to install and test telecommunications kit, prompting worries over patchy television and radio transmission.繁文缛节官僚习气以及冗杂的联邦、政府和市级区划让各个项目混乱不堪。国际足球联盟足球赛事的领导机构的总秘书长Jerme Valcke将与巴西当局的办事风格描述为“极不像话”。8名建筑工人在施工事故中丧生,这比四年前南非世界杯多整整6人。国际足球联盟坚持要求体育馆必须在观众前来参与赛前测试之前一切准备就绪。但是由于一再拖延,几乎没有时间安装、测试电信设备,这给不完善的电视转播和广播转播买下隐忧。Cost overruns, partly blamed on alleged price-gouging, mean that, measured by the cost of a seat, Brazil now boasts ten of the worlds 20 most expensive football venues, according to KPMG, a consultancy. The whitest of these elephants, in Brasília, may end up consuming 2 billion reais, nearly triple the initial estimate. After the Cup it is unlikely ever to draw capacity crowds again, as the city lacks a good league side.足球世界杯筹备成本远远超出预算,部分原因是由于价格欺骗。意思是,以一个座位的成本作为衡量手段,根据毕马威会计事务所的数据,现在巴西拥有世界上最贵的20个足球竞技场。在巴西利亚,这些造价昂贵而使用价值又不太高的场馆最终可能花费20亿里亚尔,是最初预算的3倍。在世界杯赛事之后,因为这个城市缺乏一个好的联赛赛事它不可能再整场爆满。A promised public-works bonanza has not materialised. Brazils government insisted on staging games in 12 cities, rather than the required eight, in order to sp the benefits across the country. It succeeded only in sping itself thin. Just five of 35 planned urban-mobility schemes are complete. Fans will use buses or taxis to get to most city centres.因此一个颇具前景的市政工程金矿也无法带来物质财富。巴西政府为了均衡举办世界杯带来的红利,坚持在12个城市举行赛事而非按照要求在8个城市举办。而这,只会让传播世界杯赛事的成功几率降低。而35个城市交通方案也仅有5个竣工。最后,球迷只能通过公交车或者计程车前往各个位于市中心的赛场。Support for hosting the World Cup has fallen sharply, from 79% after it was awarded to Brazil in 2007 to 48% now, according to Datafolha, a pollster. Given Brazilians love of football and knack for making merry, the tournament is almost certain to be a blast. But the legacy has been left in the changing-rooms.根据圣保罗页报的民意调查,巴西国内民众对世界杯的持也急剧下降,由2007年申办成功之初的78%降至现在的48%,世界杯赛几乎注定了将是猛烈的一击。而这一现象已经在更衣室得到验。 201406/304653

Science and technology科学技术Stem-cell therapies干细胞治疗Prometheus unbound普罗米修斯自由了Researchers have yet to realise the old dream of regenerating organs. But they are getting closer亘古以来,器官再生便是人类的夙愿。如今研究人员虽然还未真正实现,但成功的脚步已经越来越近PROMETHEUS, a Titan bound to a rock by Zeus, endured the daily torture of an eagle feasting on his liver, only to have the organ regrow each night.在希腊神话之中,提坦普罗米修斯被宙斯束缚在一块巨石之上,白天忍受着老鹰啄食他的肝脏,夜晚他的肝脏却又总会再次生长。Compared with this spectacle, a on the website of Nature this week seems decidedly dull.与生动的故事情节相比,本周《自然》网站上的一段视频就显得如此枯燥。It shows a collection of pink dots consolidating into a darker central glob.这段视频向世人展示了无数粉红色的小点向中心聚拢,成为一个颜色更深的团状物的过程。But something titanic is indeed happening.但这正是普罗米修斯自由的曙光。The pink dots are stem cells, and the shows the development of a liver bud, something which can go on to look and act like a liver.那些粉红色的小点就是干细胞,而视频显示的正是肝芽生长的过程,并且这个肝芽可以进一步发育为,无论是外表还是功能都与肝脏类似的组织。Takanori Takebe and Hideki Taniguchi of Yokohama City University, in Japan, who made the , have created working human-liver tissue.日本横滨市立大学的武部孝则和谷口英机拍摄了这段视频,这次他们培养出了具有功能性的人类肝脏组织。Researchers have long dreamed that stem cells might be used to repair or replace damaged tissue, an aspiration known as regenerative medicine.研究人员长期以来都设想干细胞能够用来修复或替换受损组织,该研究领域则被冠名为再生医学。Embryonic stem cells, in particular, are pluripotent, meaning they are able to become any other type of cell.多能的胚胎干细胞被再生医学家们寄予厚望,所谓多能就意味着这些干细胞可以分化出多种其他类型的细胞。And it is now possible to induce pluripotency in cells that have not come from embryos, thus circumventing the ethical minefield previously associated with obtaining them.现在的技术已经可以在非胚胎细胞中诱导细胞的多能性,这样就可以绕过之前直接使用胚胎细胞时所引发的伦理争议。Last year Shinya Yamanaka of Kyoto University won a Nobel prize for the invention of induced pluripotency.日本京都大学的山中伸弥由于成功诱导细胞的多能性而于去年荣获诺贝尔奖。He had shown how four signal proteins can reprogram adult cells into a pluripotent state.他公开发表了借助四种信号蛋白,重组成人细胞并使其具有多能性的实验过程。Beside dealing with the ethical problems of embryonic cells, Dr Yamanakas induced pluripotent stem cells allow—at least in theory—a treatment to be created from a patients own body.除了成功躲开了胚胎细胞的伦理问题,山中士发明的诱导多能干细胞,使得再生医学可以从患者体内提取细胞进行再生治疗。This would have his own genetic make up and would thus not attract the attention of his immune system.这样就可以取得患者自身的基因组合,避免了患者免疫系统的排异反应。Realising such treatments has been fiendishly difficult.要真正实现这种干细胞治疗仍然困难重重,But Dr Takebes paper in Nature is one of several signs that the Promethean dream is slowly coming to life.但是武部士发表于《自然》的论文则是人类又一次向解放普罗米修斯迈出了坚实的一步。Budding hope星星之火Clinical trials of pluripotent cells are aly happening, though they hark back to the days when only cells derived from embryos were available.多能细胞的临床试验其实早已开始进行,只是这种多能细胞还是由胚胎干细胞所培养。An American firm called Advanced Cell Technology is using them to treat macular degeneration, a cause of blindness.美国先进细胞技术公司正运用多能细胞治疗可能致盲的黄斑变性。Last year it reported promising results in two patients and Gary Rabin, the firms boss, says tests continue.去年该公司报告了两例有望好转的临床病患,公司老总加里·拉宾也表示,试验仍会继续。Even if this specific approach works, though, it is likely to be overtaken by iPS technology.不过,即使这一临床试验终获成功,也有可能会被iPS技术所取代。The Japanese, not surprisingly, are in the lead.日本在iPS技术方面无疑领先于世界其他各国。Soon, the countrys health ministry is expected to approve the first clinical trial of iPS cells, also for macular degeneration.该国卫生部应该不久便会批准iPS细胞的第一例临床试验,同样也是治疗黄斑变性。But ACT is not far behind.然而ACT也并未脱离战队,It hopes to begin a trial of platelets made from iPS cells.该公司希望开始一项iPS细胞培养血小板的试验。And other firms want to treat everything from Parkinsons disease to glaucoma to multiple sclerosis.还有些公司则希望透过iPS技术治疗其他疾病,包括帕金森病、青光眼、多发性硬化等。Academia is pushing ahead as well.学术界则正在进一步地研究iPS技术。Inspired by Dr Yamanakas work, people are looking for other shortcuts to pluripotency.受到山中教授研究成果的启发,人们纷纷开始探究诱导细胞多能性更为便捷的其他途径。Marius Wernig of Stanford University, for instance, has worked out how to use three proteins to turn connective-tissue cells into neurons.斯坦福大学的马吕斯·维米格就发现了使用三种蛋白质,将结缔组织细胞转化为神经细胞的方法。Deepak Srivastava of the University of California, San Francisco, meanwhile, has shown how to convert connective tissue into heart cells.加州大学旧金山分校的迪帕克·司里瓦斯德瓦则发表了将结缔组织转化为心肌细胞的过程。Other research is going beyond simple cell cultures.还有一些研究就没有局限于简单的细胞培养领域。左使良树任职于神户的理化研究所发育生物学中心。In 2011 Yoshiki Sasai of the RIKEN Centre for Developmental Biology, in Kobe, showed how mouse embryonic stem cells, if mixed with a few appropriate growth factors, quickly form a three-dimensional cluster made of the precursor cells to neurons.他于2011年发表论文,阐述了老鼠胚胎干细胞在给予一些适当的生长因子后,快速形成一个三维立体簇集物的过程。This cluster then turns into something resembling the back of an eye.而这种簇集物由多种细胞构成,并进而发育成一种类似于眼底结构的组织。Last year Dr Sasai repeated the trick with human cells.去年左使士使用人类细胞再次重复了这一实验过程。The dream is to make a complex organ from scratch.人们的梦想就是从无到有地创造出一个复杂的器官。With this in mind researchers at Wake Forest University in North Carolina have used a three-dimensional printer to produce an artificial kidney using immature kidney cells.为了实现这个梦想,北卡罗来纳州维克森林大学的研究员们使用三维打印技术,用不成熟的肾脏细胞做出了一个人造肾脏。But if such organs are to work in people, they will need blood vessels to deliver oxygen and nutrients.不过要让这样的肾脏在人体内正常工作,其中还是缺少了用于输送氧气和营养物质的血管。The way to do that might, paradoxically, be for scientists to do less. Instead of making the whole organ in a laboratory, they might create a less-developed form, as Dr Sasai did with his proto-retina, and then leave the rest of the work to the body.如果真要实现这个梦想,科学家可能用不着在肾脏中再造血管—这听起来可能有些自相矛盾—他们其实不必在实验室中造出完整的人体器官。科学家可以先造出还没发育完全的器官试样,然后在活体体内完成剩下的研究工作。This is what Dr Takebe has done with his liver buds.武部士的肝芽生长研究正是遵照这样的器官再造思路而完成的。He coaxed some iPS cells into becoming liver endodermal cells.他小心地将一些iPS细胞导入合适的肝脏内胚层细胞。He then cultured them with two other cell types: endothelial cells, which make up the inner linings of blood vessels, that were derived from umbilical cord; and mesenchymal stem cells, derived from bone marrow, which can differentiate into several kinds of cells, though not as many as pluripotent cells.然后将这些肝脏内胚层细胞与其他两种细胞一起培养。一种是取自脐带的内皮细胞,这种细胞构成了血管内层;另一种细胞是取自骨髓的间充质干细胞,这种细胞可以分化成多种细胞类型。Cultures without mesenchymal stem cells failed to form a cluster.实验明,如果培养过程中缺少间充质干细胞,就不会形成簇集物;Those without endothelial cells failed to create a network of blood vessels.而如果没有内皮细胞,就无法形成血管网络。But together, the three types of cell, with little additional prodding, formed a bud within two days.只有将肝脏内胚层细胞与这两者结合,并配合少量的其他刺激,才最终能在两天内形成肝芽。At six days this bud was expressing genes known to be early markers of the liver.到了第六天,肝芽开始表达一些在肝脏早期形成阶段具有标志性的基因。And when Dr Takebe implanted such buds into the brains of mice whose immune systems had been disabled to prevent rejection, he observed that they connected with the mouses blood system within two days.随后,武部士将这些肝芽结构植入一些丧失免疫能力的老鼠的脑中,这样老鼠就不会对肝芽组织形成排斥反应。武部士发现,两天内肝芽结构就与这些老鼠脑中的血液循环系统相互融合了。After two months the buds not only looked like liver, they acted like it.两个月后,肝芽结构除了看上去像肝脏外,也具有了肝脏的生理功能—他们产生出了肝脏独有的蛋白质。They produced liver-specific proteins. And if Dr Takebe transplanted them to their hosts abdominal cavity, having first caused the animals real liver to fail, they often kept the mouse alive when an animal without the transplant would have died.然后武部士又将这些肝芽结构移植到了相应老鼠的腹腔中,起初肝芽结构会破坏老鼠体内自身的肝脏,但是接着很多老鼠并没有死亡。Translating this work into a way of growing new livers for people whose old ones have stopped working will take time.诚然,要将这个过程在人类身上临床试验仍需时日。But it is a big step forward.但在老鼠体内的实验已是继往开来的重要一步。After years of promise, regenerative medicine may be coming close to delivering.在人们年复一年的期盼中,再生医疗终会有实现梦想的那一天。 /201310/262804

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