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Fancy butch men? Then you probably live in the city: Urban life makes us more attracted to masculine males and feminine women.当今社会哪种长相对异性更有吸引力呢?是更中性化的长相还是性别特征明显的长相呢?最近有研究发现,这种人类的性选择偏好受城市化程度的影响。生活在工业化、城市化程度高的地区的人更喜欢性别特征明显的异性。In a world of supermodels and Hollywood heart throbs, it#39;s easy to assume many of us want our men to be manly and our women girlish and womanly.在这样一个超模、好莱坞影星风靡全球的时代里,我们显然会认为人们都喜欢男人更man,女人更柔。But new research suggests that, rather than being a sexual selection preference that has evolved over hundreds of years, it#39;s a relatively new habit that has only emerged in modern, urbanised societies.但是一项新的研究表明,与已经进化了上百年的性选择偏好不同,在当今这个现代化、城市化程度颇高的社会中,出现了一种相对较新的性选择偏好。A team of psychologists found that people in small-scale, more rural societies instead have a preference for more netural, or least ‘sex-typical’ features.心理学家发现生活在规模较小的乡村地区的人更喜欢长相中性化或是性别特征相对没有那么突出的人。The researchers, which also included anthropologists and biologists led by Brunel University London, surveyed 12 populations around the world, from the primitive to the highly developed.包括伦敦布鲁内尔大学的人类学家、生物学家在内的研究人员,调查了世界范围内从原住民地区到高度发达地区的12个人群。Surprisingly, only in the most industrialised and urbanised environments did people hold the well-worn opinion that highly feminine women, and highly masculine men are attractive.令人吃惊的是,结果显示,只有生活在工业化和城市化程度最高的地区的人才认为女性化特征显著的女性和男性化特征显著的男性有吸引力。Lecturer in psychology at Brunel University London, Andrew Clark, said: ‘We digitally morphed masculine and feminine faces from photographs of people to find out what choices people from small-scale societies made.在伦敦布鲁内尔大学的心理学讲座上,安德鲁·克拉克说:“我们利用电子技术变换了人们照片中男性化和女性化的面孔,为的是研究生活在规模较小的地区的人们的选择。”‘We found that they didn#39;t place the same emphasis on #39;sex typicality#39;, that is, on highly feminine women and highly masculine men.“我们发现他们并没有将选择重点放在‘性别典型性’(即女性更具女性化特征、男性更具男性化特征)上。”In fact, they often favoured the neutral face, and sometimes the least ‘sex-typical’ one.’“事实上,他们更喜欢那些中性化的面孔,有时甚至是最不具性别典型性的那张面孔。”The team also found that the perception that masculine males appear aggressive increased with urbanisation.该研究团队还发现城市化程度越高,男性化特征显著的男性会被认为越有攻击性。A total of 962 participants were shown sets of three opposite-sex composite, and digitally-manipulated photos.研究人员给962名被试呈现几组包括经电脑处理过的三张异性照片。For each set of photographs, representing different ethnic groups, participants were asked which face was most attractive and which appeared most aggressive.各组照片呈现的是不同种族的人群,被试被要求从中选出最有吸引力和看起来最有攻击性的面孔。‘This data challenges the theory that exaggerated sex-specific traits were important for social and sexual selection in ancestral environments,’ added Dr Clark.“由此得到的结果对之前的理论提出了质疑,这种理论认为在原始的环境中鲜明、突出的性别特征对社会和性别选择至关重要。”克拉克士说。‘Preferences for sex typical faces are a novel phenomenon of modern environments. It#39;s probably not a consistent th in human history.’“对性别特征显著的面孔的偏好是现代社会的一个新现象。这可能不是人类历史上始终如一的一种偏好。”The team suggest that highly developed environments with large, dense populations may have exposed individuals to a greater range of unfamiliar faces, providing the opportunity - and perhaps motive - to discover subtle relationships between facial traits and behaviour.该研究团队还表示,高度发达、人口稠密的地区可能因为能使人接触到大量的不熟悉面孔,而为人们发现面孔特征和行为之间的微妙关系提供了一种机会或者动机。The findings are published in the journal PNAS.该研究结果发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》上。 /201411/339753BEIJING (AP) — The world#39;s only survivinggiant panda triplets were doing well as they turned 100 days old Wednesday.北京(美联社)——周三,随着出生百日的到来,世界上仅存的熊猫三胞胎成长状况良好。Each weighs more than 5 kilograms (11pounds), up from just over 100 grams at birth. They started teething at around80 days old and have two small teeth each.三只熊猫宝宝的体重均超过5千克(11英镑),而刚出生时它们的体重仅超100克。大约在出生80天时,它们开始长出乳牙,现在它们都有两颗小牙齿。The cubs were born on July 29 within fourhours, the female cub first and then her brothers.7月29号,熊猫宝宝们在四小时内先后来到了世上,雌性熊猫宝宝在先,然后是她的两个弟弟。Physical exams show the cubs#39;health to beideal, said Dong Guixin, general manager of ChimelongSafari Park in Guangzhou,capital of south China#39;s Guangdong province.广州市长隆野生动物园总经理董贵信(Dong Guixin)说,体检表明三只幼崽健康状况理想。Starting Wednesday, the cubs will bedisplayed to visitors for limited times.周三开始,动物园将在限定的时间内向游客展示熊猫宝宝们。The cubs are also taking turns living withtheir mother for five-day cycles.熊猫宝宝们还将以5天一周期的方式轮流与它们的母亲住在一起。;It is imperative to help the tripletsform a good relationship with their mother and keep them in close contact. Wehope that they can live together if the cubs grow healthily,; Dong said.董说,“让三胞胎与母亲建立良好关系并保持密切关系是至关重要的。如果幼崽健康成长的话,我们希望它们可以生活在一起”。According to the park, four births of pandatriplets have been recorded, but in each of the previous instances, at leastone died due to physical defects or being underweight.据该动物园,目前有四对记录在案的熊猫三胞胎,但之前的案例中至少有一只熊猫宝宝因身体缺陷或体重不足而夭亡。The cubs haven#39;t been named, but the parkis seeking suggestions from the public.熊猫宝宝们的名字还没有定下来,动物园正向公众征集意见。 /201411/341032When scientists inadvertently killed what turned out to be the world’s oldest living creature, it was bad enough.一只被明是世界上最古老的生物被科学家不小心弄死了,这似乎已经够糟糕的了。Now, their mistake has been compounded after further research found it was even older – at 507 years.然而更糟糕的是,人们进一步研究发现,这只软体动物比人们想象的还要古老——它已经有507岁高龄。The ocean quahog - a type of deep-sea clam - was dredged alive from the bottom of the North Atlantic near Iceland in 2006 by researchers. They then put it in a freezer, as is normal practice, unaware of its age.2006年,研究者们从冰岛附近的北大西洋海底将这只海蛤——一种生活在深海中的蛤蜊——活生生的捕捞上岸。他们并不知道它如此年迈,只是按照惯例将它放在冷冻箱里。It was only when it was taken to a laboratory that scientists from Bangor University studied it and concluded it was 400 years old.直到后来它被送往实验室进行研究,这时英国班戈大学的科学家们才发现它如此长寿,科学家们断言它已经有400岁高龄了。The discovery made it into the Guinness Book of World Records however by this time, it was too late for Ming the Mollusc – named after the Chinese dynasty on the throne when its life began.Unfortunately researchers who calculated Ming’s age killed it instantly by opening its shell.这一年龄上的发现使它被载入了世界吉尼斯纪录,然而此刻,对这只被命名为“明” 的软体动物来说,一切都为时已晚。名字取自它的生命开始时中国正经历的历史朝代。不幸的是,这些推测出了“明”年龄的科学家在打开它的壳的一瞬间已经弄死了它。The researchers opened the ancient clam up to judge its age by counting growth rings inside.But the rings were so close together that scientists ended up having to count the rings on the outside to be accurate, leading CBS to point out that Ming could have lived on, had scientists just started there.为了推测它的年龄,科学家们必须数清壳内部的线圈,所以他们打开了这只年迈的贝壳。可是这只软体动物壳内部的线圈实在是太密集了,为了力求准确,最后科学家们还是不得不从壳外部来数清线圈圈数。CBS新闻记者由此说,如果科学家们一开始就决定数清壳外的线圈数,“明”或许现在还活着。Now, after examining the ocean quahog more closely, using more refined methods, the researchers have found the animal was actually 100 years older than they first thought.现在经过更精密仪器的更细致研究,科学家们发现这只海洋圆蛤实际上比他们预先设想的还要老100岁。Dr Paul Butler, from the University’s School of Ocean Sciences, said: “We got it wrong the first time and maybe we were a bit hasty publishing our findings back then. But we are absolutely certain that we’ve got the right age now.”班戈大学海洋科学学院的劳尔·巴特勒教授说:“我们一开始就估计错误,也许我们当时发表自己的研究成果过于仓促了。但是现在我们能完全确定、我们估算出了它的准确年龄。”A quahog’s shell grows by a layer every year, in the summer when the water is warmer and food is plentiful. It means that when its shell is cut in half, scientists can count the lines in a similar way trees can be dated by rings in their trunks.在每年的夏季,如果水温适宜、食物充足,蛤蛎的壳就会长出一层线圈。这意味着,如果将蛤蛎的壳剖成两半,科学家们就能够通过壳的层数推算蛤蛎的年龄,就像根据树的年轮推算树的年龄一样。The mollusc was born in 1499 – just seven years after Columbus discovered America and before Henry VIII had even married his first wife, Catherine of Aragon in 1509.这只软体动物出生于1499年——它出生的时间比哥伦布发现美洲大陆只晚了七年,甚至在英国国王亨利八世与第一任皇后阿拉贡的凯瑟琳成婚(1509年)之前。Jan Heinemeier, associate professor at the University of Denmark, who helped date Ming, told Science Nordic: “The fact alone that we got our hands on an animal that’s 507 years old is incredibly fascinating, but the really exciting thing is of course everything we can learn from studying the mollusc.”丹麦大学助理教授杨·海涅迈尔也参与了对“明”年龄的研究。他对北欧科学协会说:“我们捕到了一只507岁高龄的动物,仅这一事实就够不可思议的了。不过,最不可思议的事情当然还是我们从这只软体动物的研究中可以获知的知识。” /201311/265356Two Japanese scientists and a Japanese-American have won the 2014 Nobel Prize for Physics for inventing a new energy-efficient light source, the blue light-emitting diode (LED).两位日本科学家和一位日裔美籍科学家因发明节能的蓝色发光二极管(LED)共同获得2014年诺贝尔物理学奖。“With the advent of LED lamps we now have more long lasting and more efficient alternatives to older light sources,” the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences said in its Nobel citation.“LED灯的出现,使得我们在传统光源之外,找到了更持久、更节能的光源,”瑞典皇家科学院在宣布今年获奖名单时说。“这项发明开启了一场照明革命。 白炽灯泡照亮了20世纪,而21世纪将被LED灯照亮。”Isamu Akasaki, 85, and Hiroshi Amano, 54, of Nagoya University and Shuji Nakamura, 60, of the University of California, Santa Barbara, share the .1m prize.这三名获奖人——来自名古屋大学的85岁的赤崎勇(Isamu Akasaki)和54岁的天野浩(Hiroshi Amano),以及来自美国加州圣塔芭芭拉大学的60岁的中村修二(Shuji Nakamura)——将分享110万美元的奖金。The three men were the first to produce bright blue light from semiconductors, triggering “a fundamental transformation of lighting technology”. Red and green LEDs had been known for decades but previous attempts to make blue LEDs had failed.这三位科学家发明了从半导体中产生高亮度蓝色光的方法,带来了“光技术领域一场根本性的变革”。红色和绿色的LED光在数十年前就已出现,但蓝色LED光一直是技术难题。The laureates’ research in Japan in the early 1990s solved the problem – and opened a huge new market for LED lighting because white light can be produced by adding blue to green and red.这三位获奖者上世纪90年代初在日本的研究解决了这个难题。由于将蓝光加入绿光和红光中就能产生白光,他们的发明促成了一个巨大的LED光市场的产生。 /201410/333569

WHEN Jesus Maria Aguirre saw his coffee bushes wither away, he knew that he had lost the sole source of income for his family. “We would go to collect coffee and would come back with our baskets nearly empty, ” says the Colombian grower, recalling the pernicious effects of the “coffee rust” fungus, or roya.当赫苏斯·玛利亚·阿吉雷看到了他的咖啡树日渐枯萎时,他意识到,这下他的家庭失去了唯一的收入来源。“我们去田里采咖啡豆,结果只能篮子空空地回来。”这位哥伦比亚的种植者在回想起这种咖啡锈病真菌,或被称为“罗亚”所带来的恶性影响时这样说到。The fungus stunts the growth of the fruit of arabica coffee plants. It infected about 40% of Colombia#39;s crop between 2008 and 2012. Production plunged from a high of 12.6m 60kg bags a year in 2007 to just 7.7m bags in 2012. As supply from Colombia shrank, international buyers turned to growers elsewhere.这种真菌阻滞了阿拉比卡豆咖啡树果实的生长。在2008年至2012年间,它已经使哥伦比亚40%的作物受到了感染,产量因此由2007年的峰值1260万袋60公斤的咖啡豆暴跌至2012年的仅770万袋。随着哥伦比亚的咖啡供应量的萎缩,国际上的咖啡买家开始向其它咖啡生产地寻求供应。What Mr Aguirre went through then is now the lot of farmers throughout Central America, the Dominican Republic, southern Mexico and Jamaica. Production there fell by 30% between 2011 and 2013 because of roya, reckons the International Coffee Organisation. USAID thinks it has caused billion of economic damage in Latin America since 2012. This time Colombians are the ones taking advantage.当时阿吉雷先生所遭受的窘境现在已经席卷了中美洲、多米尼加、南墨西哥以及牙买加。据国际咖啡组织估计,由于受“罗亚”影响,这些地区的咖啡产量在2011年至2013年间已下跌了30%。美国国际开发署认为,自从2012年起,这种锈病已经导致了拉丁美洲范围内高达10亿美元的经济损失。不过这次,哥伦比亚的种植户却可以置身事外甚至因此获利。On his farm on the slopes of the country#39;s central mountain range, Mr Aguirre today presides over 1.5 hectares (4 acres) of healthy bushes plump with red berries. For yields to recover, he had to yank up fungus-prone bushes and plant a new variety that promised to fight off the blight. He was one of thousands of farmers who joined in a countrywide scheme run by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation, which represents more than 500, 000 independent growers. By June 2014 more than 3 billion bushes had been replanted.现如今,在阿吉雷先生位于哥伦比亚中部山脉山坡上的农场里,他照料着超过1.5公顷的种满红色果实的健康的咖啡树。当初为了使产量恢复,他不得不剔除了易感真菌的植株并且种植了一种据信可抗枯萎的新品种。阿吉雷先生是全国范围种植计划的数千参与者之一,这个计划是由哥伦比亚咖啡种植者联合会运作的,这个联合会代表了超过50万的独立种植户。截至2014年6月,这种新植株已重新种植了超过30亿棵。Three-quarters of them were replaced with a roya-resistant variety known as Castillo, which had been developed in the labs of Cenicafé, the coffee federation#39;s research arm, after 13 years of selective breeding. Lindsey Bolger, head coffee buyer for Keurig Green Mountain, a roaster in the ed States, said the industry was “on pins and needles” about whether the Castillo would work. It has. Colombia produced 11.5m bags in the 12 months to June 2014, up by 31% on the previous 12-month period, according to the coffee federation. Buyers are coming back.这些咖啡树中的四分之三被一种被称为“卡斯蒂罗”的 “抗罗亚”品种替代,此品种是由哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室经过13年精心选育开发出来的。林塞·尔捷,美国绿山咖啡烘焙公司的首席采购,在谈及“卡斯蒂罗”能否担任恢复产量重任时,形容咖啡产业对此是“如坐针毡”。事实上,“卡斯蒂罗”做到了。据咖啡联合会数据,截至2014年6月的12个月内,哥伦比亚出产了1150万袋咖啡豆,比上个同期的产量增长了31%。采购商们又把目光开始投回哥伦比亚。Fernando Gast, Cenicafé#39;s director, says seeds of the Castillo coffee plants have been sent to Mexico, El Salvador and Costa Rica for evaluation. But he warns that Colombia#39;s success story is not directly transferable to Central America. The Castillo variety was created for Colombia#39;s needs and may not adapt to Central America#39;s soil and climate, he says.费尔南多·加斯特,哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室主任,表示“卡斯蒂罗”的种子已被送往墨西哥、萨尔瓦多以及哥斯达黎加进行进一步评估。但是他也警告说,哥伦比亚的产业复苏经验并不可被中美洲地区直接套用。“卡斯蒂罗”品种是为了满足哥伦比亚的需求而研发生产的,所以可能并不适合在中美洲的土壤及气候环境条件下种植。Cenicafé#39;s 89 researchers cannot rest easy, either. They are working on a project to map the coffee genome. That should help them develop new varieties that will not only resist roya, which is continuously evolving, but will also be less susceptible to erratic weather. The search for a stronger brew is never over.实验室的89位研究人员们也还不能高枕无忧。他们现在正在进行一个绘制咖啡树基因谱的项目,这将有助他们培育新的变种,这种变种不仅能抵抗“罗亚”及其以后可能出现的其它变种,还能更不易受到不稳定天候影响的新品种植株。对于更优良品种的研究总会一直进行下去。 /201408/321596

Sometimes it#39;s a great challenge to realize that there#39;s no way back to your ex-boyfriend. But, after a few cocktails and a sad romantic movie, you may start analyzing and imagine different scripts. So, try not to give way to your imagination and follow these rules to forget your ex.有时候,告诉自己绝不回到前任身边可能并不容易。但是独自借酒浇愁、观看伤感的爱情片之后,你可能开始分析和想像剧情发展的另一种可能。所以尽量不要向你的假想投降,参照以下建议忘记你的前男友。1. He was a womanizer1. 他是个It#39;s one of the most significant reasons to leave him alone. You should know that being a womanizer is a constant life habit. He says he loves you, and then he gets impressed on another girl and sometimes cannot even realize that he is cheating on you. After all, a cheating guy will certainly become a cheating husband.这是离开他最重要的原因之一,你应该知道的行为方式可不是一天两天能改的。他说他爱你,然后又被另一个女生迷住,有时甚至背叛了你还没有意识到。总之,一个背叛你的男友将来也能可能会是一个背叛你的丈夫。2. Casual thing2. 轻松的事When getting older and getting used to each other, sometimes it#39;s very unusual and difficult to make changes. It seems easier to follow true schemes than to start an active search for an adequate man. Don#39;t be afraid of sitting in bars again and hoping to start a new relationship. Remember, new dates provide you a great variety of chances. The main thing is to resist your desires to return to the source of your headaches. Maybe your next date will crush all the memories about your ex-boyfriend.随着我们年龄的增长和对对方的渐渐熟悉,有时改变可能是一件不寻常并且困难的事。似乎循着原来的轨迹慢慢向前,会比重新主动出击、寻找自己的白马王子简单得多。不要对又一次坐在酒吧里等待新的恋情心生畏惧。记住,新的约会会给你带来无数的机会。最重要的是,打消你要回到那个让你头疼的人身边的念头。也许你下一个约会对象会完胜你与前男友的回忆。3. You cannot reach common goals3. 你们没有共同目标Every person has some goals in life and most couples have some mutual goals as well. It#39;s better when you are able to reach your goals together. Unfortunately, something went wrong, so you couldn#39;t be with him anymore. You are to take into account all the rules. Try not to get confused. Consider all pros and cons of your past relationship. Remember, everything happens and changes for better.人人都有自己的人生目标,许多情侣通常还会有几个共同的目标。如果你们能够一起达成目标,那么一切都会比现在好。但很不幸,事与愿违,你不能再和他在一起了。那么你真的该想想。不要迷惘,冷静下来客观地想一想,想想这段已成往事的恋情所有的的好和坏。记住,每一件事的发生和改变都是为了一个更好的未来。4. An egotist who misses you4. 一个错过你的自大狂If you dated such a hero, you might know that there#39;s no way back to your ex. Being charmed, you fall in love with him, then he wines and dines you and pays addresses. Such young men always try to get their own life in order before starting a serious relationship with a lady. They give preferences to their job and career first, and then to a committed relationship with you.如果你约会了这样一位“英雄”,那么你应该知道真的没有什么理由再回到他身边了。被他吸引之后,你们坠入爱河,然后你们一起喝酒一起吃饭,整个过程中他都彬彬有礼。这种男人在发展一段认真对待的关系之前,都会先让自己的生活步入正轨。他们会优先选择工作和事业,然后再考虑给你承诺。 /201405/297791

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