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嘉兴鼻基底手术费用飞管家权威医院

2017年12月13日 16:58:22 | 作者:飞度管家永州新闻 | 来源:新华社
So you made lasagna last night, and it was delicious.你昨晚做了千层面,之后享用了一顿大餐。You saved the leftovers by wrapping aluminum foil over the top of the pan, and putting it in the fridge.大快朵颐之后,你将剩下的千层面用铝箔纸包好放入冰箱中。When you get hungry today, you go to look for that lasagna, but it looks like the lasagna was getting hungry too!今天你饿的时候,便去拿昨天吃剩的千层面,但是你会发现千层面似乎也饿了!Its eaten tiny holes in the aluminum foil that was covering it.包裹它的铝箔纸上出现了一个个的小洞,好像被咬过一样。Why does this happen?为什么会这样呢?A listener asked this question and well find the answer on todays moment of science.一位听众问到了这个问题,我们将在今天的科学一刻中为你解答。There are really two things responsible for those holes in the aluminum foil: the acidic nature ofthe lasagna and some curious properties of aluminum.铝箔上出现这些洞有两个原因:一个是千层面本身具有酸性,另一个就是铝具有一些非常奇特的属性。Lasagna gets most of its acid from the tomatoes in its sauce.千层面的酸性主要是来自酱汁中的番茄酱。Almost everything you eat is at leastslightly acidic, but tomatoes are especially so.几乎你吃的每样东西都会至少呈轻微酸性,而番茄的酸性尤为明显。This acid wouldnt be a problem for a glasscontainer, or stainless steel, or plastic wrap, or for most of the materials we use to store andprepare food.这种酸对玻璃容器,不锈钢,塑料袋或大多数我们用于储藏和准备食物所用的材料都不会产生任何影响。Aluminum, though, is especially vulnerable to acid.但铝却非常容易受到酸的侵蚀。Heres why.这就是原因。Most metals form a protective layer on their surface called an oxide layer.大多数金属会在表面生成一种叫做氧化层的保护膜。Aluminum forms an oxide layer too, but it is very thin, allowing the tomatos acid to easily break through.铝金属也会形成氧化层,但是这层膜很薄,番茄中的酸能轻易腐蚀透。This lets the tomato sauce dissolve the aluminum, and it creates grey or black chemicalson top of the lasagna that taste very bad.由此番茄酱就会溶解铝,在千层面上产生一种灰色或黑色的化学物质,会使千层面变得非常难吃。The same thing can happen if you use aluminum cookware for acidic sauces.如果用铝制厨具来做酸味儿酱料,也会发生相同的情况。Sauce made in an aluminum pot will be grayer and not as tasty as sauce made in other cookware.铝制锅所做的酱料颜色看起来会更灰些,吃起来也不如其他厨具所做的酱料味道好。 201403/282540

Hobby Lobby好必来Believe it or not信不信由你The Supreme Court sides with religious firms against Obamacare最高法院持宗教性质公司反对奥巴马医改TWO years ago the Supreme Court upheld the Affordable Care Act, better known as Obamacare. A decision on June 30th was less favourable. The Court allowed an exception to Obamacares mandate that firms above a certain size offer their staff insurance that includes free contraception. Rarely has a decision provoked such controversy. Hillary Clinton called it “deeply disturbing” , though her husband signed the law that underpins it.两年前最高法院持平价医疗法案,也就是广为人知的奥巴马医改。6月30号的一个决议不是那么顺利。奥巴马医改要求一定规模以上的公司需要给员工提供包括免费避在内的保险,而法院允许了一项例外情况。很少有某项决议能引起如此激烈的论战。希拉里·克林顿称它“让人非常困扰”,尽管她的丈夫签署了持它的法律。The case, Burwell v Hobby Lobby Stores, Inc, was brought by two Christian families and their businesses. The Greens own Hobby Lobby, a chain of craft shops, and Mardel, a Christian bookstore; the Hahns own Conestoga Wood Specialties, a cabinetmaker. Obamacare requires firms to offer their workers all contraceptives approved by the Food and Drug Administration. The Greens and Hahns believe that four of those contraceptives, including the “morning-after pill”, are abortifacients, since they may keep a fertilised egg from implanting in the uterine wall.伯韦尔好必来有限公司的案例是由两个基督教家庭和他们的生意引发的。格林家族拥有好必来连锁工艺品店,和马代尔基督教书店;哈恩家族拥有康那斯多格木材专家家具制造。奥巴马医改要求公司为他们员工提供食品和药物批准的所有避用品。格林家族和哈恩家族认为这些避用品的中的四种,包括“事后避药”是堕胎药,因为它们会导致受精卵不能进入子宫壁。The issue was not whether these highly debatable beliefs are valid, but the circumstances under which a religious objection may trump a federal law. The constitution protects the right to the “free exercise” of religion. A 1993 law, the Religious Freedom Restoration Act, further requires that the government “shall not substantially burden a persons exercise of religion” unless doing so is the least restrictive way to advance a compelling government interest. By five votes to four, the court ruled that obliging closely held firms with religious owners to pay for their employees contraceptives violates that principle.问题不是这些具有高度争议性的信仰是否有效,而是宗教异议可能会胜过联邦法律这种情况。宪法保护宗教“自由活动”的权利。1993年的一部法律宗教自由恢复法案进一步要求政府“实质上不应该干扰某个人的宗教活动”,除非这是促进强力政府利益约束最少的方法。法院以五对四的票数进行了裁决,认为强制有信仰宗教所有者的寡头控股公司为他们的员工付避用品违反了该原则。The government had argued that Hobby Lobby could not claim to have religious beliefs because it is a for-profit corporation. “While the Greens are persons who exercise religion, there is a critical separation between the Greens and the corporation they have elected to create,” the governments lawyers insisted. A company has rights and obligations that differ from those of its owners. That includes being subject to Obamacares employer mandate, they argued.政府争辩说好必来不能要求有宗教信仰,因为他是一个以营利为目的的公司。“虽然格林家族是信仰宗教的家族,但他们家族和他们创建的公司之间有着很重要的区别,”政府的律师团坚称。公司有权利也有义务将这些与他们的所有者们区分开来。这包括从奥巴马医改的雇主付令,他们争辩说。The courts conservative justices disagreed. “Protecting the free-exercise rights of corporations like Hobby Lobby, Conestoga and Mardel protects the religious liberty of the humans who own and control these companies,” wrote Justice Samuel Alito. If Hobby Lobby refused to cover the four contraceptives, it faced fines of up to 475m a year, which Mr Alito said clearly counted as a “substantial burden”. And the government had other, less onerous ways to provide contraception, he argued. For example, it could pay for contraception itself or include for-profit companies in an “accommodation” aly made for non-profit religious organisations, such as Catholic universities. Under that accommodation, insurers cover the cost of contraception, without raising prices for employers or their workers.法院的保守派法官们不同意这种说法。“保护像好必来、康纳斯多格和马代尔这种公司的宗教自由权就是保护拥有及管控这些公司的所有人的宗教自由,”法官塞缪尔·阿利托写道。如果好必来拒绝覆盖这四种避用品,它将面临一年4.75亿美元的罚款,而阿利托很明确地将其看做是一个“巨大的负担”。政府有其它不那么麻烦的方法来提供避用品,他争辩说。例如,它可以自己付避用品或者将以营利为目的的公司包括进一个为非盈利宗教团体如天主教大学建立的“膳宿”体制中。在这种“膳宿”体制下,保险公司承担避用品的费用,不用增加雇主或者员工的费用。Mr Alito insisted that the ruling was a narrow one, applying only to closely held firms under very specific circumstances. It is unclear how the government will now ensure that women with religious employers obtain free contraception. The “accommodation” may not be viable; its legality is being challenged by separate suits. Some women may have to pay for their own contraceptives.阿利托坚称该裁决很狭隘,仅适用于特殊情况下的寡头控股公司。政府如今是如何确保有宗教信仰的雇主雇佣的妇女获得免费避用品尚未明确。“膳宿”体制并不可行;它的合法性受到了单独讼案的挑战。一些妇女不得不自己付避用品。The ruling could make it harder to enforce the Obamacare mandate that employers offer health insurance. Many firms are “closely held”, including some that employ tens of thousands of workers. These companies may now seek exemptions from other parts of the mandate.该裁决会使奥巴马医改所要求的雇主提供健康保险的实施变得更加困难。许多公司都是“寡头控股”,包括一些雇佣了数以万计员工的公司。这些公司如今可能会寻求该命令其它部分的豁免。On July 1st the Supreme Court ordered lower courts to revisit objections to a broader set of contraceptives, in addition to the four raised by Hobby Lobby. In future, companies might challenge Obamacares mandate to cover immunisations, blood transfusions or medicines derived from pigs, though none has yet done so. In dissent, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg said the decision was of “startling bth”. Companies, she wrote, “can opt out of any law they judge incompatible with their sincerely held religious beliefs.”最高法院于7月1号命令低级法院重温对更广范围内避物品的异议,除了好必来提出的四种物品。未来公司可能会挑战奥巴马医改对于覆盖免疫法、输血或来源于猪的药物的命令,尽管这些都尚未实行。而法官露丝·金斯伯格对此抱有异议,称该决定“幅度之广令人吃惊”。公司,她写道,“可以决定不遵守除了税法之外的任何法律,只要他们认为这与他们虔诚持有的宗教信仰互不相容。” /201407/310272

Science and technology科学技术Quieter traffic更安静的交通When the rubber hits the road当橡胶遇上公路Turning old tyres into new roads can help cut noise pollution把旧轮胎建成新式道路可以减少噪音污染AROUND one heart attack in 50 in rich European countries is caused by chronic exposure to loud traffic, according to the World Health Organisation.据世界卫生组织报道,在欧洲发达国家中,平均每50个人就会有一个由于持续暴露在交通噪音中而患上心脏病。The ill-effects of noise pollution in such countries are second only to those from dirty air, says the WHO. Long-term exposure can cause hormonal imbalances as well as mental-health problems.WHO还说,在这些国家,噪音污染产生的不良反应仅次于空气污染,长期暴露不仅会造成激素失调,还会引发精神问题。Roadside barriers can help dampen the racket, but they are expensive—up to 0,000 per kilometre—and they often serve as magnets for graffiti.路边声屏障可以减少喧嚣,但它们太贵了——每公里高达60万美元,而且很容易变成乱涂乱画的场所,Besides, they work less well on windy days and are impractical along city streets. Happily, there is another option.此外,它们在多风的时候效果并不好,更何况在城市街道边安装也不大现实。幸运的是,我们还有其他选择。By adding rubber “crumbs”, reclaimed from shredded tyres, to the bitumen and crushed stone used to make asphalt, engineers are designing quieter streets.在沥青和碎石里添加从轮胎碎片中回收的废胶末,再铺成柏油路,这样工程师可以设计出更加安静的街道。First used experimentally in the 1960s, this rubberised, softer asphalt cuts traffic noise by around 25%.第一条试验性道路出现在20世纪60年代,这种加入橡胶而变得更柔软的柏油路可以减少约25%的噪音,Even better, it also lasts longer than the normal sort.更棒的是它的寿命比普通路面更加持久。Not surprisingly, rubberised asphalt is catching on.参入橡胶的柏油路渐渐变得流行起来,Enough tyres are recycled in America each year to produce 20,000 lane-miles of the stuff, enough to re-pave about 0.5% of Americas roads, according to Liberty Tyre Recycling, a Pittsburgh firm that handles around a third of Americas recycled tyres.这并不奇怪,根据自由轮胎回收公司的说法,美国每年回收的轮胎足够修建2万英里的橡胶柏油路,足够重新铺设美国0.5%的公路。Rubber roads are also popular in China, Brazil, Spain and Germany.在中国、巴西、西班牙和德国,这种橡胶路同样非常流行,Their popularity could sp further, since it is now possible to make rubberised asphalt less expensively than the traditional sort.由于现在可以把橡胶柏油路的成本控制得比传统路面还低,所以这种趋势会越来越流行。That is because rubber can partially replace bitumen, the binding agent used to hold the crushed stones together in ordinary asphalt.由于橡胶会部分替代沥青,在传统柏油里面,沥青这种粘合剂的作用是把碎石裹在一起,Bitumen is derived from oil, which means its price has risen over the past decade alongside that of crude oil.而沥青源于石油,这意味着过去十年其价格随着原油价格的上涨而增加,Discarded tyres, by contrast, are cheap and are likely to get cheaper.相比之下,那些废弃的轮胎不仅便宜,In rich countries, around one tyre is thrown away per person per year.而且会变得越来越便宜。在发达国家,平均每人每年都要扔掉一个轮胎,They are piling up especially quickly in Europe, where dumping them into landfills was banned in 2006.轮胎的累积在欧洲特别迅速,因为2006年欧洲禁止把它们倒入垃圾堆。Rubberised asphalt keeps the noise down in a couple of ways.橡胶柏油能减小噪音的两个原因如下:Pores between the stones in standard asphalt must be small, because if the gaps are too big the bitumen binding cannot do its job properly.在标准柏油里,碎石之间的气孔必须很小,如果缝隙太大,沥青就不能正常约束碎石,Adding rubber thickens the bitumen.橡胶的加入可以使沥青变厚,That allows bigger pores, which help to trap and disperse sound waves.允许更大的气孔存在,这样就有助于捕获和分散声波;The rubberised bitumen itself is flexible and slightly springy, which enables it to absorb more unwanted sonic energy.而参入了橡胶的沥青本身也具有柔韧性和轻微的弹性,这可以使它吸收更多讨厌的音波能量。Shredded tyres are not the last word in exotic road toppings.轮胎碎片并不是最新式的道路添加物,A substance called PERS, or poro-elastic road surfacing, is being developed with a mix of private and public money in the European Union.欧盟依靠公共资金和私人资金开发了一种叫PERS东西,It is made from a blend of crushed rock, rubber and polyurethane, a synthetic plastic that replaces bitumen as the binding agent and allows even bigger pores in the road surface.它由碎石、橡胶和聚氨酯制成,人造塑胶聚氨酯可以代替沥青,因为这种粘合剂可以允许更大的气孔存在于路面。PERS is not cheap, costing around five times as much as rubberised asphalt.PERS并不便宜,其成本几乎是橡胶柏油的5倍,But you get what you pay for:但这完全物有所值,tests suggest it can cut road noise in half.据Luc Goubert测算,在一些特别吵闹的地方可以减少一半的噪音。In some particularly noisy areas, reckons Luc Goubert, who is co-ordinating the PERS project at the Belgian Road Research Centre in Brussels, the resulting boost to property values—and, therefore, land taxes—could help cover the cost.这个结果也推动了周边的房产价格—所以地税或许可以帮助抵消掉成本。 /201307/249188

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