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2018年09月22日 15:55:36 | 作者:飞度【快速问医生】 | 来源:新华社
IBM and SAP plan to announce on Tuesday that they will partner to offer cloud computing services to companies.Specifically, IBM IBM 0.15% will provide cloud infrastructure services to SAP, which will run its business applications—collectively dubbed the HANA Enterprise Cloud—on top of them.For IBM, it’s the second megawatt deal of the year with a technology industry peer as it continues to stake ground through large cloud computing partnerships. In July, it announced it would partner with AppleAAPL -1.06% to sell phones and tablets (and related applications and services) to business customers.For SAP, it’s an acceleration of an existing strategy to offer its applications worldwide—and a small concession that the data center buildout it recently completed wasn’t sufficient to meet its larger goal.“SAP has really morphed as a company to a cloud application and platform company,” says Kevin Ichhpurani, SAP’s head of business development. “Our goal is to be the cloud company powered by HANA.”Walldorf, Germany-based SAP, the largest software company in Europe, sees a partnership with its American counterpart as a way to outrun rivals like Oracle ORCL 0.60% , which has chosen to build its own network of data centers, in the race to get businesses to adopt cloud applications. For SAP, that includes SuccessFactors (for human capital management), Ariba (for procurement), and soon, Concur (for travel and expenses). There are currently about 4,000 HANA customers, Ichhpurani says, and eleven times as many companies running SAP’s business software suite.“We needed to really build global scale instantaneously,” Ichhpurani says. “IBM has announced that they’ll get to 40 data centers in the year. That’s really attractive to us.”The deal comes at a significant turning point for the information technology departments of major companies. For years, data resided on servers that the company owned and operated within its own facilities, referred to as “on premise.” With the rise of cloud computing, that data began to migrate to servers owned and operated by third-party providers (such as IBM or Amazon) but rented by the company in question. The appeal? Lower cost at scale and flexibility as software has transformed into a service you access anytime on the Internet rather than a program you launch from a local computer.The answer for many companies is increasingly the “hybrid cloud,” where some data resides locally and other data lives in the cloud. Firms that have been reluctant to move their data to the cloud have begun to do so. Companies that once saw the cloud as fit only for evaluating software in development—for “testing environments”—now see it suitable for hosting the real deal, referred to as “production environments.” Armonk, N.Y.-based IBM, through its SoftLayer business, wants to be there to meet that need, says Erich Clementi, the leader of IBM’s Global Technology Services group.“We’ve seen a massive uptick in terms of demand,” he says. “The desire now for customers to move their production landscapes to the cloud, that appetite, is growing exponentially.”IBM deeply desires to be the preferred cloud platform for the enterprise, Clementi says. Doing a deal with SAP is both logical—IBM says it is the largest SAP practice in the world—and appealing in terms of generating additional business. “SAP attracts a whole host of other connected applications, services, integrations,” Clementi says. “For us, gaining critical mass and credibility for enterprise production is paramount. Over time, more and more services are going to be delivered in a cloud manner. I think the enterprises will watch and see—and I think this deal makes it credible.”“We can be the handshake,” Clementi adds. Ichhpurani puts it another way: “A single throat to choke.”IBM和SAP近日宣布,双方将合作,携手向企业提供云计算务。其中,IBM将向SAP提供云基础架构务,而SAP则将使用IBM的基础架构运行HANA企业云应用。对于IBM来说,这也是它今年第二次与科技行业的重量级企业在云计算领域进行合作。今年7月,IBM宣布将与苹果公司(Apple)合作,向企业客户销售手机和平板电脑(以及相关应用与务)。对于SAP来说,与IBM的结盟有利于助推其现有应用的全球销售。同时也等于承认了它最近才建设完成的数据中心还不足以满足公司的宏伟蓝图。SAP的商务拓展负责人凯文伊克普拉尼指出:“SAP已经确实转变成一家云应用和云平台公司。我们的目标是成为一家以HANA驱动的云公司。”SAP公司总部位于德国的瓦尔多夫,它是欧洲最大的软件公司,与IBM的合作也是它领先甲骨文(Oracle)等竞争对手的一种方式。相比之下,甲骨文公司为了吸引企业选择自家的云应用而自行建设了一个数据中心网络。目前SAP已经收购了SuccessFactors(人力资本管理应用)、Ariba(采购应用),对Concur(差旅及报销管理应用)的收购很快也将完成。伊克普拉尼指出,HANA企业云现在已经拥有大约4000名客户,而运行SAP企业软件套装的公司大约有11倍之多。伊克普拉尼表示:“我们需要快速建立起全球级的规模,IBM宣布他们的数据中心今年将达到40个,这对我们非常有吸引力。”目前,各大公司的IT部门正好也到达了一个拐点。多年以来,数据一直存储在企业拥有的务器上,在企业内部运作,所以又叫“内部务器”。随着云计算的兴起,数据开始转移到第三方供应商,如IBM或亚马逊(Amazon)提供并运营的务器上,在规模效应下,大大降低了数据成本。同时由于软件不再是电脑上的一个程序,而是变成了一种可以随时在互联网上读取的务,因此也提高了应用的灵活性。目前,许多公司越来越青睐所谓的“混合云”,也就是部分数据存储在本地电脑上,部分数据存储在云端。有些不愿意将数据完全存储到云端的企业已经选择了这种做法。有些公司以前觉得云计算只适合用来评估研发中的软件,即是一种“测试环境”;现在他们认为云计算已经成熟,适合用于生产,也就是所谓的“生产环境”。IBM公司的全球技术务部负责人埃里克克莱蒙蒂表示,IBM希望凭借它的SoftLayer主机务帮助企业满足这种需求。他表示:“我们发现需求已经有了很大的提升,现在用户想把生产环境移动到云端的意愿和胃口都在呈指数级增长。”克莱蒙蒂表示,IBM力求成为最受企业青睐的云平台。与SAP进行合作既是合理的选择(IBM表示它自己正是SAP全球最大的客户),同时也能够产生额外的业务。“SAP会吸引一系列其它的相关应用、务和集成。对我们来说,在企业生产方面积累足够的人气和商誉是极为重要的。随着时间的推移,越来越多的务都会通过云端来提供。我认为广大企业都会见这一点——而这次合作将使它变得更可靠。”克莱蒙蒂补充道:“我们可以说是强强联手”。伊克普拉尼用另一种说法表达了类似的意思——“我们朝着同一个目标而努力。”

“iPad sales met our expectations,” Tim Cook told analysts Tuesday, “but we realize they didn’t meet many of yours.”苹果首席执行官蒂姆o库克上周二向分析师们表示:“iPad的销量达到了我们的预期,但我们知道很多人对iPad的期望要更高。”That’s a polite way of saying that he knew what was going on, even if most Apple analysts and much of the business press were clueless.这不过是客套话,库克真正想说的是,他知道现在是怎么回事,即便大多数苹果分析师和商业媒体一无所知。(Business Insider, always happy to stick a knife in Apple and twist it, ran back-to back-headlines: “Apple … Whiffed On iPad Sales Again” and “Only IBM Can Revive Apple’s iPad Sales.”)(素来喜欢对苹果落井下石的新闻网站Business Insider,接连发表头条文章“苹果……iPad销量再次不佳”以及“只有IBM能提振苹果iPad销量”。)By Wednesday morning, Wall Street had come around. Several analysts offered clients their own explanation for why iPad sales seem to have peaked. Here’s Piper Jaffray’s Gene Munster:上周三上午,华尔街缓过神来了。对于iPad销量为何似乎已经见顶,数位分析师对客户给出了自己的解释。其中,投资Piper Jaffray的吉恩o蒙斯特解释如下:“We think there are three reasons for the declines in iPad,” he wrote in a paragraph headed “What’s wrong with the iPad?”在标题为“iPad怎么了?”的段落中,蒙斯特写道:“我们认为iPad销量下滑有三个原因。”o First, we believe that the majority of tablet market unit growth is coming from the lower end of the market and iPads are priced higher.o 首先,我们认为,平板电脑市场出货量增长主要来自低端市场,而iPad定价较高。o Second, we believe the low hanging fruit in the high-end tablet market has been captured with Apple selling 225 million iPads over the first four years. Tim Cook commented on the earnings call that the adoption of the iPad over the first four years has been better than they were expecting, perhaps suggesting the high end is becoming saturated.o 其次,我们认为,苹果在前四年里卖出2.25亿部iPad,已占据了容易攻克的那部分高端平板电脑市场。蒂姆o库克在收益电话会议上表示,前四年iPad的销量超出了他们的预期,这或许表明高端市场正趋于饱和。o Lastly, given iPads are not subsidized, the replacement cycles tend to be longer compared to an iPhone.o 再次,鉴于iPad没有补贴,其替换周期往往比iPhone要长。IBM’s plan to sell and service enterprise iPads could turn things around, Munster suggests. But he thinks they might get worse before they get better, especially if Apple releases an iPhone this fall with 5.5-inch diagonal screen — big enough to cannibalize iPad sales.蒙斯特称,IBM计划销售并为企业级iPad提供务有可能扭转局面。但他认为,情况在好转之前可能会变得更糟,特别是如果苹果在今秋发布5.5英寸的大屏iPhone,很可能会与iPad抢夺市场。Steve Jobs famously said, “If you don’t cannibalize yourself, someone else will.” And because iPhone profit margins are better than the iPad’s, that’s the kind of cannibalization Jobs would have loved..史蒂夫o乔布斯有句名言:“如果你自己不革自己的命,别人会动手革你的命。”鉴于iPhone的利润率比iPad高,iPhone抢占iPad的市场估计是乔布斯乐见的事。UPDATE: According to Jan Dawson, the iPad is generating revenues at a rate of about billion a year, bigger than McDonald’s or Time Warner.更新:分析师贾恩o道森称,iPad业务每年带来的营收约为300亿美元,比麦当劳(McDonald’s)或时代华纳(Time Warner)公司全年的营收都高。“Excuse me,” writes GigaOm’s Kevin Tofel in Why slowing iPad sales didn’t surprise Apple, “if I don’t shed any tears for Apple’s billion iPad problem.”科技媒体GigaOm的凯文o尔在《iPad销量放缓为何没有令苹果惊讶》一文中写道:“抱歉,我不会为苹果营收300亿美元的iPad销量放缓哭泣。” /201407/315748

A doughnut created in a lab and made of silk on the outside and collagen gel where the jelly ought to be can mimic a basic function of brain tissue, scientists have found.科学家发现,实验室里制造的一个类似甜甜圈的东西,可以模仿脑组织的一项基本功能。这个圆圈的环状部分由丝材料制成,圈里面填的是胶原蛋白凝胶。Bioengineers produced a kind of rudimentary gray matter and white matter in a dish, along with rat neurons that signaled one another across the doughnut’s center. When the scientists dropped weights on the material to simulate traumatic injury, the neurons in the three-dimensional brain model emitted chemical and electrical signals similar to those in the brains of injured animals.生物工程师在培养皿中制成了相当于原始灰质和白质的材料,其中用了大鼠神经元,这些神经元能通过圆圈中间的物质相互交换信号。当科学家让重物掉到这个圆圈上,以模拟创伤性损伤时,这个三维大脑模型中的神经元释放出了化学信号和电信号,与受伤动物的大脑释放的信号类似。It is the first time scientists have been able to so closely imitate brain function in the laboratory, experts said. If researchers can replicate it with human neurons and enhance it to reflect other neurological functions, it could be used for studying how disease, trauma and medical treatments affect the brain — without the expense and ethical challenges of clinical trials on people.专家们表示,这是科学家首次能在实验室里如此逼真地模仿大脑功能。如果研究人员能用人的神经元重建这个模型,并提升到足以反映其他一些神经系统功能的水平,那么这个模型或可用于研究疾病、创伤和治疗如何影响大脑,从而避免人体临床试验的高费用和伦理问题。“In terms of mechanical similarity to the brain, it’s a pretty good mimic,” said James J. Hickman, a professor of nanoscience technology at the University of Central Florida, who was not involved in the research. “They’ve been able to repeat the highest level of function of neurons. It’s the best model I’ve seen.”“从与大脑的机械相似性来看,这是一个相当不错的模仿,”詹姆斯·J·希克曼(James J. Hickman)说。他是中佛罗里达大学(University of Central Florida)的纳米科学与技术教授,没有参与这项研究。“他们能够复制出最高水平的神经元功能。这是我看到过的最好的模型。”The research, led by David Kaplan, the chairman of the bioengineering department at Tufts University, and published Monday in the journal PNAS, is the latest example of biomedical engineering being used to make realistic models of organs such as the heart, lungs and liver.该研究由塔夫茨大学(Tufts University)生物工程系主任戴维·卡普兰(David Kaplan)主持,于周一发表在《美国科学院院刊》(PNAS)上。这是用生物医学工程手段制造器官——比如心脏、肺和肝脏——仿真模型的一个最新例子。Most studies of human brain development rely on animals or on brain slices taken after death; both are useful but have limits.研究人类大脑发育的工作大多依赖于动物实验,或人死亡后获取的大脑切片;两者都有用,但都具局限性。Brain models have been mostly two-dimensional or made with a three-dimensional gel, said Rosemarie Hunziker, program director of tissue engineering and biomaterial at the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, which funded Dr. Kaplan’s research.美国国家生物医学成像和生物工程研究所(National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering)的组织工程与生物材料项目主任罗斯玛丽·亨齐克(Rosemarie Hunziker)称,以前的大脑模型大多是二维的,或是用三维凝胶制作。该研究所资助了卡普兰的工作。None of those systems replicate the brain’s gray or white matter, or how neurons communicate, Dr. Hunziker said. “Even if you get cells to live in there, they don’t do much,” she said.亨齐克还表示,过去的系统都没有复制大脑的灰质或白质,也没有复制出神经元如何传导信号。“就算你能让细胞在模型中存活,它们基本上也做不成什么。”Dr. Kaplan’s team found that a spongy silk material coated with a positively charged polymer could culture rat neurons, a stand-in for gray matter. By itself, silk did not encourage neurons to produce axons, branches that transmit electrical pulses to other neurons.卡普兰的研究小组发现,一种涂有带正电聚合物的海绵状丝制材料可以培养大鼠神经元,用以替代灰质。丝制材料本身并不能让神经元产生轴突,也就是把电脉冲传递给其他神经元的突出部分。The researchers formed the silk material into a doughnut and added collagen gel to the center. Axons grew from the ring through the gel — the white matter substitute — and sent signals to neurons across the circle.这些研究人员将丝制材料做成一个圆圈,在其中心添加了胶原蛋白凝胶。轴突从圆圈的一边长出来,通过替代白质的凝胶,把信号发送给圆圈另一边的神经元。They got “these neurons talking to each other,” Dr. Hunziker said. “No one’s really shown that before.”亨齐克说,他们让“这些神经元互相交流。以前没人真正做到了这一点。”By adding nutrients and growth factors, scientists kept the brainlike tissue alive in an incubator for two months, at which point they experimented on it.通过添加营养物质和生长因子,科学家把这个类似脑的组织放在孵化器中,让其存活了两个月,然后开始在它上面做试验。Adding a neurotoxin essentially killed the neurons, as it would in a real brain. To simulate traumatic brain injury, they dropped weights from different heights.添加一种神经毒素基本上会把神经元杀死,就像在真正的大脑中那样。为了模拟脑外伤,他们从不同高度让重物掉到模型上。Dr. Kaplan said the brain-in-a-dish “didn’t go splat,” but reacted like “a kitchen sponge, and it would compress down and then partially spring back up.”卡普兰称,这个培养皿中的大脑“没有四处飞溅”,其反应更像是“厨房里的海绵,先是向下压缩,然后部分反弹起来。”He said measurements of glutamate, a neurotransmitter that surges in injury, showed that “the more severe the damage, the higher the spike” in glutamate.他说,大脑受伤会导致神经递质谷氨酸激增,而对模型中谷氨酸的测量显示,“受伤越重,激增的峰值越高。”Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, a biomedical engineering professor at Columbia who has worked with Dr. Kaplan on other studies, described the model as a kind of “Lego approach,” a “modular structure” that can be expanded and made more complex.哥伦比亚大学生物医学工程系教授戈尔达娜·乌尼亚克-诺瓦科维奇(Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic)曾与卡普兰在其他研究上有过合作。她称这个模型的建造有点像“乐高用的方法”,是一种“模块结构”,可以扩展成更复杂的形态。“It is the first proof of principle that something like this can be achieved outside of the body,” she said.她说,“这是首次在原理上明,类似这样的东西可以在体外实现。”Dr. Hickman said future experiments would need to study other cells and regions in the brain. “They’ve set up an architecture so some clever person in the future could then do it,” he said. Dr. Kaplan said his team was working on sustaining the brainlike tissue for six months — and with human neurons created from stem cells. He plans to add a model of the brain’s vascular system, so researchers can study what happens when drugs cross the blood-brain barrier.希克曼表示,还需要有未来的实验来研究大脑的其他细胞和区域。他说,“他们已经建立了一个构架,将来会有聪明人用它来做工作。”卡普兰称,他的研究小组正在努力让这个类似脑的组织存活六个月,还要用上从干细胞生成的人类神经元。他打算加建一个大脑血管系统的模型,让研究人员得以观察当药物通过血脑屏障时会发生什么。Ultimately, he hopes the bioengineered model can be used “to study everything from drugs to disease to surgical effects to electrode implants,” he said. “I mean, the list is endless.”他的最终目标,是让生物工程模型能被用于“所有的研究,从药物,到疾病,到手术效果,再到植入电极,”他说。“我的意思是,可做的研究多得没完没了。” /201408/323607

Digital technologies are the new medicine, as doctors and physicians turn to health apps and services to improve health outcomes.当医生们开始启用保健类应用程序和务来提升保健效果,电子技术也就成了一味新药。With over 13,000 health apps in the Apple app store, it’s not a case now of finding an app, but finding the BEST one, and – given that this is a health issue – one that is accurate and safe.如今在苹果应用程序商店里有超过1.3万个保健类程序,现在我们不是要找个程序,而是找到最好的程序,鉴于这关系到健康的问题,我们要找的应该是准确又安全的保健类应用程序。So in 2013, expect consumers to turn to the medical profession and medical institutions to certify and curate these products, with doctors also #39;prescribing#39; them, much as they prescribe medicines, as part of a course of treatment. And for health providers, these digital ‘medicines’ promise to reduce costs by making consumers more aware of their health, improve compliance, and allow remote monitoring that can pick up warning signals earlier.2013年将有望看到消费者找医学专业人员或医疗机构验和鉴别上述程序产品,医生们自己也会像平时开药一样自行开出一些保健类程序,作为治疗的一部分。对医疗务提供方来说,这些电子药方会让用户更加注意自身健康、与医生配合度更高,且可远程监控以尽早发现健康预警信号,医疗成本必定会降低。 /201301/220723

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