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2018年12月13日 13:58:47来源:飞管家快问

Steakhouses around the world are well-known for touting their authenticity.But this Russian restaurant went the extra mile to show off their chargrilling process by setting an entire billboard on fire.世界各地的牛排餐厅以吆喝牛排的真实性闻名。但这家俄罗斯餐厅付出了更多努力,通过点燃整个广告牌夸耀自己的炮制过程。Passers-by had spent the previous day, in November, bemused by a large photograph of a raw steak, accompanied by no branding or advertising information.But one night, a pair of men dressed in chef outfits and armed with a flamethrower set the billboard alight along eight lines, mimicking the effects of a flame-grilling.去年11月时,过路人看到一大张生牛排的照片,没有任何品牌和广告信息,这让他们觉得很困惑。但某天晚上,穿着厨师工作的两人模仿火焰烧烤的样子,手拿喷火器在广告牌上点了八列火。(Before: The billboard began its life as an otherwise unmarked photograph of a slab of beef)(点燃前:广告牌起先只是一张没有任何标记的牛肉照片)(Bringing the fire: Two men dressed as chefs used a flamethrower to set the board alight)(点火:两个厨师模样的人用喷火器点燃广告板)Though the board was only alight for a matter of seconds before the fire was extinguished, the aftermath left realistic-looking char marks along the meat - giving the illusion that it had been grilled.尽管火被扑灭前广告牌只烧了几分钟,却在牛肉上留下了逼真的痕迹——给别人留下它被烤过的错觉。Although the trails of smoke emanating from the billboard soon faded, the #39;cooked#39; piece of meat was visible to pedestrians and drivers the next day.虽然广告牌上冒的烟很快消退,但第二天行人和司机可以看见这块“熟”肉。The transformed ad also had the details of the Double Grill and Bar restaurant revealed so intrigued viewers could try out the steaks for themselves.变化后的广告牌透露了烧烤餐馆和酒吧的详细信息,感兴趣的观众可以自己去尝试牛排。(Extinguisher: After the flames had burned for a short while, the men put out the billboard using fire extinguishers)(灭火器:在火烧了一会儿后,那两人用灭火器灭了火)(Well done: After the flames had disappeared, authentic-looking whisps of smoke still drifted from the billboard)(大功告成:火焰消失后,缕缕黑烟仍从广告牌中逸出)Taking the credit: After the stunt, a panel was revealed showing the details of the restaurant(结果:炫目表演后,能看到介绍餐馆细节的广告板) /201401/272107。

  • Scientists studying why pets appear to protect kids against asthma and allergies say the answer might lie in the world of bacteria that live in the gut.科学家们研究了养宠物为何似乎能保护孩子不会患上哮喘与过敏,他们说,可能在于肠道内生活的菌群。A new study published Monday found that exposing mice to dust from households where dogs were allowed outdoors significantly changed the composition of gut microbes in the mice.周一公布的新研究发现,将老鼠暴露于准许外出的家庭产生的灰尘中,极大地改变了老鼠肠道菌群的成分。When the mice were then challenged with some well-known allergy triggers, they had significantly reduced allergic responses compared with mice that had been exposed to dust from homes without dogs or that weren#39;t exposed to any dust.随后这些老鼠被注射了一些有名的过敏触发物,相比那些暴露于无家庭灰尘或是未暴露于灰尘中的老鼠,这些老鼠的过敏反应大大减小。Having dogs in the house #39;might inoculate the GI tract#39; of babies and lead to a more mature immune response that is less sensitive to many allergens, said Susan Lynch, an associate professor in the division of gastroenterology at University of California, San Francisco and senior author of the study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.加州大学旧金山分校(University of California, San Francisco)肠胃病学副教授、上述研究的资深作者林奇(Susan Lynch)说,在家中养可能对婴儿胃肠道起到接种作用,导致更为成熟的免疫反应,对许多过敏原较不敏感。上述研究发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)。#39;We develop this great diversity of organisms [in the gut] over the first couple of years of life,#39; Dr. Lynch said. The gastrointestinal microbiome is the subject of a growing body of research showing the bacteria play key roles in metabolism, immunity and a variety of other biological processes.林奇说,我们在一生中最初的几年就在肠道中建立了这种极为多样化的生物群落。胃肠道微生物群正成为越来越多的研究机构的研究对象,这些研究显示出,细菌在新陈代谢、免疫和多种生物过程中都扮演着关键角色。While the study looked at mice, Dr. Lynch said the findings are consistent with previous research based on human observations and are likely to apply to people.虽然上述研究考察的是老鼠的情况,但林奇说,相关结果与此前基于人类观察的研究一致,并有可能适用于人类。The new study identified one specific species of bacteria, Lactobacillus johnsonii, that was strongly linked to protection against allergic responses. When isolated from the gut of one group of mice and put into the intestinal tract of other mice, #39;those mice were protected,#39; Dr. Lynch said. #39;The immune response was significantly reduced in those animals and they looked healthier.#39;新的研究识别出了一种名为约氏乳酸杆菌(Lactobacillus johnsonii)的细菌,其与防止过敏反应存在很强的关联。林奇说,从一组老鼠的肠道中分离出这种细菌并植入另外的老鼠肠道后,被植入细菌的老鼠就获得了过敏保护。这些动物身上的免疫反应极大地降低了,它们看起来更为健康。But they weren#39;t as well-protected as mice with a more-diversified microbiome, suggesting other such organisms in the microbiome affect immune response.但它们受到保护的程度不如有着更多样化菌群的老鼠,这表明菌群中还有其他类似生物影响着免疫反应。Dr. Lynch and her colleagues, including researchers at the University of Michigan; the Henry Ford Health System, Detroit; and the Georgia Regents University, Augusta, are shifting the research to people. The aim is to develop probiotics or #39;microbial based therapies#39; that might be used to prevent or treat asthma and allergies, Dr. Lynch said.林奇与密歇根大学(University of Michigan)、底特律亨利#12539;福特卫生系统(Henry Ford Health System)以及奥古斯塔Georgia Regents University的研究人员正将这项研究转向人体。林奇说,研究的目标是开发出基于益生菌或微生物的疗法,可能用于防止或治疗哮喘和过敏。The study was funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health.这项研究由美国国家健康研究院(National Institutes of Health)下属的美国国家过敏症和传染病研究所(National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases)资助。 /201312/269479。
  • So many things come down to connections -- especially the ones in your brain.很多事情归根结底都是连接――尤其是你大脑中的那些神经。Women and men display distinctive differences in how nerve fibers connect various regions of their brains, according to a half-dozen recent studies that highlight gender variation in the brain#39;s wiring diagram. There are trillions of these critical connections, and they are shaped by the interplay of heredity, experience and biochemistry.近来,有半打之多的研究着重探索了大脑接线图中的性别差异。这些研究表明,在神经纤维如何连接大脑各个区域方面,男性和女性显得截然不同。人脑中遍布着上万亿这样的关键连接,而遗传因素、人生经历和生物化学的相互影响、相互作用又塑造了这些连接的形成。No one knows how gender variations in brain wiring might translate into thought and behavior -- whether they might influence the way men and women generally perceive reality, process information, form judgments and behave socially -- but they are sparking controversy.目前尚不清楚,大脑连接中的性别差异可能会如何传导至人们的言行中――它们是否可能会影响一般男性与女性解读现实、处理信息、社交行为和形成判断的方式――但它们现在却引发了争议。#39;It certainly is incendiary,#39; said Paul Thompson, a professor of neurology and director of the University of Southern California#39;s Imaging Genetics Center. He is directing an effort to assemble a database of 26,000 brain scans from 20 countries to cross-check neuroimaging findings. #39;People who look at findings about sex differences are excited or enraged,#39; he said.南加州大学(University of Southern California)基因影像学中心(Imaging Genetics Center)负责人、神经学教授保罗#12539;汤普森(Paul Thompson)说:“那肯定会点燃争议的导火索。”为了反复核对神经影像学的研究成果,汤普森正带头致力于组建一个数据库,该数据库将包含26,000份来自20个国家的脑部扫描资料。他说:“那些查看有关性别差异研究成果的人,有些兴奋不已,有些则忿怒填胸。”Researchers are looking at the variations to explain the different ways men and women respond to health issues ranging from autism, which is more common among men, and multiple sclerosis, which is more common among women, to strokes, aging and depression. #39;We have to find the differences first before we can try to understand them,#39; said Neda Jahanshad, a neurologist at USC who led the research while at the University of California, Los Angeles.研究人员正在查看这些变化以解释男性和女性对健康问题的不同反应方式。这些问题包括从在男性中更常见的孤独症到女性中更常见的多发性硬化症、再到中风、衰老和抑郁症。南加州大学(USC)神经病学家妮达#12539;扎哈沙德(Neda Jahanshad)在加州大学洛杉矶分校(the University of California, Los Angeles) 带领团队完成了上述研究,她说:“在我们试着弄清这些问题之前,我们得先找到它们的区别。”Dr. Jahanshad and her UCLA collaborators conducted a 2011 brain-imaging study of healthy twins, including 147 women and 87 men, to trace connections in the brain. She discovered #39;significant#39; sex differences in areas of the brain#39;s frontal lobe, which is associated with self-control, speech and decision-making.2011年,扎哈沙德与她在加州大学洛杉矶分校的同仁们进行了一项针对健康双胞胎的脑成像研究以追踪大脑中的连接情况,该研究共涉及147名女性和87名男性。她后来发现,在人脑额叶区中存在着“显著”的性别差异,该区域与自控力、决策力和演讲能力都息息相关。In the most comprehensive study so far, scientists led by biomedical analyst Ragini Verma at the University of Pennsylvania found the myriad connections between important parts of the brain developed differently in girls and boys as they grow, resulting in different patterns of brain connections among young women and young men.在目前为止最全面的一项研究中,以宾夕法尼亚大学(the University of Pennsylvania)生物医学分析专家拉吉尼#12539;维尔马(Ragini Verma)为首的科学家们发现,大脑重要部位之间的诸多连接随着男孩、女孩的成长而演化出差异,导致年轻女性和男性的脑内连接模式不同。The team imaged the brains of 949 healthy young people, 521 females and 428 males, ranging in age from 8 to 22. Like Dr. Jahanshad#39;s team, Dr. Verma employed a technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging to trace how water molecules align along the brain#39;s white-matter nerve fibers, which form the physical scaffolding of thought. The study was reported earlier this month in the journal the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.该团队对949名健康的年轻人进行了脑成像扫描,其中包括521名女性和428名男性,他们的年龄从8到22岁不等。同扎哈沙德的团队一样,维尔马也采用了一种名为“弥散张量成像(Diffusion Tensor Imaging)”的技术来追踪水分子是如何同脑白质神经纤维相应移动的,这形成了该想法的理论框架。这一研究于本月早些时候发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上。The neural patterns emerged only when combining results from hundreds of people, experts said. In any one person, gender patterns may be subsumed by the individual variations in brain shape and structure that help make every person unique.专家们称,只有将来自成百上千人的结果归纳结合起来看时,才会出现上述的神经模式。在任何某一个人身上,性别模式可能会被归为大脑结构和形态方面的个体差异,这些个体差异会使每个人都显得独一无二。Dr. Verma#39;s maps of neural circuitry document the brain at moments when it is in a fury of creation. Starting in infancy, the brain normally produces neurons at a rate of half a million a minute, and reaches out to make connections two million times a second. By age 5, brain size on average has grown to about 90% of adult size. By age 20, the average brain is packed with about 109,000 miles of white matter tissue fibers, according to a 2003 Danish study reported in the Journal of Comparative Neurology.在创造思潮难抑之时,维尔马的神经回路图会即时记录下大脑的情况。据2003年发表在《比较神经外科学杂志》(Journal of Comparative Neurology)上的一项丹麦研究表明,从婴儿时期开始,人脑通常就会以每分钟50万个的速度长出神经元,并以每秒钟200万次的速度伸展、形成连接。到了五岁的时候,大脑的尺寸一般会长到成年人脑的90%。到了20岁的时候,平均而言,大脑中会布满长达109,000英里(约合175,418千米)的白质组织纤维。Spurred by the effects of diet, experience and biochemistry, neurons and synapses are ruthlessly pruned, starting in childhood. The winnowing continues in fits and starts throughout adolescence, then picks up again in middle age. #39;In childhood, we did not see much difference#39; between male and female, Dr. Verma said. #39;Most of the changes we see start happening in adolescence. That is when most of the male-female differences come about.#39;在饮食习惯、生活经历和生物化学的影响刺激下,神经元与突触从童年时期就开始被无情地修剪。这场筛选一阵一阵地继续,然后开始贯穿整个青春期。维尔马说:“童年时期,我们在男孩女孩身上看不到太多的差别。我们看到的大多数变化都发生在青春期。也就是那个时候,男女之间的大多数差别显现出来了。”Broadly speaking, women in their 20s had more connections between the two brain hemispheres while men of the same age had more connective fibers within each hemisphere. #39;Women are mostly better connected left-to-right and right-to-left across the two brain hemispheres,#39; Dr. Verma said. #39;Men are better connected within each hemisphere and from back-to-front.#39;从广义上说,女性在20岁时左右脑之间的连接更多,而同龄的男性则是左、右脑各自内部的连接纤维更多。维尔马称:“女性大脑两个半球之间无论是从左至右、还是从右至左的连接都更好些。男性则是左、右脑各自内部的连接和后脑到前脑的连接更佳。”That suggests women might be better wired for multitasking and analytical thought, which require coordination of activity in both hemispheres. Men, in turn, may be better wired for more-focused tasks that require attention to one thing a time. But the researchers cautioned such conclusions are speculative.这就表明了女性可能在完成多重任务和分析思维方面更出色,而这需要左右脑之间的协作活动。反过来,男性可能在集中思维方面更为出色,这需要他们将注意力一次只放在一件事情上。但研究人员谨慎表示,这些结论都是推测性的,并非定论。Experts also cautioned that subtle gender differences in connections can be thrown off by normal disparities in brain size between men and women and in the density of brain tissue. Other factors, such as whether one is left- or right-handed, also affect brain structure.专家们还警告称,连接方面微小的性别差异会被当成男女大脑尺寸及脑组织密度方面的正常差异而被摒弃。其他一些因素,如一个人是不是左撇子或右撇子,也会影响大脑结构。Also affecting results are differences in how computer calculations are carried out from one lab to the next. #39;With neuroimaging, there are so many ways to process the data that when you do process things differently and get the same result, it is fantastic,#39; Dr. Jahanshad said.影响结果的还有:从这个实验室到下个实验室,这其中如何进行电脑运算。扎哈沙德说:“关于神经影像,有很多方式都能用来处理其相关数据,所以当你使用不同的方法处理数据还能得到相同的结果时,那简直不可思议。” /201312/270228。
  • WOULD you believe us if we told you thatthese stunning paintings were done by someone using just her MOUTH?如果我们告诉你这些惊人的艺术作品完全是借助嘴巴创作出来的,你会相信吗?Talented Zuly Sanguino was born withoutfully-formed limbs and loves to paint the likes of animals, flowers andlandscapes颇具天赋的ZulySanguino生来四肢发育不全,她喜欢描画动物、花朵和风景此类事物。The 24-year-old first picked up apaintbrush when she was just a toddler and taught herself this very uniquetechnique.现年24岁的她是在蹒跚学步时首次衔笔作画的,她自学了这种非常独特的技术。Born in Bogotain Columbia,Zuly was inspired to be creative by her family - mum Guillermina, brotherEfrain and sister Nyx - who also enjoy painting.Zuly出生在哥伦比亚的波哥大,家人启发了她的创造力——母亲吉列米娜(Guillermina)、哥哥埃弗拉因(Efrain)和尼克斯(Nyx)——他们也喜欢画画。Her family live in poverty, so her motherwas determined to teach her how to sit upright so she wouldn#39;t spend too muchtime on dirty floors.由于家庭贫困,所以她的母亲决心教她坐直,这样她就不会经常躺在脏地板上。Zuly claims that she was often bullied byclassmates and even teachers because of her disability, but this only fed theyoung artist#39;s ambition.Zuly称,她经常因为残疾被同班同学甚至老师欺负,但这只会助长这位年轻艺术家的雄心。However, her love of art also comes with aprice, as painting for long periods of time can cause Zuly pain in her neck,jaw and back.但是,伴随对艺术的热爱而来的是代价,因为长时间画画会导致她的背部、颈部和下巴疼痛。She enjoys sharing her story throughmotivational speeches in hope that she can show people anything is possible.她喜欢通过励志演讲同大家分享自己的故事,希望借此告诉人们一切皆有可能。She said: ;I have my words and I havemy art - I want to show people you can do whatever you want, even me as a womanwithout limbs.她说:“通过我的语言和艺术作品——我想告诉人们你可以做成任何你想做的事情,即使是像我这样一位四肢不全的女性”。;It#39;s a big physical and mental effortto paint as there is pain in my neck, jaw and back while holding the brush.“由于衔笔会给我的颈部、下巴和背部带来疼痛,画画需要付出巨大的身心努力”。;But in my artistic life, these issuesdo not outweigh my desire to create and prove to myself that I can do it.;“但在我的艺术生活中,这些问题都无法压过我要创作以及向自己明我可以做到这一切的欲望”。 /201407/316129。
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