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2019年04月23日 08:03:14来源:飞度【云管家】

Sake to Me: The Art of Drinking Sake米酒于我:饮米酒的艺术Sake is a drink that has been made in Japan for thousands of years. All across Japan there are sake breweries, dozens of different brands, and sake festivals. And again, most regions have their own something special to contribute. So just what is sake and why is it so popular?米酒产于日本,已经有上千年的历史了。米酒厂遍布整个日本,有各种不同的品牌以及与米酒有关的节庆。而且大部分地区还有珍品威士忌可供品尝。那么米酒究竟是什么,又为什么如此流行呢?When most foreigners think of Japanese sake, they think “rice wine”. However, sake is an alcohol made from rice, but it is not a rice wine. Just like traditionally, vodka is made from potatoes and rum is made from sugar, well, sake, is made from rice.外国人所认为的日本酒就是指“米制酒”。然而,米酒是由大米做成的酒精饮料,但它并不是仅由大米制成。就像传统的,伏特加由土豆制成,朗姆酒由糖制成,米酒由大米制成。The process to make sake is actually very similar to the process used to make beer. The one special thing about sake, is something quite silly actually. What makes the process of brewing sake so unique, is that as the brewers are making it, they will sing. Yup, sing.制作米酒的程序和过去制作啤酒的程序非常相似。实际上,有关制作米酒的一个特别之处听起来似乎有些愚蠢。酿造米酒的独特之处在于:酿酒者在制作过程中会伴随着歌唱。对,就是唱歌。By singing in unison, it ensures that the brewing steps are carried out rhythmically and accurately. If you ever get to go on a sake tour, you will witness this unique process, which is really fun!大家齐声歌唱可以确保酿造步骤准确而又节奏。如果你有机会对米酒厂进行参观,你就会目睹这一有趣而又独特的酿造过程。Drinking sake, like most Japanese things, has an art to it.When you order sake it is usually served in a small carafe like container called a tokkuri, along with small cups called ochoko.像许多日本其它行为一样,喝米酒也很有讲究。米酒通常盛放在一个叫“托骨利”的小玻璃容器里,倒在一种叫“佛手瓜”的茶杯里饮用。If you’re drinking in Japan, it is typical that the subordinate person always pours for their superiors. Usually this is determined by age, job position, etc.– But don’t fret over trying to figure this out, because, trust me, if you’re aly living in Japan, you know what your status is.Otherwise just try to keep everyone’s cups full, but never pour for yourself.在日本喝米酒的习惯通常是晚辈给长辈斟酒。通常这种辈分关系由年龄、工作职位等决定。但是你完全不用为如何搞清这些关系而担心,相信我,如果你已经生活在日本,你一定会弄清自己属于哪个阶层的。如果实在搞不清楚就保持每个人的杯子是满的,唯独不要为自己斟酒。After someone has poured for you, take a small sip before putting it down. And remember, even though ochoko are small, they are not shot glasses. REPEAT! They are not shot glasses. So sit back, sip your sake slowly and enjoy it!如果有人给你倒酒,要尝一小口后再放下。同时,一定要记住尽管这种圆柱形小茶杯很小,但它并不是小酒杯。切记!它们不是小酒杯。所以,要坐下来,小口喝,慢慢品尝你的米酒。 /201507/384846。

  • Anniversaries are great for catching a look in the rearview mirror, remembering where we came from and rethinking where we’re going.周年纪念是回顾过去的好时机,可以回忆我们从哪里来,重新思考我们往哪里去。This year will see the 2,000th anniversary of the city of Derbent, Russia, on the Caspian Sea; the 450th anniversary of Rio de Janeiro (to be celebrated all year long); the bicentennial celebrations of both the Battle of New Orleans and the Battle of Waterloo; and the 800th anniversary of the signing of Magna Carta, perhaps one of the earliest symbols of the struggle for civil liberties. (With regard to the latter, operas, tours and lectures abound, but the four remaining originals can be viewed only at Salisbury Cathedral, Lincoln Cathedral or the British Library, all of which are planning their own exhibitions and activities.)今年是俄罗斯濒临里海的杰尔宾特市建市2000年;里约热内卢诞生450年(全年都会庆祝);新奥尔良战役和滑铁卢战役200年纪念;《大宪章》(Magna Carta)签署800周年,它可能是最早的公民自由斗争的象征之一(关于最后这项周年纪念,有很多歌剧、游览和演讲,但是留存下来的四份原件只能在索尔兹伯里大教堂、林肯大教堂或大英图书馆看到,这三个机构都在计划自己的展览和活动)。For a young(ish) country like the ed States, which commemorates some of its grittiest history this year, there is still a lot to be learned.美国这样比较年轻的国家还有很多可学的,今年它也将纪念自己历史上最动荡的一些时刻。Alabama is y to welcome an estimated 30,000 visitors to Selma in March for the 50th anniversary of the civil rights marches that led to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. And an ever-growing list of concerts (one featuring Patti LaBelle), educational tours, balls and galas will bookend the two most significant events: a re-enactment of Bloody Sunday, the first attempted march, which was violently stamped out by authorities just blocks from its start (March 8); and, in commemoration of the second, successful march, just two weeks later, a 54-mile journey led by Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the Montgomery neighborhood of St. Jude hosts a Freedom March festival (March 24).今年3月,阿拉巴马州将迎接大约三万名游客来到塞尔玛,纪念民权游行50周年,该游行促成了1965年的《投票权法案》(Voting Rights Act)。届时将会举办很多音乐会(其中一场将由帕蒂·拉贝尔[Patti LaBelle]领衔)、教育旅行、舞会和晚会,来纪念两次最重要的游行:第一次游行发生在3月8日,刚走出几个街区就被当局残暴镇压了,被称为血腥星期天;两周后的第二次游行很成功,由小马丁·路德·金士(Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.)领导,游行了54英里。蒙哥马利市的圣犹大区将举办自由游行节(3月24日),以示纪念。Of course, there’s never a shortage of re-enactments when it comes to the Civil War, and the Civil War Trust has planned several in the months leading up to and through the 150th anniversary of Gen. Robert E. Lee’s surrender to the Union Army in April. Numerous other festivities center on the Appomattox Court House National Historical Park in Virginia, which is helping to organize narrations of historical events, cavalry demonstrations, a formal ball and a period chorale concert (April 8 to 19).当然,重演美国内战的的活动一向都有很多,内战信托组织(Civil War Trust)已经策划了几场活动,将在4月份,罗伯特·E·李将军(Robert E. Lee)向联邦军队投降150周年纪念日前后举行。其他很多庆祝活动将在弗吉尼亚州阿波马托克斯的国家历史公园举行,该州还将组织历史事件讲述会、骑兵游行、一场正式舞会和一场古装赞美诗音乐会(4月8日至19日)。The 150th anniversary of the assassination of President Lincoln will be observed with round-the-clock dramatic retellings of the event at Ford’s Theater in Washington (April 14 to 15); and in Springfield, Ill., there will be a re-creation of Lincoln’s funeral train to Oakridge Cemetery, helped in part by descendants of his original pallbearers (May 1 to 3).在林肯总统遇刺150周年之际,华盛顿特区的福特剧院将24小时不间断重演该事件(4月14日至15日)。伊利诺伊州斯普林菲尔德将重现前往橡树山棱墓园的林肯送葬长队,这项活动得到了当年护柩员后裔们的帮助。If you like the sounds of the Avett Brothers or Bob Dylan or revel in the weathered voices of Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger or Huddie William Ledbetter, better known as Lead Belly, you owe the late Alan Lomax a thank you. And what better time than during the centennial year of his birth?如果你喜欢艾维特兄弟(Avett Brothers)或鲍勃·迪伦(Bob Dylan)的声音,或者喜欢沉浸在伍迪·格斯里(Woody Guthrie)、皮特·西格(Pete Seeger)或胡迪·威廉·莱德贝特(Huddie William Ledbetter,他更著名的称呼是“铅肚皮”[Lead Belly])沧桑的歌声中,那你要感谢已故的艾伦·洛马克斯(Alan Lomax)。在他百年诞辰之际表达谢意最合适了。An ethnomusicologist and folklorist, Lomax, with the help of his father, John Avery Lomax, traveled from swamp to mountain in the early 1930s, gathering the most diverse collection of folk music recordings ever documented. (They are available at the Library of Congress, which in 2000 named Lomax an actual “living legend.”)洛马克斯是一位民族音乐学家和民俗学家。20世纪30年代初,在父亲约翰·艾弗里·洛马克斯(John Avery Lomax)的帮助下,他走遍沼泽和山脉,收集民谣,他收集的录音是最多样化的(在美国国会图书馆可以听到他收集的录音,2000年该馆称赞洛马克斯是真正的“活着的传奇”)。Anyone who plans to attend an even borderline Americana fest this year is sure to hear him praised in tributes from SXSW in Austin to the Brooklyn Folk Festival. For a more concentrated experience, Purdue Convocations, the performing arts arm of Purdue University in Lafayette, Ind., is to host “Fieldwork: An Alan Lomax Centennial Residency,” two days of music workshops, symposiums and discussions, culminating in the Lomax Project’s performance of a few of the sea shanties, a cappella, weaver work songs, fiddle tunes and ring shouts Lomax so carefully recorded (March 27 to 28).今年计划参加各种美国传统风格音乐节的人一定会在很多活动中听到对他的赞美,从奥斯汀的西南偏南音乐节到布鲁克林民谣节。想获得更集中体验的人,可以参加印第安纳州拉斐特普渡大学表演艺术部普渡集会举办的“实地考察:艾伦·洛马克斯百年驻地创作”活动,它包括两天(3月27日至28日)的音乐讲习班、座谈会和研讨会,重头戏是洛马克斯项目组(Lomax Project)的表演,包括几首海员号子、无伴奏合唱、纺织工劳动歌曲、小提琴曲以及洛马克斯精心录制的圆圈甩抖歌舞(ringshout)。 /201501/354495。
  • Eating porridge, brown rice or corn each day could protect the heart against disease, Harvard University has found哈佛大学发现每天食用麦片粥、糙米或谷物能预防心脏疾病。A small bowl of porridge each day could be the key to a long and healthy life, after a major study by Harvard University found that whole grains reduce the risk of dying from heart disease.哈佛大学一项主要研究调查发现,每天食用一小碗麦片粥是健康长寿的关键。全谷物能降低患心脏疾病死亡的风险。Although whole grains are widely believed to be beneficial for health it is the first research to look at whether they have a long-term impact on lifespan.尽管人们普遍认为全谷物有益健康,该项研究还是首次调查全谷物对人的寿命是否有长期影响。Researchers followed more than 100,000 people for more than 14 years monitoring their diets and health outcomes.花费超过14年的时间,研究人员跟踪调查了10万以上志愿者的饮食和健康状况。Everyone involved in the study was healthy in 1984 when they enrolled, but when they were followed up in 2010 more than 26,000 had died.所有志愿者1984年加入该项研究时健康状况良好。但是在2010年的跟踪调查中,研究人员发现已有2,600人死亡。However those who ate the most whole grains, such as porridge, brown rice, corn and quinoa seemed protected from many illnesses and particularly heart disease.然而,那些食用较多全谷物的志愿者,如食用麦片粥、糙米、谷物和藜麦,似乎免受很多疾病,特别是心脏疾病的侵害。Oats are aly the breakfast of choice for many athletes and also for dieters, who find the high fibre levels give them energy for longer.燕麦,研究人员发现其含有的高纤维素能给人们提供更持久的能量,已经成为很多运动员的早餐选择,也是节食者的不二之选。But scientists found that for each ounce (28g) of whole grains eaten a day – the equivalent of a small bowl of porridge – the risk of all death was reduced by five per cent and heart deaths by 9 per cent.科学家发现每天食用每盎司(28g)全谷物—相当于一小碗麦片粥—将死亡风险降低了5%,心脏疾病造成的死亡风险降低了9%。“These findings further support current dietary guidelines that recommend increasing whole-grain consumption,” said lead author Dr Hongyu Wu of Harvard School of Public Health.“这些发现进一步持当前的饮食指南,建议多食用全谷物食品,”哈佛大学公众健康主笔作者吴宏宇士说到。“They also provide promising evidence that suggests a diet enriched with whole grains may confer benefits towards extended life expectancy.”“研究发现也提供可靠据,表明全谷物饮食可能利于健康长寿。”The findings remained even when allowing for different ages, smoking, body mass index and physical activity.甚至考虑年龄,吸烟、体质指数及物理运动因素时,该研究发现仍旧有效。Whole grains, where the bran and germ remain, contain 25 per cent more protein than refined grains, such as those that make white flour, pasta and white rice.保有原来的麸皮和胚芽的全谷物,比起用于制作白面、意大利面食和白饭的细粮,蛋白质要多出25%。Previous studies have shown that whole grains can boost bone mineral density, lower blood pressure, promote healthy gut bacteria and reduce the risk of diabetes. One particular fibre found only in oats – called beta-glucan – has been found to lower cholesterol which can help to protect against heart disease. A bioactive compound called avenanthramide is also thought to stop fat forming in the arteries, preventing heart attacks and strokes.当前研究显示全谷物能促进骨骼生长,降低血压,增加益生菌,降低患糖尿病的风险。只能在燕麦中找到的纤维素—β-葡聚糖—能降低胆固醇,预防心脏疾病。燕麦中抗氧化物,被称为avenanthramide,能防止动脉脂肪形成,减少心脏病和中风的威胁。Whole grains are also widely recommended in many dietary guidelines because they contain high levels of nutrients like zinc, copper, manganese, iron and thiamine. They are also believed to boost levels of antioxidants which combat free-radicals.全谷物营养价值高,富含锌、铜、锰、铁和维生素B1元素,能增加抗氧化物质来对抗自由基,很多饮食指南都极力推荐。The new research suggests that if more people switched to whole grains, thousands of lives could be saved each year. Coronary heart disease is Britain’s biggest killer, responsible for around 73,000 deaths in the UK each year. Around 2.3 million people are living with the condition and one in six men and one in 10 women will die from the disease.新项研究表明,如果更多的人转食全谷物,每年可能拯救成千上万的生命。冠状动脉(心脏疾病)病是英国的头号杀手,每年近7,300人死于心脏病。近2,300,000患有心冠状动脉疾病的人群中,每6名男性,每10名女性中,就有1人死于心脏疾病。Health experts said the study proved that whole grains were beneficial to health健康专家称研究明了全谷物有利健康。Victoria Taylor, Senior Dietician at the British Heart Foundation, said: “This is an interesting study and reinforces existing dietary recommendations to eat more foods high in fibre.Victoria Taylor,英国心脏协会的高级营养师称:“这是一项有趣的研究,它建议人们多食用高纤维素食品。”“People with a higher intake of whole grains also tended to have a healthier overall lifestyle and diet so it might not be the whole grains alone that are having the benefit in relation to cardiovascular disease.“摄入更多全谷物的人也趋于拥有更加健康的生活方式和饮食习惯,因此在抵御心血管疾病方面,可能不只是全谷物在做贡献。”“But at this time of year when we are all making resolutions to eat better, switching to whole-grain versions of b, breakfast cereals, pasta and rice is a simple change to make.”“此时此刻当你下决心吃好吃健康时,只需一个小小的转变,吃全谷物的面包、谷类早餐、全谷物意大利面食和米饭即可。”The research is published in the journal JAMA: Internal Medicine.该项研究发表被刊登在JAMA: Internal Medicine上。 /201501/356819。
  • It had been another long day for Eliza, a 41-year-old stay-at-home mother who lives in Los Angeles with her two sons. She had taken the boys, 10 and 13 at the time, to school, taken care of the house, and after putting them to bed, planned to relax in front of her computer.对41岁的全职妈妈伊丽莎(Eliza)来说,这又是漫长的一天。她和两个儿子住在洛杉矶。她把10岁和13岁的两个儿子送去学校,然后开始整理房间,晚上打发他们上床后,她打算在电脑前放松一会儿。At least that’s what she was hoping to do. Eliza opened her computer and started to search for a document, but based on previous searches, the term “child porn” appeared on the screen.至少,那是她的打算。伊丽莎打开电脑,开始寻找一份文件,但是基于以前的搜索,“儿童色情”这个词出现在屏幕上。“I went into a panic,” said Eliza, who was given anonymity to protect the identity of her children. Her mind started to race in a million different directions.“我吓了一跳,”伊丽莎说(为了保护孩子的身份隐私,她决定隐去姓氏)。各种念头涌进她的头脑。Two nights later, as they were going to bed, she asked the older son if he had searched for “child porn” and if so, why. “He said he was looking for porn made for children,” she told me. “He explained, embarrassed, that he just wanted to know what his body was supposed to look like at his age.”两天后,她在睡觉前问大儿子是否搜索了“儿童色情”,如果是的话,为什么要这样做。“他说自己在找给孩子看的色情片,”她说,“他尴尬地解释说,他只是想知道他这个年纪的身体应该是什么样子的。”Welcome to the new teenage years. Not long ago, boys and girls nearing that curious age might sneak a peek at Playboy or scour the underwear section of a J. C. Penney circular.欢迎来到新的青少年时代。不久前,男孩女孩们在这个好奇的年纪可能会偷看《》或者翻看杰西潘尼百货公司宣传单的内衣部分。Today, teenagers have easy access to a seemingly endless supply of pornography, including things that even many adults don’t want to see, such as mock sexual violence, misogynistic s and, in extreme cases, child pornography.如今,青少年很容易接触那些似乎无穷无尽的色情片,其中一些甚至连很多成年人都不想看,比如模拟性暴力和歧视女性的视频,极端的例子包括儿童色情片。“At first, I told my son the next time he wanted to look at things like this, to talk to me and we’d do it together,” Eliza said. “Yet as soon as the words left my mouth I realized, and said, ‘No, no, no, that would be a terrible idea.’ ”“一开始,我对儿子说下次他想看这种东西时,告诉我,我们一起看,”伊丽莎说,“但是话一出口我就觉得不对,连忙说,‘不,不,不,这个主意很糟糕。’”Parents I’ve spoken with who have young boys acknowledged that trying to stop them from seeing online pornography is all but impossible. One father, for example, said that he installed web filtering software on the home computer, only to learn that his son had watched a gross-out pornography clip at a friend’s house.我采访过一些有未成年儿子的父母们。他们承认,阻止孩子看网络色情片几乎是不可能的。比如,一位父亲说,他给家里的电脑安装了网络过滤软件,但是发现儿子在一个朋友家里看了一段令人作呕的色情片段。I spoke with researchers at the Crimes Against Children Research Center at the University of New Hampshire, who walked me through a number of long-term studies that the group has been conducting since 2000 on children’s exposure to pornography. In one paper, the group found that 42 percent of online users ages 10 to 17 had seen pornography, and that 66 percent of those had seen it unwittingly, often as display ads on file-sharing sites.我采访了新罕布什尔大学涉童罪行研究中心(Crimes Against Children Research Center)的研究员们。他们给我简要介绍了该机构从2000年起进行的一些关于儿童接触色情内容的长期研究。其中一项研究发现,在10至17岁的上网者中,有42%看过色情片,其中66%的人是在无意中看到的,通常是在文件共享网站的醒目广告中。Another study by the same university found that 93 percent of boys and 62 percent of girls were exposed to online pornography during their adolescence. You don’t need to be a scientific researcher to realize that’s a lot of exposure for children.这所大学的另一项研究发现,93%的男孩和62%的女孩在青春期看到过网络色情内容。即使不是科学研究者,你也能感觉到,对孩子们来说,这也有点太多了。For parents, this leaves two questions. First, is the pervasiveness of online pornography bad for today’s youth, potentially creating a society of sexual deviants? And second, what can parents do to help protect their children?对父母们来说,这引出了两个问题。第一,网络色情无处不在,这对如今的青少年有害吗?会导致这个社会充满性变态者吗?第二,父母们能做些什么来保护孩子?There is no definitive answer to the first question, although it is a running debate in the nation’s culture wars. For example, the 2013 movie “Don Jon,” which starred Joseph Gordon-Levitt as a man hooked on pornography, prompted a new round of anti-pornography commentary, including one from a sex therapist arguing that online pornography is severely corrupting today’s youth. “I see a sexual and relational train wreck happening,” the therapist said.第一个问题没有确切,不过它是美国文化论战中的一个长期论题。比如,在2013年的影片《唐璜》(Don Jon)中,约瑟夫·高登-李维(Joseph Gordon-Levitt)饰演一个痴迷色情片的人。该片引发了新一轮反色情,其中有一位性心理医生认为,网络色情正在严重侵蚀如今的青少年。“我看到很多人难以维持正常的性关系和亲密关系,”这位心理医生说。But other experts who monitor teenagers and sexuality say that there is plenty of evidence pointing in the opposite direction. Teenage pregnancy has dropped sharply in recent years; the number of sexual partners that teenagers have is down; and the number of ninth graders having sexual intercourse has fallen, to cite just three examples.但是其他观察青少年和性的专家说,有很多据表明情况正相反。先举三个例子:近些年,青少年怀案例急剧减少;青少年拥有性伴侣的人数减少了;发生性关系的九年级学生人数减少了。“If you just look at the indicators of sexual responsibility, you don’t see a generation of kids looking like they are off the rails,” said David Finkelhor, an author of several books on child abuse and a director of the Family Research Laboratory at the University of New Hampshire. But Dr. Finkelhor acknowledged that the long-term psychological effects of teenagers’ access to online pornography was still being determined.“如果只看和性责任相关的某些指数,你就不会觉得这一代孩子好像都误入歧途了,”大卫·芬克霍尔(David Finkelhor)说。他是新罕布什尔大学家庭研究实验室的一位主管,写过几本关于虐待儿童的书。但是芬克霍尔承认,青少年接触网络色情对心理的长期影响仍有待确定。Which leads to the second question. Dr. Finkelhor and other experts I spoke with said that today’s easy access to pornography, especially its violent and illegal forms, makes it imperative for parents to educate their children, not only about sex but specifically about online pornography, in all its flavors. And given how easy it is to find it online, it is important to inculcate them at an early age.这就引出了第二个问题。芬克霍尔以及我采访过的其他专家说,如今接触色情内容变得太过容易,特别是暴力和非法的色情内容,所以父母们必须得教育孩子,不只是关于性,还要特别就各种类型的网络色情对他们进行教育。考虑到现在很容易在网上找到色情内容,所以从很小就谆谆教诲很重要。Here’s the new reality: Thanks to the Internet, children will see things that children probably shouldn’t. Teenagers with active hormones will get together with their friends and, when parents are out of sight, seek out and explore dark and salacious imagery.新的现实情况就是这样的:因为有了互联网,孩子们会看到他们不该看到的东西。父母不在身边时,荷尔蒙分泌旺盛的青少年会和朋友们聚在一起,寻找阴暗淫荡的画面。So as uncomfortable and embarrassing as it may be for both parents and teenagers, part of raising a child today means explaining that, like Hollywood movies, pornography is often a fantasy that can take things to extremes.所以,虽然对父母和青少年来说,这让人难受、尴尬,但是如今养育孩子的部分责任是向他们说明,色情片就像好莱坞电影,往往是一种幻想,有时会比较极端。Also, children should be warned about the dark and dangerous material they may stumble across online. If parents don’t, that uncomfortable and embarrassing feeling could be replaced with something much worse.另外,应该警告孩子们,他们在网上会碰到一些阴暗危险的内容。不警告的话,倒是可以避免难受、尴尬的感觉,但取而代之的是更糟糕的情况。Take it from Eliza. The last thing you want to find on the home computer is a previous search for the term “child porn.”伊丽莎就是个例子。你在家庭电脑上最不想看到的就是历史搜素记录里有“儿童色情”的条目。 /201501/355265。
  • The first rule I taught my children when we moved to China was that green doesn’t mean “go”. Don’t walk when the green man says walk, and don’t stop when the red one says halt. I think we all found it wonderfully liberating.搬来中国后,我教孩子们的第一条规则就是绿灯不意味着“行”。绿灯亮时不要走,红灯亮时也别停。我想我们都觉得这样非常自由。China has its own rules — and they are not the ones I learnt in kindergarten. In fact, after seven years as a pedestrian and several forays as a driver, I have not yet figured out exactly what they are — but they seem to work. So you are better off making your own deal with the oncoming traffic (or any of the other challenges of living and working in China) than expecting “stop, look and listen” to apply. China has 5,000 years of history and that means 5,000 years of knowing instinctively that pedestrians have no right of way. That green man may look just like the guy in London or Los Angeles, but he is not the same. He has been localised.中国有自己的规则——和我在幼儿园学到的那些不同。实际上,在中国当了7年行人并尝试开了几次车以后,我仍然没弄明白这些规则到底是什么——但这些规则好像还挺管用。所以,面对迎面而来的车流(或者在中国生活和工作时遇到的任何其它问题),你最好还是自己看着办,别指望“停、看、听”那一套能帮到你。中国拥有5000年的历史,这就意味着5000年来人们都本能地明白行人在路上是“靠边站的”。交通灯上的绿色小人看起来或许和伦敦、洛杉矶的并无二致,但却是另一个人。他已经本地化了。So I tell my kids what I would tell anyone coming to do business in China: don’t expect rules to protect you, but don’t worry that they will thwart you either. And Tim Clissold, the British businessman whose book Mr China: A Memoir (2004) is probably the best I have ever come across about China. Now he has written another: Chinese Rules: Mao’s Dog, Deng’s Cat, and Five Timeless Lessons from the Front Lines in China ; it’s about what makes China tick — for foreigners who can clearly hear it ticking but can’t quite figure out why.所以同样的话我既告诉我的孩子们,也告诉那些来中国做生意的人们:别指望规则能保护你,但也别担心规矩会阻碍你。英国商人祈立天(Tim Clissold)的书《中国通》(Mr China: A Memoir, 2004)可能是我读过的关于中国的书中最好的一本。现在他又写了另一本书《中国规则》(Chinese Rules: Mao’s Dog, Deng’s Cat, and Five Timeless Lessons from the Front Lines in China)。这是一本有关中国运转机理的书——外国人能够明显感觉到中国运转自如,但却弄不清楚缘由。Rule one in his book is that China does not play by anyone else’s rules so stop wishing that it would. To which I would add: you can make that work for you. My children love never having to wait for the lights to change to cross the street. That is certainly one way to celebrate what others might call lawlessness.他书中第一条规则就是:中国不会按照任何别人的规则来运转,所以就不要对此抱以希望了。关于这个我想补充一句:你可以让这条规则为你所用。我的孩子们非常喜欢过马路从不用等变灯。这无疑是别人口中“无法无天”的一点好处吧。In the big picture, lawlessness has receded monumentally since we moved here in 2008. New laws, closely guided by western models, have been passed in virtually every area of business life in China, from intellectual property to competition law. But old habits die hard, and it may take decades for the habits of legality to trickle down to the average wage slave. So I still have plenty of daily opportunities to see people ignoring rules I thought were written in stone and to teach my kids how to make that work for them. Often, this happens in hotels, perhaps because “the customer is always right” is another one of those rules that China most definitely does not play by.总的来看,自我们2008年搬来中国以来,法制缺位的状况已经得到了极大改善。从知识产权到反垄断法,中国已经通过各项紧密参考西方模板的新法律,几乎覆盖到中国商业活动的每一个方面。但积习难改,可能需要几十年的时间,遵纪守法的观念才能逐渐深入老百姓心中。所以在日常生活中,我还有大把机会看到人们无视那些我原以为每个人都必须遵守的金科玉律,并教我的孩子们怎么利用这一点。这常常发生在酒店里,也许因为“顾客总是正确的”这条规则也属于在中国几乎肯定没用的规则之一吧。Recently, I took the kids to a five-star hotel for one of those quintessential parent-teen bonding excursions that involve letting them lie in a hotel Jacuzzi and order room service all day. When we got there, the hotel clerk calmly informed us that he had rented out our pre-paid room to another guest who really, really wanted to stay there.最近,我带孩子们前往一家五星级酒店,想来一个标准亲子游,让他们躺在酒店的浴缸里享受一整天的客房务。当我们抵达那里的时候,酒店前台很平静地告诉我们,他已经把我们预付过的房间给了另外一名非常非常想住在这儿的客人。Armed with my kindergarten rule book, I began to splutter about having booked through Priceline and paid with a credit card, which made it a binding contract, surely? But I didn’t know how to say Priceline in Chinese and he wasn’t having it anyway. Someone else was in our bed; that was the long and short of it.脑子里装着幼儿园里学到的规则,我气急败坏地和他理论:你开玩笑吧,用Priceline预定过了、也用信用卡付款了,难道不是就已经达成了有效合同?但是我不知道怎么用汉语说Priceline,不过反正他也不明白。总之,别人睡了我们的床,说什么都于事无补。Of course, in the end they found us a suite instead, and the kids celebrated by inviting several classmates to share the Jacuzzi and sleep over — in a room with a maximum official occupancy of two. So that is the teen version of the green man “don’t walk” rule: if the other guy breaks the rules, so can you. You may get the better end of the bargain.当然,最后他们给我们换了个套间,我的孩子们邀请了几个同学共享浴缸并且一起过夜来庆祝——尽管按规定该房间最多入住两人。于是这就成了绿灯“不通行”规则的青少年版:如果别人破坏了规矩,你也能。说不定你占的便宜还更多。Clissold’s fourth rule (I won’t tell you the others; buy the book) is that given the choice between the right result and the right rule, China will always choose pragmatism. That one has worked in my family’s favour, too: like the time when the police allowed us to license two dogs — in the same week that the law changed, making owning more than one dog illegal.祈立天的第四条规则(我不会告诉你其它规则是什么;去买书吧):在好结果和好规则之间选,中国总会选择实用主义。这一点也让我们家受益:比如有一次警察允许我们给两条上——而那个星期法律刚改,养超过一条就算违法。Being an inveterate stickler for the rules, I tried to point out to the accommodating cop that what we were doing was against the law. He indicated that, being a policeman and all, he was aware of the new law — so could I please stop looking my gift dog in the mouth and just go home.作为一名积习难改的守法者,我试着向那位好心通融的警察指出,我们这样做是违法的。他说,身为一名警察,他当然清楚新的法规——所以你就别得了便宜卖乖了,赶紧回家去吧。My message to my kids, and to anyone else who wants to live a happy life in China, is not to get hung up on rules; nobody else does. And you must ditch the kindergarten morality. It is too simple for this place.我想对我的孩子们,以及任何想在中国快乐生活的人们传达的讯息是:不要在规则上吊死;没人那么干。你必须抛开幼儿园里学到的道德观,对于这儿来说那种道德观太天真了。 /201504/368836。
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