明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年02月17日 23:26:15
Liao Dynasty辽朝Social Economy社会经济The Liao went through different stages of economic development.辽朝经历了不同阶段的经济发展。In its early years, it mainly depended on outward expansion, slavery and thievery, so its development remained slow and disrupted.辽初期,国家主要依赖于向外扩张、奴隶、掠夺,因此它的发展缓慢而不连续。It was not until the reign of Emperor Shengzong when the Liao managed to institute feudal reform, its economy attained some distinct progress.一直到神宗时期进行封建改革后,辽的经济取得了明显的进步。The Liao rulers also adopted a differential economic management system, similar to its political one.辽朝的统治者还采取了一套特别的与其政治体系相似的经济管理体系。This system promoted the economic development throughout the whole northern area.这个体系加强了整个北部地区的经济发展。The Liao economy was based on horse and sheep raising and agriculture.辽朝的经济养马、养羊以及农业为基础。Fishing also played an important complementary role.渔业同样扮演着一个重要的补充者的角色。Those engaged in agriculture were mostly the Han people who lived in the southern area and the Bohai people who lived in the eastern area.从事农业的大多是南部的汉人和东部的渤海人。The nomadic zone consisted of various northern grassland nationalities and the fishing-hunting zone covered the Khitan area between the Xar Moron and Tuhe rivers, and the Jurchen people#39;s area in the northeast.游牧地区由不同的几个草原民族构成,打渔-打猎的地区涵盖了位于希拉木伦河和图河之间的契丹以及东北部的女真。The integration of the three economic zones into a political system sped up communication between differ?ent nationalities and promoted a higher level economic development.三个经济区域的融合加快了不同民族之间的交流并使经济发展到了一个更高的层次。The southern economy, which had been feudal for a long time, dominated the whole economy.南部地区的封建经济已经持续多年,这种经济占据了整个经济的主导地位。Besides, the supply of salt was controlled by government monopoly and provided an important source of revenue.除此之外,盐的经营权由政府垄断,是国家收入的重要来源。Iron smelting was also an important industrial contribution to the wealth of the dynasty.炼铁术也是让这个朝代富足的重要工业贡献。 /201511/406482On Friday, CNN reported that a JetBlue passenger en route from Anchorage to Portland, Ore., stood up and urinated on passengers sitting in front of him and others around him. When the plane landed, he was arrested by Portland police, charged with criminal mischief and offensive littering, two misdemeanors, and later released.星期五,CNN报道一位搭乘捷蓝航空公司(JetBlue)飞机的旅客在从安克雷奇飞往俄勒冈州波特兰的途中站起身来向坐在前排和周围的旅客身上小便。飞机降落时,他被波特兰警方逮捕,遭到刑事恶作剧和冒犯性乱丢物品两项轻罪起诉,后被释放。In the annals of bad flights, this one certainly ranks among the most disgusting, but it is not a total outlier. Days later, an American Airlines flight from Miami to Chicago was diverted, according to the A affiliate in Chicago, because of a passenger’s “erratic” behavior that witnesses said involved kicking a seat, kissing a flight attendant and then punching her in the face. What — if anything — can travelers do about this kind of behavior? We asked Gary Leff, co-founder of Milepoint.com, a frequent flier discussion site, to weigh in. The following are edited excerpts from a conversation with Mr. Leff.在各种不良飞行记录中,这件事可以算是比较恶心的,但还不是那么出格。几天后,一次从迈阿密飞往芝加哥的航班被迫转向,根据A台在芝加哥的分报道,是因为一名乘客“古怪”的行为,据目击者说,他踢椅子,亲吻空,然后又打她的脸。万一在飞机上遇到这种事,旅客们该怎么办?我们请飞机旅客讨论网站Milepoint.com的联合创始人加里·莱夫(Gary Leff)发表一下意见。以下内容来自与莱夫先生的对话,经过编辑和节选。Q: Do fliers have any recourse when exposed to such bad behavior in the air? 问:乘客们如果在飞行时遇到这种恶劣的事件,有什么追索权?A. They wouldn’t have any more recourse, really, if it happened at a sports stadium. People behave badly all the time, and as gross as this is, it’s a relatively minor thing to pursue recourse over. Anyone doing this is probably relatively judgment-proof anyway, so no, you don’t have much recourse.答:如果这种事发生在体育馆里,其实也没有什么追索权。总有那种表现恶劣的人,尽管很糟糕,但要去追索赔偿,这种事又显得太小。能干出这种事的人又多少有可能不具备履行判决的能力。所以,对,乘客没有什么追索的权利。If you sense something is not right with your seatmate, what can you do?问:如果你觉得旁边坐着的人有点不对劲,那你该怎么办?It depends on how “not right” it is. The only thing you can do is inform the crew. If it’s reasonably minor, your hope is that there’s a free seat somewhere on plane and they can move you to it. If the plane is full, you can fly in your seat or hope to divert, but the crew will divert only in really serious situations. That’s up to the pilot’s judgment. In any place where it’s not completely full, consult with the crew to change seats. The first incident happened within 30 minutes of landing so there wasn’t going to be somewhere to divert quickly. They were almost there. If it happened early in the flight they could have wound up diverting the flight.答:这取决于对方有多“不对劲”。你唯一能做的事就是通知乘务人员。如果事情确实很小,你就只能指望飞机上还有多余的座位,让乘务人员帮你换位子。如果飞机满员了,你就只能呆在自己的座椅上,或者指望飞机备降,但机组人员只有在非常严重的情况下才会这么做。而且这取决于飞行员的判断。如果飞机上还有空位,你可以和乘务人员商量要求换位子。第一件事(乘客小便)发生时,飞机还有不到30分钟就要降落了,所以没有备降。目的地马上就要到了。如果事情发生在飞机起飞不久,他们可能会备降。How common are indignities of this caliber in-flight? 问:飞行中这种程度的冒犯举动经常发生吗?This is very uncommon. There’s no question people behave badly on planes because there are lots of people in a confined space and there are people who behave badly everywhere. So we do see altercations everywhere in the sky, whether it’s the guy who brings the [Knee] Defender on and gets in a fight with person in front of him because he can’t recline his seat. But I’ve also seen bad behavior in premium cabins; it’s not just a function of economy travel.答:这么糟糕的事并不是经常发生的。不过,人们在飞机上常常会表现恶劣,因为那么多人处在一个狭小的空间,而且还有人无论走到哪儿表现都很恶劣。所以我们也经常看到飞机上有人吵架,有人带着膝盖捍卫者(Knee Defender,一种令前座的椅背无法放倒的小玩意——编注)上飞机,结果前座的人没法把靠背放倒,双方大动干戈。但是我也见过头等舱里有人表现恶劣,糟糕的行为并不是经济舱的专利。If you are urinated on or in some way your property is damaged by another traveler, can you seek compensation from the airline or were you just unlucky?问:如果你被尿到身上了,或者你的物品被其他旅客毁坏了,你能从航空公司获得赔偿吗,还是只能认倒霉?You were probably just unlucky. As long as it’s not a member of the crew, the airline doesn’t owe you anything. They are not actually at fault. They might offer a good-will gesture because you had a bad experience on their airline and they want to win back your business. You are more likely to get one based on your frequency of travel because they are interested in preserving the relationship. But you’re not likely to have a successful lawsuit against an airline for being urinated on.答:很可能只能认倒霉。如果你不是机组成员,航空公司就不欠你什么。这并不是他们的错。他们可能会对你做出一些善意的表示,因为你在乘坐他们的航班时遇到了不好的体验,他们想挽回你这个乘客。你得到的待遇很可能和你乘机出行的频率有关,因为他们只对和你保持客户关系感兴趣。但你如果因为被小便淋了就起诉航空公司,多半是不会胜诉的。 /201509/400019

A 12-year-old in Taiwan lived out many museum-goers#39; nightmare (and many parents#39;) when he tripped and caught his balance by punching a hole in an oil painting that is over 300 years old and valued at .5 million.许多物馆迷(和家长)们的噩梦真切地发生了。一个来自台湾的12岁男孩在看展时脚下一绊,为了保持平衡,他在一幅油画上捅了个拳头大小的窟窿。这幅油画有300年历史,估值150万美元。The of the mishap is mostly uneventful. The boy, carrying something that looks like a canned drink, is taking a casual stroll through the exhibition when he stumbles and falls into the painting.从监控拍到的视频来看,意外发生时并没有引起人们的注意。当时男孩手里拿着罐装饮料状的东西,本在悠闲地踱步看展,突然间失去平衡跌向了那幅画作。Then he catches his balance and quickly looks behind him to see if anyone saw him fall.重新站稳后,他迅速瞄了眼身后,观察周围有没有人注意到他。He left a fist-size hole in the right bottom corner of the canvas, Sun Chi-hsuan, a representative from the company that co-sponsored the exhibition, told reporters. He also said that the exhibition#39;s curator had asked that the boy not be punished for damaging the painting.展览赞助商代表之一的孙齐轩告诉记者,男孩在画布右下角留下了一个拳头大小的窟窿,但策展人希望他不会因此受罚。The work, ;Flowers,; is by the Italian artist Paolo Porpora, who specialized in Baroque-style paintings of still-lifes. According to an art database, it is the only one of the artist#39;s works that is signed.这幅名为《花》的画作为意大利艺术家保罗·波尔波拉所绘,波尔波拉擅长巴洛克风格的静物描绘。一个艺术品数据库的资料显示,它是艺术家签过名的唯一一幅作品。The boy, who by the mercy of the Internet gods has not yet been identified, joins an elite group of art patrons who have damaged expensive works. The most famous is probably the billionaire Steve Wynn, who once put his elbow through Picasso#39;s ;Le Reve.; In the end, it was repaired and sold to another billionaire for 5 million.网友们手下留情,肇事的男孩目前还没有被;人肉;出来,他也不是唯一一个损坏了昂贵画作的马大哈。在这个名画杀手俱乐部里,最有名的要数亿万富翁史蒂夫·韦恩,他的手肘捅破了毕加索的画作《梦》。画作被修复后以1.55亿美元的价格卖给了另一个亿万富翁。Perhaps ;Flowers; will have a similar happy ending: A restoration specialist is aly at work on repairing the painting, according to The Guardian.也许《花》也将得以善终:据英国《卫报》消息,专家已经着手进行修复。 /201510/402580


  7.Libra7.天秤座You got: France你适合居住在:法国Charming and elegant, with a taste for the finer things in life, you#39;re also very passionate about justice and equality. France was literally made for you.你充满魅力,举止优雅,对生活中一切有档次的事物都有独特的品味,同时对公正和平等格外热情。法国这个国度简直是为你而存在的。8.Scorpio8.天蝎座You got: Poland你适合居住在:波兰Passionate, intense, and strong-willed, you can also be secretive and mysterious. Poland would be the perfect place for you.热情似火又洋溢着,拥有坚定意志的你同时也故作神秘,让人觉得不可思议。波兰是你的不二选择。9.Sagittarius9.射手座You got: India你适合居住在:印度Optimistic, generous, and with a big personality, you hate being bored and need a place that can satisfy your intense curiosity and desire to learn. India just happens to be that place.乐观、慷慨、个性鲜明,你厌恶了无生趣, 你需要一个地方能满足你强烈的好奇心和跃跃欲试的学习热情。印度正好是这样一个国度。10.Capricorn10.羯座You got: Japan你适合居住在:日本You#39;re driven, patient, and always eager to learn and improve yourself and the world around you. Japan would be the perfect fit for you.你发愤图强、很有耐心,又十分好学、乐于提高自己、改善身边的环境。日本是你的最佳选择。11.Aquarius11.水瓶座You got: South Africa你适合居住在:南非You#39;re intelligent, with a very witty, and sometimes even poetic, mind. You value your independence but also love being surrounded by your friends and family. You#39;d be right at home in South Africa.你十分聪慧、诙谐机智,不过有时候脑中又会涌现诗意的思绪。你重视独立性,但同时又喜欢被家人和朋友包围的感觉。在南非,你会觉得适得其所。12.Pisces12.双鱼座You got: Mexico你适合居住在:墨西哥Your creative energy knows no bounds and you#39;re passionate and vibrant about pretty much every aspect of your life. So, you#39;d be right at home in Mexico.你富有创造性的精力无所穷尽,而且对生活的方方面面,你又是那么的热情似火、活力充沛。所以,生活在墨西哥对你再合适不过。 /201510/406028。

  A Chinese student at Arizona State University (ASU) has been confirmed dead after a shooting took place at a traffic junction in Tempe, according to the Shanghai-based news portal, The Paper, citing local reports.根据上海一家新闻门户网站援引一篇当地的报道称,美国亚利桑那州立大学的一名中国学生已经被实,死于在天丕市发生的一起车祸后引起的击案。A suspect has been arrested in a fatal road shooting, the police said.根据当地警方表示,公路杀案的嫌犯已被逮捕。The suspect, identified as Holly Davis, 32, was arrested on suspicion of first-degree murder and several other charges, according to police. She was being held in connection with the death of Yue Jiang, a Chinese exchange student, said Tempe police spokesman Lt. Michael Pooley. ASU spokesman Jerry Gonzalez confirmed Jiang was a student at the university.警方表示,嫌犯是32岁的Davis,她涉嫌一级谋杀罪和其他指控。天丕市警局发言人普勒表示,该名嫌犯与中国交换生江玥的死亡相关。此外,亚利桑那州立大学的发言人Gonzalez确认了江玥为该校学生。;Regarding yesterday#39;s incident where ASU student Yue Jiang was killed, we just want to say that fellow students are being encouraged to talk with counselors, and that our thoughts and prayers are with the student#39;s family,; Gonzalez said in a statement.Gonzalez在声明中说道:“关于昨日事故中亚利桑那州立大学的学生江玥被杀这一事件,我们只想说,同学们,你们可以与辅导老师聊聊。我们的关切之情和祈祷与学生的家庭同在。”Five others, three children, a pregnant woman and a male passenger in the victim#39;s car, also were treated for injuries related to a subsequent collision caused by the shooting. It started when two vehicles, one driven by David, the other by Jiang, collided near Broadway Road and McClintock Drive at about 3:40 p.m. Saturday, police said.包括三个孩子、一名妇和江玥车中的一名男性乘客在内的其他五个人,也因之后的击导致碰撞而受伤。警方表示,周六下午三点四十分左右,David和江玥开的两辆车在Broadway大街McClintock路附近追尾。After that initial collision, police said, Davis got out of her car and fired several rounds into the other vehicle, striking Jiang. After being hit, Jiang lost control of her car, which then struck a third vehicle carrying a family of five.在最开始的碰撞之后,Davis从车里走出来,冲另外一辆车连开数,击伤江玥。撞击后,江玥的车子失去了控制,撞上了第三辆载有一家五口的汽车。Pooley said Jiang was later pronounced dead at the hospital.普勒表示,江玥在送入医院不久就被宣告死亡。 /201601/422882

  It#39;s peak fall, and people are going nuts over foliage.秋意正浓,人们为秋叶而痴狂。As mid-October approaches, New Englanders wait in anticipation for that iconic time of year when the vibrant colors of fall foliage finally reach their peak. For many locals, leaf peeping - yes, that#39;s a thing - is as simple as stepping out into the backyard or taking a ride on Amtrak#39;s Autumn Express train.每每临近10月中旬,新英格兰地区的居民就开始期待这个黄金时节,此时秋叶色泽最好,可谓五纷呈、绚丽无比。对于许多当地人而言,赏叶——没错,这是一种时尚——很简单,只要走到后院或者坐上“美铁”(Amtrak)的“秋季特快列车”(Autumn Express)就够了。Meanwhile, those stuck in season-less regions are deprived of this annual treat.而那些生活在四季不分明地区的人就没有这一年一度的眼福了。But now, green-leafed West Coasters - or anyone else who really, really likes fall - can get New England foliage delivered straight to their door. Avid hiker Kyle Waring and his wife have searched throughout New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and Vermont for the perfect few leaves that typify the fall season. They sell them on ShipFoliage.com. Customers receive a .99 bundle that has been hand-picked and assembled by the Warings.但现在,只能赏绿叶的西海岸人或真地特别喜欢秋天的其他人,也能看到新英格兰的树叶了,而且直接送货上门。徒步旅行爱好者凯尔·华林(Kyle Waring)和妻子搜寻了整个新罕布什尔州、马萨诸塞州和佛蒙特州,只为找到少数能象征金秋的完美叶子。他们在“寄送叶子”(ShipFoliage.com)网站上出售搜集到的树叶。客户只需花19.99美元就能得到一组华林夫妇亲手采摘并包装好的树叶。Once the leaves are collected, they ;undergo a unique preservation process; that involves soaking them for 2-3 days and allowing them to dry for a few more. This ensures that they#39;ll last long after the fall season is over - an estimated 5-7 years, according to the company#39;s site.叶子被收集起来后,会“经过一种独特的保鲜处理”,包括浸泡2-3天,干燥数天。这可以确保秋季结束后树叶仍长期不褪色,该公司的网站称,树叶颜色预计可维持5-7年。So far, Waring has seen the most demand from season-starved customers in California, Texas, and Florida. ;I guess there#39;s something about New England foliage,; he says.到目前为止,以四季不分明的加利福尼亚州、得克萨斯州和佛罗里达州的客户需求最大。华林说:“我想是因为新英格兰树叶与众不同吧”。 /201510/402400The balance in the art world is shifting. As the world’s richest private collectors get richer, publicly financed museums are, by and large, getting poorer.艺术界的平衡正在被打破。世界上最富有的私人藏家变得更富有,而公共资助的物馆总的来说变得更穷。Last week, critics made their first assessments of The Broad, the 120,000-square-foot private museum in downtown Los Angeles to showcase the contemporary art collection of the billionaire philanthropists Eli and Edythe Broad. The museum has an endowment of more than 0 million, and additional funds for acquisitions.上周(9月6日至9月12日),洛杉矶市中心的布罗德物馆(The Broad)成为家们关注的焦点。这家私人物馆室内面积为12万平方英尺,将展示亿万富翁兼慈善家埃利和埃戴丝·布罗德(Eli and Edythe Broad)的当代艺术藏品。这家物馆获得了两亿多美元的捐款以及用于采购藏品的额外资金。Also last week, four other collectors were displaying their art in a very different showcase that could be seen as an alternative model for private collectors. Four museums and a church in Sheffield, a town in Yorkshire in northern England, famed in Victorian times for its steel-making, opened their own exhibition of contemporary art, running through Dec. 12.也是在上周,其他四位藏家在一个迥然不同的场合展示自己的艺术藏品,它可以被视作私收藏家展示自己藏品的另一种模式。谢菲尔德(Sheffield)是英国北部约克郡的一座小城,在维多利亚时代以炼钢闻名。这里的四座物馆和一座教堂正在举办自己的当代艺术展,将持续至12月12日。Squeezed by the British government’s austerity program, Sheffield City Council now finances its local museums to the tune of 1.5 million pounds a year, about .3 million, a reduction of more than 30 percent since 2009. The acquisition fund stands at just 70,000. That doesn’t go very far in today’s art market, and any purchases by British regional museums have to be supported by financing from public bodies like Arts Council England and private donations. A show supported by private collectors, therefore, can be a boon to the museums, and to the collectors themselves.近些年,由于受到英国政府紧缩政策的影响,谢菲尔德市议会每年资助当地物馆150万英镑,约合230万美元,比2009年减少了逾30%。藏品购买费仅为七万英镑,在如今的艺术市场,这些钱买不到太多东西。而且,英国地方物馆不管购买什么艺术品,都必须得到英格兰艺术委员会(Arts Council England)等公共机构和私人捐款人的资助。所以,对物馆和藏家来说,私人藏家持的展览是一个双赢的办法。“Private collectors have a lot of money and buying power that has driven growth in the art market,” the Berlin art adviser and writer Marta Gnyp said in a phone interview. Her book on the subject, “The Shift: Art and the Rise to Power of Contemporary Collectors,” was published on Aug. 4.“私人藏家财力雄厚,购买力强,拉动了艺术市场的增长,”柏林艺术顾问兼作家玛尔塔·吉尼普(Marta Gnyp)在电话采访中说。她写了一本关于这一主题的书,名叫《变化:艺术与当代藏家权力的上升》(The Shift: Art and the Rise to Power of Contemporary Collectors),今年8月4日出版。“Public museums have financial restraints,” she added. “But they are still attractive to private collectors. Public institutions give a quality stamp and visibility to collections.”“公共物馆财力不足,”她补充说,“但它们对私人藏家依然具有吸引力。公共机构能明这些藏品的品质,也能让更多观众看到它们。”Museums Sheffield is using the exhibition project, called “Going Public,” and a conference at Sheffield Hallam University on Oct. 12 to examine how cash-strapped public galleries and wealthy private collectors can cooperate more effectively.谢菲尔德物馆(Museums Sheffield)正通过一个名为Going Public的展览项目和10月12日在谢菲尔德哈勒姆大学(Sheffield Hallam University)举办的会议,来探讨缺乏资金的公共画廊和富有的私人藏家如何更有效合作的问题。“Going Public” is the first time that four major international collectors of contemporary art have collaborated on a regional museum show in Britain. As part of the joint show, recent Chinese and digital art from Dominique and Sylvain Levy’s DSL collection in Paris are on display at Sheffield’s SIA and Site galleries. At the Millennium Gallery, eight works of Minimalism — including the classic 1967 Sol LeWitt white-painted aluminum sculpture “Serial Project #1, A6” — have been lent by the French collector Nicolas Cattelain in London. Marcel Duchamp’s 1952 “La Boite-en-valise” (Box in a Suitcase) is among 35 Surrealist works being shown by the Berlin collector Egidio Marzona in the Art Deco Graves Gallery museum.Going Public是四位重要的国际当代艺术藏家首次联合在英国的一个地方物馆展出藏品。多米尼克和西尔万·莱维(Dominique and Sylvain Levy)在法国创立了DSL收藏公司。该公司收藏的中国近年视频和数字艺术作品正在谢菲尔德的SIA和Site画廊展示。法国收藏家尼古拉斯·凯特莱(Nicolas Cattelain)把八件极简主义作品借给了伦敦的千禧画廊(Millennium Gallery),包括索尔·莱威特(Sol LeWitt)1967年创作的经典作品——白漆铝制雕塑《系列作品1号A6》(Serial Project #1, A6)。柏林藏家埃吉迪奥·马尔佐纳(Egidio Marzona)正在艺术装饰风格的格雷夫斯画廊(Graves Gallery)展示35件超现实主义作品,包括马塞尔·迪尚(Marcel Duchamp)1952年创作的《手提的盒子》(Box in a Suitcase)。And unsettling installations — like a 1996 Chapman Brothers corpse hanging upside down over a vat of blood and a 2009 tapestry by the Polish artist Goshka Macuga of London foretelling today’s migrant crisis — are transforming the medieval interior of Sheffield Cathedral, courtesy of Patrizia Sandretto Re Rebaudengo, who has a private museum in Turin.一些令人不安的装置作品正在改变谢菲尔德大教堂(Sheffield Cathedral)的中世纪风格内部空间,比如查普曼兄弟(Chapman Brothers)1996年创作的倒立悬挂尸体,下面是一大桶血,还有伦敦的波兰裔艺术家戈舍卡·马库加(Goshka Macuga)2009年创作的挂毯,它预言了今天的难民危机。这些作品是帕特里齐娅·桑德里托·雷·里保丹戈(Patrizia Sandretto Re Rebaudengo)提供的,她在都灵有个私人物馆。“They’re all true believers,” Sebastien Montabonel, an art consultant in London, said of the collectors who contributed work to the shows. He originated the project four years ago with Mark Doyle of the Contemporary Art Society in London. “They understand art is getting expensive and that their role is important.” He added: “Two or three collectors can make a huge impact, and being a big fish in a small pond is a good selling point.”“他们都是真正的信徒,”伦敦艺术顾问塞巴斯蒂安·蒙塔波奈(Sebastien Montabonel)提到那些给展览提供作品的收藏家时说。四年前,他和伦敦当代艺术协会(Contemporary Art Society)的马克·多伊尔(Mark Doyle)发起了这个项目。“他们知道,艺术品越来越昂贵,他们的角色很重要。”他补充说,“两三位收藏家能产生巨大的影响力,小池塘里的大鱼是个很好的卖点。”These selections from four serious collectors will give residents of and visitors to Sheffield a distinctive overview of some of the more interesting things international artists have been doing over the past 100 years. But can this model be repeated at other regional museums?四位严肃藏家精选的这些作品将给谢菲尔德的居民和游客提供独特的视角,以了解国际艺术家们在过去一百年里做的一些更有趣的事情。但是其他地方物馆能效仿这个模式吗?In February 2014, Mr. Marzona, one of the participating collectors in “Going Public,” transferred ownership of 372 pieces of 20th-century avant-garde art to the city of Berlin, having aly given a substantial proportion of his collection to the city’s museums in 2002.2014年2月,藏家马尔佐纳(他是Going Public项目的参与者之一)把自己收藏的372件20世纪先锋艺术品转让给了柏林市政府。2002年,他已经把自己收藏的很大一部分艺术品赠送给了柏林的多个物馆。But nowadays, as Ms. Gnyp notes in “The Shift,” the private museum owned by a collector or an associated foundation has become the model, rather than donations to public institutions, despite the tax advantages that can accrue from such gifts. Ms. Gnyp writes that no fewer than 125 museums were created worldwide from 2006 to 2013, as opposed to just 25 in the 1990s. Wealthy individuals like Mr. Broad and Ms. Sandretto Re Rebaudengo want to keep control of their collections and play a more proactive role in the art world.吉尼普在《变化》中提到,现在流行的模式是藏家或联合基金会创立私人物馆,而非向公共机构捐赠藏品,尽管捐赠能积累很多税收优惠。吉尼普写道,从2006年至2013年,世界范围内至少开设了125家物馆,而20世纪90年代仅开设了25家。布罗德和桑德里托·雷·里保丹戈等富有的藏家希望继续控制自己的藏品,在艺术界发挥更积极的作用。“I want to show my collection and share it with other people,” said Ms. Sandretto Re Rebaudengo, who began buying art in 1992 and now has more than 1,000 works. “But private collectors can do so much more. They can be involved in the production of art and in education.” For example, for the 2009 Venice Biennale she commissioned the Macuga tapestry hanging in Sheffield Cathedral. She said that “Going Public,” with its expansive use of loans, could prove a model for future collaborations between art’s public and private sectors.“我想展示我的收藏品,和其他人分享,”桑德里托·雷·里保丹戈说。她从1992年开始购买艺术品,现在拥有1000多件藏品。“但是私人藏家可以做得更多。他们可以参与艺术创作和教育。”例如,她委托马库加为2009年双年展创作了现在悬挂在谢菲尔德大教堂的那件挂毯。她说,Going Public项目所借的艺术品来源广泛,可以成为未来公共和私人艺术界的合作模式。But as private museums have grown in power and influence, so too has the fixation on contemporary art as an investment. Media reports of spectacular price rises for fashionable artists have attracted droves of newcomers to the market.但是随着私人物馆势力和影响力的增长,当代艺术品越来越被视为一个投资方向。媒体对热门艺术家作品价格大幅上涨的报道吸引很多新手进入这个市场。“There are probably no more than 200 or 300 real collectors who have a vision and have proper curation,” Mr. Montabonel said. “The others are just buyers. Their ‘collections’ will be forgotten in 10 years’ time.”“很可能只有两三百位真正的藏家,他们有远见,也有合适的管理方法,”蒙塔波奈说,“其他人只是买家。他们的‘藏品’十年后将被遗忘。” Is it that simple, though? Are there such clear distinctions between “real” collectors and mere “buyers”?不过,真的这么简单吗?“真正的”藏家和单纯的“买家”真的如此界线分明吗?The Broads were collecting contemporary art long before it was being promoted in power point presentations as an “alternative asset class.” Yet a number of visitors to their gleaming new museum have noted how the procession of works by blue-chip names like Jeff Koons, Ed Ruscha, Mark Bradford and Mark Grotjahn hung on temporary white partition walls can make the display, at times, resemble the world’s most expensive art fair.在当代艺术品作为“其他财产”用PPT展示推广之前,布罗德夫妇就已经在收藏当代艺术品。但是,一些去他们亮丽的新物馆参观的游客注意到,杰夫·昆斯(Jeff Koons)、埃德·拉斯查(Ed Ruscha)、马克·布拉德福德(Mark Bradford)和马克·格罗特雅恩(Mark Grotjahn)等热门艺术家的作品悬挂在临时分割的白墙上,有时让人感觉自己是在世界上最昂贵的艺术交易会上。“The lack of independent taste among high-powered collectors is most depressing,” Kenneth Baker, the former art critic at The San Francisco Chronicle, said in an email. He has viewed the Broad collection twice but has yet to visit the new museum. “Broad and his ilk certainly don’t have to think like speculators when they shop for art, unless they can’t help themselves.”“财力雄厚的藏家们缺乏独立的品味是最令人沮丧的,”《旧金山纪事报》(The San Francisco Chronicle)的前艺术家肯尼思·贝克(Kenneth Baker)在邮件采访中说。他观看过布罗德的藏品两次,不过尚未去参观新的物馆。“布罗德和他的家人购买艺术品时,当然不必像投机者那样思考,除非他们不由自主。”The difference could not be greater when contrasted with the subject of the first exhibition at Damien Hirst’s private museum, which will open in a 37,000 square-foot converted factory in Lambeth in South London on Oct. 8. The inaugural show will focus on the Sheffield-born abstract painter John Hoyland (1934-2011), a surprising choice for the former superstar of Young British Art.当把布罗德新物馆的开幕展览与达米安·赫斯特(Damien Hirst)私人物馆的开幕展览的主题相比较时,这种差别尤为明显。后者将于10月8日开放,位于伦敦南部朗伯斯(Lambeth)一个改造后的工厂里,占地3.7万平方英尺。它的开幕展览是关于出生在谢菲尔德的抽象画家约翰·霍伊兰(John Hoyland, 1934-2011)。赫斯特曾是英国青年艺术组织(Young British Art)的超级明星,所以他的这个选择令人意外。Now 50, Mr. Hirst is ranked as the 450th wealthiest person in Britain, worth 215 million, according to The Sunday Times’s “Rich List” for 2015. The artist has been a compulsive buyer since the 1980s, and his Murderme Collection now contains more than 3,000 works by Picasso, Warhol, Banksy, Bacon and a host of others. As it turns out, he is also an admirer of Hoyland, who was influenced by the Abstract Expressionists, and whom he discovered when visiting Leeds Art Gallery as a schoolboy.据《星期日泰晤士报》(The Sunday Times)的2015年富豪榜,50岁的赫斯特在英国富豪榜上排名第450位,资产2.15亿英镑。从20世纪80年代起,这位艺术家变成了一位欲罢不能的买家。他的Murderme Collection现在有3000多件作品,包括毕加索(Picasso)、沃霍尔(Warhol)、班克西(Banksy)和培根(Bacon)等诸多艺术家的作品。结果明,他也很欣赏霍伊兰,后者曾受抽象表现主义画家影响。赫斯特是在上学期间参观利兹美术馆(Leeds Art Gallery)时注意到霍伊兰的作品的。“In my eyes, John Hoyland was an artist who was never afraid to push the boundaries,” Mr. Hirst says on his website.“在我看来,约翰·霍伊兰是一位从不畏惧打破界线的艺术家,”赫斯特在自己的网站上说。Unlike the opening of The Broad, the first Hirst Museum show might be closer to Mr. Montabonel’s notions of “true” collecting. As yet, Hoyland doesn’t command much of an international market. The highest auction price for one of his works is “just” 185,000, paid back in 2008. By and large, people looking at these paintings won’t be distracted by their monetary worth, and the experience will be closer to that of visiting a public museum.不像布罗德物馆的开幕展览,赫斯特物馆的首场展览可能更接近蒙塔波奈所说的“真正的”收藏。不过,霍伊兰在国际市场上并不热门。他作品的最高拍卖价“仅为”18.5万英镑,是2008年成交的。总的来说,人们看着这些画作,不会被它们的金钱价值分心,观展体验将更接近参观公共物馆。The “financialization” of contemporary art, and the ways this has, or has not, influenced collectors, might be an interesting break-out topic for that Sheffield conference in October.当代艺术品的“金融化”是否(如果是的话,又是如何)影响了收藏者?这可能会是10月份谢菲尔德会议上的热门话题。In the meantime, what do Yorkshire’s down-to-earth locals think of this fancy international art dropping into their city?与此同时,约克郡的普通百姓又是如何看待这场空降到这座城市的高级国际艺术展的呢?“I like it,” Ronald Fletcher, 87, said outside Sheffield Cathedral. “I’m not overly religious. I don’t really believe in God, but I’ve been looking for something since I lost my wife. I find it refreshing.”“我很喜欢,”87岁的罗纳德·弗莱彻(Ronald Fletcher)在谢菲尔德大教堂外说,“我不是非常虔诚的教徒。我并不是很信上帝,但是妻子去世后,我在寻找某种东西。我觉得这令人振奋。”At least someone knows the true value of art.至少,有人知道艺术的真正价值。 /201509/401146Lisbon里斯本By SETH SHERWOOD作者:SETH SHERWOODIt’s not quite the razor’s edge, but a walk along Rua da Misericórdia in Lisbon is a walk on the slim frontier that separates Bairro Alto and Chiado, two very different worlds in the heart of the Portuguese capital.这里并不是什么刀锋,但是沿着里斯本的仁慈大街(Rua da Misericórdia)漫步,的确是行走在一条将上城区(Bairro Alto)与希亚多(Chiado)区隔开来的狭长边界上,将葡萄牙首都的中心地带分割成两个截然不同的世界。To the west, bohemian Bairro Alto is the graffiti-sprayed warren of vintage stores, hole-in-the wall restaurants, dive bars and live-music venues, where noisy throngs fill the narrow streets until the wee hours.往西走,住满波西米亚人的上城区,是一处喷满涂鸦的拥挤街区,到处都是些老式商店、简陋饭馆、廉价酒吧和现场音乐表演场地,狭窄的街道里挤满了嘈杂的人群,直到凌晨时分。Free to enter, Carpe Diem Arte e Pesquisa plunges you into a gloriously faded 16th-century mansion whose maze of aristocratic rooms brim with sweeping staircases, huge fireplaces, panels of blue-painted azulejo tiles, and intricately carved plaster ceilings in varying states of dilapidation. These haunted spaces serve as galleries for exhibitions and site-specific creations by a rotating roster of international contemporary artists that has included the Cameroonian painter Barthélémy Toguo, the Albanian multimedia provocateur Adrian Paci and Portugal’s own tree-branch installation specialist, Gabriela Albergaria.入场免费的艺术中心Carpe Diem Arte e Pesquisa,将你带入一栋已壮丽褪色的16世纪豪宅,一间间充满贵族气派的房间组成的迷宫中,随处可见弧形的楼梯、巨大的壁炉、白底蓝花的瓷砖,以及精雕细刻但破损程度不一的石膏制天花板。这些充满灵异气息的空间,被一批名单不断变化的国际当代艺术家们用作展览和现场创作的地方,包括喀麦隆画家巴特勒米·托古奧(Barthélémy Toguo)、阿尔巴尼亚多媒体艺术家阿德里安·巴契(Adrian Paci)和葡萄牙树枝装置艺术家加布里埃拉·阿尔贝加里亚(Gabriela Albergaria)在内。Short on physical comfort but brimming with traditional Portuguese comfort food, Antigo 1° de Maio has drawn generations of discerning Lisbonfolk to its pocket-size room of tiled walls, checkered tablecloths and stiff wooden chairs. The portions are copious from beginning to end, starting with appetizers like escargot or melon with cured ham, moving on to the likes of grilled pork tenderloin and roasted sardines, before finishing in a wave of sweets that includes egg pudding and mango mousse. A three-course meal for two is about 40 euros.Antigo 1° de Maio餐厅虽然在就餐环境上差了一些,但是供应各种传统的葡萄牙安慰食物,吸引着一代又一代挑剔的里斯本人走进它那仅有口袋般大小,由瓷砖墙面、方格桌布和硬木椅构成的屋子里。这里的食物份量自始至终都十分丰盛,先是以法国蜗牛或冬瓜配腌火腿开胃,接着是烤里脊和烤沙丁鱼之类,最后则以一组包括鸡蛋布丁和芒果慕斯在内的甜点告终。双人份的三道菜午餐,价格约为40欧元。For a digestive, try a cup of ginja (4 euros), a Portuguese cherry liqueur, in the equally small, rustic and jam-packed confines of Tasca do Chico. Then get out your handkerchief. The bar is a haven of Fado, Portugal’s melancholy seafaring folk music, and stars like Raquel Tavares and Mariza have been known to stop by incognito for impromptu performances. Better still, there’s no cover.为了帮助消化,不妨到Tasca do Chico那同样狭小、朴素和拥挤的空间内,来一杯樱桃酒(ginja)(4欧元),一种葡萄牙出产的樱桃味利口酒。然后就掏出你的手帕吧。这间酒吧是欣赏葡萄牙悱恻动人的海上民谣——法朵(Fado)的最佳去处,据说拉奎尔·塔瓦雷斯(Raquel Tavares)、玛瑞莎(Mariza)等明星均曾匿名在这里即兴演出过。不过更妙的是,这里没有任何曲目是翻唱的。The extra money will be useful in Chiado, east of Rua da Misericórdia, which beckons with fashion boutiques, design emporiums, centuries-old churches, historic theaters and the city’s top gastronomic palace.其余的预算在仁慈大街(Rua da Misericórdia)东边的希亚多(Chiado)会大有用处,这里的时装精品店、设计商场、古老教堂、历史悠久的剧院和城市里的顶级美食殿堂均在召唤着你。Keen to eat from a platter decorated with half-unicorn men and zebra-bodied women cavorting in a garden of exotic butterflies and dragonflies? The boutique of Vista Alegre — a Portuguese manufacturer of high-end porcelain, ceramics and crystal since the 19th century — showcases a line of dinnerware decorated by the French fashion designer Christian Lacroix. Mythical creatures and other exotic fauna (and flora) animate the series, from dessert plates (29 euros) to teapots (180 euros).想要从饰有独角兽人与雌性斑马人在满园异国情调的蝴蝶与蜻蜓环绕下嬉戏图案的浅盘中品尝美食吗?创建于19世纪的葡萄牙高档陶瓷水晶制品制造商Vista Alegre所出产的精品,展示了一系列由法国时装设计师克里斯汀·拉克鲁瓦(Christian Lacroix)负责装饰的餐具。无论是甜点盘(29欧元)还是茶壶(180欧元),神话生物及其他异域动(植)物的图案均令这些瓷器栩栩如生。Or let Belcanto serve you. The decades-old institution was reopened in 2012 by the Portuguese celebrity chef José Avillez and aly has two Michelin stars, the only restaurant in Lisbon with that honor. Centered on nouveau Portuguese cuisine, the à la carte might feature suckling pig with orange and potatoes, beef loin with bone marrow and garlic purée, or sea bass with seaweed and bivalves. Tasting s are available for 125 and 145 euros.或者让自己享受一下Belcanto的务。这间拥有数十年历史的机构,由葡萄牙名厨何塞·阿维列兹(José Avillez)在2012年重新开张,现已拥有米其林两星级评级,是里斯本唯一享有这一荣誉的餐厅。以新式葡萄牙料理为核心,单品菜单的内容可能有乳猪配柳橙马铃薯,牛里脊配骨髓蒜蓉酱,或是鲈鱼配海草和贝类。这里提供的特选套餐分为125欧元和145欧元两种。For a recap and a nightcap, survey the glowing city from the top-floor terrace bar of Hotel do Chiado, which was designed in part by the Pritzker Prize-winning Portuguese architect Siza Vieira. With a port-wine mojito (11 euros) or frothy Chiado Lovers cocktail (vodka, coconut cream, cocoa cream and hot sauce, 10 euros) in hand, you can spot the battlements of the hilltop Castle of Jorge, the Tagus River flowing toward the Atlantic, and the rest of Lisbon: dirt-cheap, gold-plated and beyond.作为一天的告终,也为了睡前酒,我从奇亚多酒店(Hotel do Chiado)的顶楼露台酒吧中俯瞰着这座流光溢的城市,其中有部分正是葡萄牙建筑师、普立兹大奖(Pritzker)得主阿尔瓦罗·西扎·维埃拉(Alvaro Siza Vieira)的设计成果。端起一杯波特酒莫吉托(11欧元)或多泡的希亚多恋人(Chiado Lovers)鸡尾酒(伏特加、椰浆、可可奶油和辣椒酱调制,10欧元),你可以端详着山顶上的圣乔治城堡(Castle of Jorge)的城垛,流向大西洋方向的塔霍河(Tagus River),还有里斯本其余的一切:亲民、镀金以及超越了这些的一切。Copenhagen哥本哈根By LISA ABEND作者:LISA ABENDNot long ago, Copenhagen was a culinary wasteland of pickled herring and gloppy salads on rye b. That began to change in 2003, when the restaurant Noma introduced a cuisine that made creative use of the Nordic region’s edible landscape, and transformed the Danish capital into the objective of a culinary pilgrimage.就在不久之前,哥本哈根在美食方面还是一处蛮荒之地,只有盐渍鲱鱼和抹有黏糊沙拉的黑麦面包。这一切在2003年开始有了变化,Noma餐厅推出了一道创意料理,使用了北欧地区的特有食材,并将这座丹麦的首都转变成了一处美食圣地。It wasn’t long before some of those who worked under René Redzepi branched out on their own — Christian Puglisi, a former sous chef, for instance, just celebrated his restaurant Relae’s fifth birthday. Now, while Mr. Redzepi is taking Noma in new directions — including reopening his restaurant as an urban farm — those who trained under him are no longer simply riffing on Nordic themes, but expanding or even discarding the New Nordic label altogether. Best of all, they’re doing so at all price levels.没过多久,那些曾在雷内·雷哲华(René Redzepi)手下工作过的人员,纷纷各自开拓出了自己的事业——比如当年的副厨师长克里斯汀·普利西(Christian Puglisi),刚刚为他的餐厅Relae庆祝完五岁生日。如今,雷哲华先生正在将Noma带往新的方向,包括以城市农场的形式重开这间餐厅,那些曾在他手下受训的厨师,也不再单纯地复制北欧风格的料理,而是拓展乃至整个抛弃掉“新式北欧”这一标签。最赞的是,他们的这种做法在不同级别的价位领域均有涉及。On the expensive side are Amass and Studio. Graffiti runs along a concrete wall in Amass’s dining room, a clue that the chef, Matt Orlando, does not adhere entirely to the Nordic playbook. Although the restrained artistry of his dishes — they often look as if they were recovered from some extraordinarily beautiful forest floor — reflects the influence of his stint as head chef at Noma, the flavors here, in, say, St. John’s wort leaves stuffed with a creamy pea purée, are less acidic than the typical Nordic ones.若想品尝昂贵的料理,可以选择Amass和Studio。Amass餐室的水泥墙上涂鸦遍布,似乎昭示着餐厅大厨马特·奥兰多(Matt Orlando)不会完全拘泥于传统的北欧料理。虽然他所做的料理呈现出的美感十分有限,常常看上去像是从某块极为美丽的林地中回收来的一样,这也跟他在Noma担任主厨时的节俭习惯有关,但是Amass这里的口味,比如说贯叶连翘叶卷奶油豌豆泥,就没有典型的北欧做法那么酸。That makes sense: Mr. Orlando is from California, which may explain his restaurant’s laid-back vibe. Dinner often ends with patrons gathered outside around a bonfire. Tasting starts at 595 kroner (about , at 6.40 Danish kroner to the dollar).这倒也不奇怪:奥兰多先生本人来自美国的加利福尼亚州,这或许可以解释他的餐厅里为何会有如此悠闲的氛围。晚餐通常会以老顾客们齐聚到外面围在篝火四周告终。特选套餐售价595克朗起(按1美元兑6.40丹麦克朗计算,约合93美元)。There are no bonfires at Studio, which is all about refinement. Located in an old customs house, its sleek dining room juts out over Copenhagen’s harbor. At the helm is Torsten Vildgaard, who worked for many years as Noma’s research chef, developing many of the restaurant’s dishes. On his own, he’s allowed some of his French proclivities to slip into lovely dishes strewn with Nordic-style flowers and foraged herbs. A small heap of shaved truffles tops a perfectly poached quail egg, served wittily in a carton of untouched ones; brown butter adds caramelized flavors to what may be the world’s best monkfish. Tasting for dinner starts at 900 kroner, though there is a lunch for 450.Studio里没有篝火,而是主打一种精致的氛围。这间时尚的餐厅建在一座古老的海关大厦里,就悬在哥本哈根的海港上方。掌舵的是托斯腾·维尔德高(Torsten Vildgaard),他曾在Noma做了很多年的研发厨师,Noma有很多菜式都是他开发的。在他自己的餐厅里,他则将自己身为法国人的一些脾性引入其中,用充满北欧风格的花卉和食用药草,创造出一道道的可爱料理。将一小堆去柄松露堆在一只全熟的水煮鹌鹑蛋上,然后俏皮地夹在一盒原封未动的松露中间上桌;焦化黄油为大概算是世界上最棒的安康鱼添加了几分焦糖的味道。特选套餐中的晚餐售价900克朗起,午餐售价450克朗起。On the affordable end of the scale is Hija de Sánchez. Passers-by at the Torvehallerne food market often marvel at the hand-cranked machine that turns out perfect tortillas at this stand. There is reason for them to marvel even more: Until recently, Rosio Sánchez was Noma’s pastry chef. Now she has opened the kind of place dear to her Mexican-American heart: a taquería. But these are hardly ordinary tacos: The sweetly savory mole sauce gets its depth from some 28 ingredients, the queso fresco is handmade from Danish milk, and those astonishingly good tortillas are made of Oaxacan corn that Ms. Sánchez mills herself. Three-taco combo plate, 100 kroner.若要寻求价格实惠的餐厅,那就是Hija de Sánchez了。Torvehallerne食品市场里的路人,常常惊叹于能够现场制作出完美玉米饼的手摇机。其实还有一点能够让他们更为惊叹:直到不久前,罗西奥·桑切斯(Rosio Sánchez)还是Noma的糕点师。如今她则自己开了一间更受她那颗墨西哥裔美籍心珍视的地方——一间玉米饼店。但是这些可不是什么普通的玉米饼:甜香的巧克力辣椒酱(mole sauce)所拥有的独特口感来自28种原料,鲜奶酪(queso fresco)是用丹麦牛奶手工制成,那些格外美味的玉米饼则是用桑切斯女士亲自用瓦哈卡玉米磨制的玉米粉制作。三份塔可套餐售价100克朗。Christian Puglisi also honors his roots — he’s half-Sicilian — with his newest enterprise, Baest. A rollicking pizzeria, it too pays obsessive attention to its ingredients: The salumi is made and cured in-house from local organic pork, and the mozzarella, made from Danish milk, is pulled by hand. The pizzas, like one with creamy burrata and leeks, are cooked in the open kitchen’s wood-burning oven, and are as good as any you’ll find in Italy. Dinner for one, not counting drinks or tip, about 200 kroner.克里斯汀·普利西同样十分尊敬自己的出身——在他身上流淌着一半西西里岛人的血液——这在他最近新开的餐厅Baest身上也有所体现。这是一间气氛欢快的披萨店,同样对原料诸多注重:腌肉是用本土有机猪肉加工腌制而成,以丹麦牛奶为原料的马苏里拉奶酪也是用人工撕成细丝。这些比萨,比如一张布拉塔芝士加韭菜风味的,是用开放式厨房里的柴炉烤成,均不逊色于你在意大利能找到的任何一家。一人份晚餐,不包括酒水和小费,大约200克朗。There are other noteworthy additions to the “former chef of Noma” list, including, at the high end, Taller, which specializes in a refined version of Karlos Ponte’s native Venezuelan cuisine; and, at the other, the cozy Café Lillebror, where whiskey porridge at breakfast and excellent sandwiches at lunch give way to a creative, accomplished tasting at dinner. Is it Nordic? In Copenhagen, at least, it no longer seems to matter.这份“Noma前任厨师”的名单上还有另外几个值得注意的名字,其中有走高档路线的Taller,专擅改良卡洛斯·彭特(Karlos Ponte)的本土委内瑞拉料理;还有走平民路线、舒适惬意的Café Lillebror,早餐时的威士忌粥和午餐时的美味三明治,都比不上晚餐时充满创意、面面俱到的特选套餐。这些都算是北欧料理吗?至少在哥本哈根,这一点已不再那么重要。Madrid马德里By ANDREW FERREN作者:ANDREW FERRENIt’s not often that a prime and picturesque neighborhood gets the snub from travelers because its shops, restaurants and other establishments are considered too nice. But that’s what some visitors do with Barrio de Salamanca in Madrid, perhaps the city’s toniest enclave, often (and rather aptly) compared to the Upper East Side of Manhattan. While Salamanca’s streets aren’t paved with gold, the barrio does support a surprising density of jewelers, galleries, antiques dealers and luxury fashion houses where prices are, more often than not, sky high. On weekday mornings, rivers of tartan course along the sidewalks as uniformed children scamper off to the area’s many private schools.一处风景如画的一流街区,因为商店、餐厅及其他设施都好得过头而受到游客的冷落,这种情形并不多见。但这正是部分游客对马德里的萨拉曼卡区(Barrio de Salamanca)所抱持的态度,这里大概算是这座城市里最豪华的飞地,堪与美国曼哈顿的上东区比肩。萨拉曼卡的街道虽非黄金铺就,但在这处西班牙市郊中,却随处可见密密麻麻的珠宝店、画廊、古董店和奢侈时装店,其中的价格往往高达天际。每个工作日的早晨,人行道上都能看到一片苏格兰格子的海洋,这是身着制的孩子们正在蹦蹦跳跳地涌向位于这处地区的多所私立学校。But for anyone hoping to savor the true essence of Madrid, even upper-crust Barrio Salamanca has price points ranging from modest to free. Among its cultural treasures is the newly renovated Museo Arqueologico Nacional (admission 3 euros, or about .30), which showcases the art and history of the country’s first indigenous peoples as well as the waves of colonizers — Greek, Roman, Moorish — who came here from across the Mediterranean.但是对于那些想要尽情感受马德里精髓所在的人而言,即便是萨拉曼卡区这样的上流社会街区,也有价格从适中到完全免费的地方可去。当地的文化瑰宝之一,便是新近翻修完毕的国立考古物馆(Museo Arqueologico Nacional)(门票3欧元,约合3.30美元),里面陈列着该国首批原住民以及后继的一批又一批跨越地中海来到这里的殖民者——希腊人、罗马人、尔人——所创造的艺术与历史。If you prefer your art a bit more recent, head straight up Calle Serrano to the Museo Lázaro-Galdiano (admission 6 euros, with a free hour each afternoon) where works by the likes of El Greco, Murillo and Goya share galleries with decorative arts. Other neighborhood cultural beacons include the Fundación Carlos de Amberes, and the Fundación Juan March; both are free and offer temporary exhibitions, concerts and lectures.如果你更希望观赏近代一些的艺术,不妨一直沿着塞拉诺街(Calle Serrano)走到加迪亚诺物馆(Museo Lázaro-Galdiano)(门票6欧元,每天下午有一个小时的免费参观时间),里面既有格雷考(El Greco)、穆里略(Murillo)和戈雅(Goya)这类大师级画家的作品,也能看到装饰性艺术风格的作品。周边的其他文化信标还有安特卫普卡洛斯基金会(Fundación Carlos de Amberes)和胡安·马奇基金会(Fundación Juan March),两者均可免费参观,并且提供临时展览、音乐会和讲座。Gastronomically speaking, the neighborhood is equally varied. Drop into Jurucha for tapas and aperitifs (2 to 3 euros), and, as winter’s chill sets in, consider Taberna de la Daniela for a siesta-inducing cocido, the traditional Madrile stew of garbanzos, vegetables and pork that is served in three courses for 26.50 euros.就美食方面而言,这里也同样给出了十分多样的选择。路过Jurucha时,不妨进去尝尝那里的餐前小吃(tapas)和开胃酒(2~3欧元);冬日寒意降临后,可以考虑到Taberna de la Daniela尝尝诱人入睡的菜炖肉(cocido),一种用鹰嘴豆、蔬菜和猪肉烹制的传统马德里炖煮佳肴,三道菜套餐售价26.50欧元。If a nap is not in your future, try Magasand, the favored gathering spot for fashionistas who snack on sandwiches (5 to 7 euros) while perusing design magazines. If you’re willing to stand in line, the new Gourmet Experience food court at the El Corte Inglés department store at Calle Serrano 52 claims seven Michelin stars among its seventh-floor food-stall vendors with outlets by Jordi Roca, Roberto Ruiz and David Mu. A meal at Mr. Mu’s sit-down StreetXO costs around 40 euros; you can graze at the other stalls for less.如果你从来没有想过午间小憩,可以试试Magasand,这里是备受青睐的时尚达人聚集地,他们常在这里一边吃三明治(5~7欧元)一边认真阅读设计类杂志。如果你愿意排队等候,位于塞拉诺街52号(Calle Serrano 52)的英格列斯百货(El Corte Inglés)里新开了一间Gourmet Experience食品超市,据说在七楼的食阁摊贩中,有7家米其林级摊位,包括乔迪·罗卡(Jordi Roca)、罗伯特·鲁伊斯(Roberto Ruiz)和大卫·穆尼奥斯(David Mu)开设的摊位。穆尼奥斯先生的坐食摊位StreetXO,人均开销大约在40欧元;你也可以在其他外带摊位里买到更便宜一些的美食。Confiteria Rialto has been selling crisp and delicate Marcona-almond and chocolate moscovita wafers (250 grams for 12 euros) for more than 80 years. At La Húngara it’s all about the sweet charms (chocolate and raspberry 10 ways) of Austro-Hungarian desserts, which range in price from 1.50 to 10 euros.Confiteria Rialto已经卖酥脆精美的马尔科纳杏仁白巧克力华夫饼(250克售价12欧元)卖了80多年。在La Húngara,一切则都是围绕着奥匈式甜品的(10种巧克力和覆盆子口味的)甜蜜魅力展开,价格从1.50欧元到10欧元不等。For wearable souvenirs, Renatta amp; Go (T-shirts start about 15 euros) has chic casual wear for women and girls, and all that glitters is merely gold-plated at Aristocrazy (rings from 50 euros), which does a booming business in costume jewelry.若要寻找穿戴类的纪念品,Renatta amp; Go(T恤售价从15欧元左右起)有别致的女性休闲饰出售,还有Aristocrazy,那里所有亮晶晶的东西都是镀金制品(戒指售价从50欧元起),在饰品领域的生意十分兴隆。Last year the Spanish fast-fashion emporium Zara (dresses from 30 euros) opened an elegant and very full-service new flagship on Calle Serrano, and its Massimo Dutti division has restarted a bespoke men#39;s wear line (custom suits from 400 euros) under the aegis of the society style maven Rafael Medina Abascal, bringing a new clientele to the brand. Other local haberdashers like Lander Urquijo and Patch Mercantile’s Curro Ariza do their part to keep the local gentry looking fine at reasonable prices (shirts, 40 to 90 euros; 80-euro jeans) especially considering the quality of the fabrics and tailoring.去年,西班牙的快时尚商场ZARA(饰售价30欧元起)在塞拉诺街开了一间格调雅致、务全面的新旗舰店,它旗下的另一品牌Massimo Dutti,也在社会时尚大师拉斐尔·梅迪纳·阿瓦斯卡尔(Rafael Medina Abascal)的加盟下,重新开辟了一条定制男装产品线(定制西装售价400欧元起),为这跟品牌带来了一个新的客户群体。其他的本地男装店,譬如Lander Urquijo和帕奇商业公司(Patch Mercantile)的Curro Ariza,均尽到了本份,以合理的价格提供款式精致的本地绅士饰(衬衫售价40~90欧元;牛仔裤80欧元),尤其是就其布料和裁剪的品质而言。So whether your budget is 20, 200 or 2,000 euros per day, Madrid’s Barrio de Salamanca is worth getting to know.因此,不论你的预算是日均20欧元、200欧元还是2,000欧元,马德里的萨拉曼卡区都值得你去了解一下。 /201511/407784

  Lao She(1899~1966) was the pen name of Shu Qingchun, also known as Sheyu, who was born into a poor family of Manchu nationality in Beijing. 老舍(1899 ~1966 ),原名舒庆春,字舍予,满族人。He was familiar with the life of the underprivileged townsfolk. His experience exerted a deep and lasting influence on his choice of literary themes. He perceived the townspeople society of Beijing from the point of view of the city paupers, thus endowing his works with affinity to the people and humanitarian feelings.他出生在北京城一个贫民家庭,熟悉下层市民的生活,能从城市贫民的视角来透视市民社会,因而作品具有人民性和人道主义情怀。With modern rationality, Lao She always consciously dedicated himself to the criticism of traditional cultural dross and the reform of the inherent weakness of the nation. 老舍始终以现代理性自觉致力于对传统文化糟粕的批判和对国民劣根性的改造。The Philosophy of Old Zhang,Thus Spoke Master Zhao and Mr. Ma and Son made anatomy of the ingrained bad habits and pointed out the weakness in the national character and abuses of traditional culture.《老张的析学》、《赵子曰》 ,《二马》等剖析国民的劣根性,揭示民族性格扫的弱点和传统文化的弊病。A Tale of the Cat Country probed into the remolding of ancient national character and the resuscitation of national spirit.《猫城记》探讨了古老民族性格的再塑和民族精神的复苏;Divorce exposed the increasing corruption and decadence of national character under the negative influence of traditional culture.《离婚》剖析了国民性格在传统文化负面影响下的日益蜕变衰微;Camel Xiangzi showed how the deformed urban civilization corroded people#39;s healthy spirit and criticized the benighted and fogyish rural culture.《骆驼祥子》批判城市畸形文明病对健康人性的侵蚀,也批判了愚昧守旧的农村文化;The saga novel Four Generations under One Roof depicted the perplexed and alarmed Chinese during the war to reflect on and denounce the traditional feudal culture.长篇小说《四世同堂》描写了战争中中华儿女的惶惑与抗争,对整个封建传统文化进行了反省和批判。With his encyclopedia--like comprehension of townspeople society, Lao She unfolded a panorama of the ancient capital for modern Chinese literature.凭着对市民社会百科全书般的生活知识,老舍为中国现代文学描绘了一幅包罗万象的北平市民社会全景图。All sorts of people, human relations and customs were thoroughly revealed. His works overflowed with special Beijing flavor.三教九流,世态风俗,展露无遗,使作品充溢着浓郁的北京味儿。Lao She was fond of humor, and was skillful in appreciating comic overtones in the mediocre and unambitious conflicts of human natures, making humor tender criticism, restrained while satirical, teasing without embarrassing. With concise and simple Beijing dialect, Lao She narrated the scenes full of local color and portrayed all his characters with distinct individual personalities.老舍的小说追求幽默,善于在庸常的人性矛盾中领略喜剧意味,使幽默成为含有温情的批判,婉而多讽,谑而不虐。His language was plain without being vulgar, exquisite without being ornate, permeated with the mien and flavor of Beijing culture.他的语言创造性地运用了北京市民俗白浅易的口语,平易却不粗俗,精致而不雕琢,处处渗透着北京文化的神态气韵。Lao She#39;s development and creation of the language of modern vernacular literature earned him the reputation of “master of language;.老舍对现代白话文学语言的发展创造使他获得了“语言大师”的美誉。Lao She supplied the headstream of ;Beijing flavor novels; which were written in Beijing vernacular about Beijing people and their ways and customs. 老舍是“京味小说”的源头。Lao She#39;s works, together with the long literary pieces created by Mao Dun and Ba Jin, compose the three pinnacles in the art of modern full-length novel.他的作品与茅盾、巴金的长篇创作一起,构成现代长篇小说艺术的三大高峰。 /201603/428931NEW TAIPEI CITY, Taiwan — Most people in Taiwan are probably aware of the country’s pre-eminent performance group, Cloud Gate Dance Theater, even if they have no interest in modern dance.台湾新北市——大多数台湾人就算对现代舞没有任何兴趣,可能也会知道这里最杰出的表演艺术团:云门舞集。Board a bus or a subway here, and you may see images of the troupe’s dancers emblazoned on the sides. Visit the popular Tamsui district and you may catch a glimpse of the company’s gleaming new million home, which opened in April. If you travel on China Airlines, Taiwan’s flagship carrier, you may even fly on the Cloud Gate Liveried Aircraft, adorned with dancers’ likenesses. The airline unveiled it last year, saying the troupe represented the “pinnacle of Taiwan culture.”大巴或地铁上,车厢两侧装点着云门舞者们的形象。来到热门的淡水区,便可以看到这个剧团四月启用、耗资2200万美元的亮丽新剧场。如果乘坐台湾最大的中华航空公司的飞机,甚至可以搭乘“云门绘机”,飞机上装点着舞者们的形象。这架飞机去年开始投入运营,航空公司称,该舞团代表了“台湾文化的佼佼者”。Founded in 1973, Cloud Gate was Taiwan’s first professional dance company. Forty-two years later, it has become a roving, bounding symbol of this island. On Wednesday, it will open the annual Next Wave Festival at the Brooklyn Academy of Music with the ed States premiere of a 2013 work, “Rice.” The visit, with performances through Saturday, will be its sixth to the academy, and its first stop on a tour that will include performances in Los Angeles (January) and Washington (February). The company moves on to Paris in the spring.云门舞集成立于1973年,是台湾第一个职业舞团。42年后,它成了与这个岛屿密不可分的流动符号。一年中有三分之一的时间,它都在世界各地巡演,星期三它将在一年一度的“下一波艺术节”(Next Wave Featival)演出,在布鲁克林音乐学院献上2013年创作的《稻禾》,长度持续整晚。这是该舞团第六次访问布鲁克林音乐学院,也是它此次美国巡演的第一站,之后舞团还将于明年一月在洛杉矶演出,于明年二月在华盛顿演出,并于春天去往巴黎。Promoting Taiwan’s image abroad is a responsibility that Cloud Gate’s founder, artistic director and chief choreographer, Lin Hwai-Min, 68, does not take lightly.云门舞集的创始人、艺术总监兼首席编舞林怀民今年68岁,他将提升台湾的海外形象视为重任。“He’s a very public figure,” said Yatin Lin (no relation), a professor of dance studies at Taipei National University of the Arts. “Because of the political situation with mainland China, it’s very difficult for our political leaders to be active abroad, so many people see him as not just an artist but as a kind of cultural ambassador for Taiwan.”“他是重要的公众人物,”国立台北艺术大学舞蹈研究教授林雅婷(与林怀民无亲戚关系)说。“因为与中国大陆的政治形势,我们的政治领导人很难在海外积极开展活动,所以很多人认为他不仅仅是艺术家,也是台湾的某种文化大使。”This month, that commitment was on display as the choreographer marched into the rehearsal theater at the company’s new complex, clad in his signature uniform (black T-shirt, black pants) and brandishing a black backpack and a pack of cigarettes. While he settled at a table facing the stage, the company’s 22 dancers ied themselves for their first full run-through of “Rice” in a month.本月,这位舞蹈家来到舞团新剧场的排练场,亲身演示了一下这种责任心。他穿着自己的招牌制——黑T恤,黑裤子,手上是黑色背包和一包香烟。他坐在一张桌子上,面对舞台,舞团的22名舞者正在准备在一个月内第一次全面串演一遍他创作的《稻禾》。As the music — a compilation of Hakka folk songs, drumming and Western classical music — began, a lone dancer strode out holding a long, quivering rattan stick. In the next 70 minutes, the dancers stamped, leapt and folded and unfolded their bodies in a demonstration of Cloud Gate’s hybrid aesthetic, which combines Western classical dance techniques with Eastern “rounded” movements that draw on martial arts and tai chi. Missing from the run-through was the production’s backdrop, a sumptuous filmed on location over a cycle of rice cultivation in Chihshang in southeastern Taiwan.配乐响起——是客家民谣、古典和西方交响乐的结合——一个孤独的舞者大步走上舞台,手中是一长长的,颤颤巍巍的藤杖。在接下来的70分钟里,舞者们顿足、跳跃、收缩和伸展身体,展现云门的融合美学,它结合了西方古典舞技巧与东方的“圆”运动,这需要舞者进行特别的训练,诸如武术和太极。串演中没有背景,那是一段丰富的视频,内容是台湾西南部的池上乡,稻米从生长到收获的全过程。Mr. Lin sat mostly silent, scribbling notes and only intermittently shouting (“Don’t rush, don’t rush!” and “Breathe!”). After the dancers took their final, choreographed bows, he stood and went through his notes, working with individuals on minor tweaks. The rehearsal had gone well and now the dancers just needed to focus on taking care of their bodies for the coming season, he told them later as they sat around him on the stage, stretching and massaging their muscles with foam rollers.大多数时候,林怀民静静地坐着,随手做着笔记,只是偶尔才叫喊几句,诸如“别急,别急!”和“呼吸!”舞者跳完最后一段,按照设计的舞蹈动作鞠躬时,他站起身来继续做笔记,和有小问题的人进行交流。后来舞者们在舞台上围着他坐成一圈,用泡沫轴伸展身体,肌肉,他告诉大家,排练很顺利,现在他们只需要好好注意身体,迎接即将到来的演出季。Later, in the company’s offices, Mr. Lin talked about the obligations he felt toward the dancers and society.后来,在舞团的办公室里,林怀民谈起自己对舞者们乃至整个社会的使命感。“I often remind the dancers that when they are onstage, they are often the only Taiwanese people that a lot of people get to see that are actually labeled as Taiwanese,” he said.“我经常提醒舞者们,当他们在舞台上的时候,他们就是很多人所能见到的仅有的,被贴上‘台湾人’标签的台湾人,”他说。“每当我看着他们在舞台上的时候,我都真心喜爱他们,我简直爱慕他们。因为突然之间,台湾人就显得那样自信、那样健康、那样优雅。在五六十年代成长起来的我们身上就没有这种东西。”Much has changed since Mr. Lin was born in Taiwan in 1947. Chiang Kai-shek and his Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army fled here in 1949 after losing the civil war to Mao’s Chinese Communists. The Kuomintang ruled Taiwan with an authoritarian hand for decades until 1996, when Taiwanese voters elected their president for the first time. Taiwan has been considered a democracy ever since (and may elect its first female president in January), but the island remains a disputed territory.林怀民于1947年出生在台湾,自那以后发生了很大变化。1949年,蒋介石与他的国民革命军在内战中败给了毛泽东的中国共产党,于是逃来台湾。国民党以独裁手段统治台湾数十年,直至1996年,台湾选民第一次票选出自己的总统。自那以后,台湾被视为民主政权(一月还有可能选出首位女总统),但是这个岛仍然属于争议领土。Growing up as the oldest of five children, Mr. Lin nurtured multiple passions, for politics, writing and dance. Only years later, while a student at the University of Iowa Writers’ Workshop, did he decide to pursue choreography. He had spent two summers in New York studying dance at the Martha Graham School, and after completing his degree at Iowa he returned to Taiwan, and soon started Cloud Gate.林怀民是五个兄弟中的老大,他兴趣广泛,对政治、写作和舞蹈都有深深的热情。几年后,他到爱荷华大学的作家学习班学习,决心学习编舞。他花了两个暑假,在纽约的玛莎·格雷厄姆学校(Martha Graham School)学舞蹈,修完爱荷华的学位之后,他回到台湾,不久后创立了云门。The company’s birth came just two years after what Mr. Lin, like many other Taiwanese, sees as a defining moment in the nation’s recent political history: the 1971 resolution that displaced the government in Taipei as the representative of China at the ed Nations in favor of the government in Beijing.舞团诞生两年前,林怀民和众多台湾人一起见了台湾近代政治历史上的决定性时刻:1971年,联合国以北京政府取代台北政府,作为中国代表。“When I started the company I said, ‘Composed by Chinese, choreographed by Chinese, danced by Chinese, for a Chinese audience,’ ” said Mr. Lin, whose family has lived in Taiwan for generations. “Then Taiwan was kicked out of the U.N. and all of a sudden I had to figure out who I was.”“刚刚创立舞团时我说,‘中国人作曲、中国人编舞、中国人跳给中国观众,’”数代定居台湾的林怀民说,“然后台湾就被赶出联合国,突然之间,我要想清楚自己是谁。”The event inspired “Legacy” (1978), which portrayed the early history of Taiwan. It was followed by such works as “Songs of the Wanderers,” “Moon Water” and the “Cursive” trilogy.这段经历成为了《薪传》(1978)的灵感来源,它展现了台湾的早年历史,以及它的第一批开拓者。其后舞团还推出了《流浪者之歌》、《水月》和《行草》三部曲。Reviews of Cloud Gate’s performances in the ed States have been mixed. Critics have lauded the company#39;s East-meets-West approach, with Anna Kisselgoff writing in The New York Times in 2003 that “Moon Water” was a “work unlike any other.” But Alastair Macaulay of The Times wrote in 2011 that the works were “repetitive” and called “Water Stains on the Wall” “devoid of lightness and humor.”在美国,对云门的表演评价不一。家们赞美它的东西方结合方式,2003年,安娜·基塞格夫(Anna Kisselgoff)为《纽约时报》撰文,称《水月》是“与众不同的杰作”,然而2011年,阿拉斯泰尔·麦考利(Alastair Macaulay)说云门的作品“啰嗦”,说《屋漏痕》“缺乏轻快和幽默的气息”。As the company’s stature grew, so too did the modern dance scene in Taiwan.随着舞团的名气日益增长,现代舞在台湾也有了长足发展。“Before Cloud Gate, there wasn’t even such thing as a wuzhe,” said Ping Heng, 57, the founder and artistic director of Dance Forum Taipei, using the term for dancer. “Before, people thought dancing was something you could do in school, but it wasn’t something worthy of being a profession. They just called dancers ‘tiaowu de ren,’ ” literally, people who dance.“在云门舞集之前,(台湾)根本没有所谓‘舞者’一说,”台北舞蹈空间舞团的创始人兼艺术总监,57岁的平珩说。“以前,人们觉得舞蹈是可以在学校里跳跳的东西,但并不觉得它值得成为职业。他们只是管舞者叫‘跳舞的人’。”Lin Lee-Chen, 65, the founder and artistic director of the Legend Lin Dance Theater in Taipei, said, “The dance scene in Taiwan today is very diverse,” with dance companies “of all sizes and styles.”台北无垢舞蹈剧场的创始人兼艺术总监林丽珍说,“如今台湾的舞蹈场景非常多样化,有很多规模不一,风格各异的舞团。”When asked about his possible retirement, Mr. Lin of Cloud Gate was reluctant to comment. But he acknowledged that the company’s new complex, which he said would allow his troupe and other dance and theatrical ventures to perpetuate the “Cloud Gate energy,” would make it easier for him to step away.被问到何时退休时,林怀民不太愿意回答。但他承认,舞团的新剧场让其他舞蹈和戏剧团体也可以传承“云门精神”,而不仅仅是务他自己的舞团,因此他要退下来就变得容易得多。Still, “I don’t want any statues,” he said. “I’m a Buddhist. I think everything is just illusory, especially for dancers.但是,“我不想树立任何雕像,”他说。“我信佛,我觉得一切都是幻影,特别是对于舞者们来说。”“We know that dance happens, but it also vanishes when it happens,” he said. “All we are creating is air. We are giving society a different air, that’s all.”“我们知道舞蹈发生了,但它在发生的同时就在消失。我们创造的只是一种氛围。你给这个社会带来另一种氛围,这就够了。” /201509/399511


  5.Belladonna Drops5.;贝拉多娜的眼泪;Atropa belladonna, also known as #39;deadly nightshade,#39; is extremely toxic. In Greek mythology, Atropos was one of the three fates—the one who cut the th of life. Belladonna been taken as a hallucinogen, as medicine, and as poison. It was also added to eye-drops for its dilating effects. Belladonna contains a natural muscle relaxant that Venetians greatly appreciated. The name #39;belladonna#39; is an homage to the Italian Renaissance women who famously used it.颠茄,也被称作龙葵,是一种剧毒植物。希腊神话里,阿特洛波斯是手握生杀大权的命运三女神之一。颠茄制剂可以被用作迷幻剂、药物和毒品。更因其具有良好的扩散性,曾被添加于眼药水中。Large pupils were considered attractive, but that beauty came at a cost. Belladonna elevated heart rate and blurred vision. Women who used it too much went blind. Many other beauty products throughout have had the same effect. In 1933, Lash Lure Eyelash and Brow Dye caused 15 recorded cases of permanent blindness. The product contained 30 times the recommended amount of paraphenylenediamine.颠茄属植物中含有一种备受人青睐的天然肌肉松弛剂。西文名称;贝拉多娜;,意为;漂亮女人;。文艺复兴时期的意大利有人曾经提取颠茄的果实用于制作女性散瞳的眼药水,取这个名字是为了纪念这段历史。瞳孔大一些的动人双眸是会让女性看起来更楚楚动人,但是美丽需要代价,颠茄制剂会加快心率并且损伤视力。如果过量使用便会导致失明。还有许多其他美容产品也有类似的副作用。比如1933年就发生了15起因使用睫毛膏和染眉膏而永久失明的案例。原因这些产品中对苯二胺的含量超标30多倍。4.Foot Binding4.缠足Chinese foot binding is estimated to have begun in the 10th century, during the Song Dynasty. Women#39;s feet were broken with their toes were bent inward. At first, foot binding was a sign of high social status, reserved for women who didn#39;t have to work. Bound feet also showed that a potential wife would be submissive. This painful, severely disfiguring custom sp to the lower classes over time. It was finally banned in 1911, but still continued in rural areas.据说,中国的缠足这个习俗始于公元十世纪,大约是宋朝。缠足使女人的脚折断,并往里弯曲。缠足在一开始是社会地位高的标志,专门为不需要劳作的女人而设计的。被束缚的脚还意味着顺从,这是一个妻子必备的品德。但这个痛苦又极其变态的风俗习惯慢慢传到了下层社会。虽然它于1911年被废除,但在农村地区依然存在。The binding process began when a child was 5 or 6 years old. Smaller feet indicated higher refinement, which improved a woman#39;s marriagability. A three-inch foot, or ;golden lotus,; was ideal. Anyone who wound up with feet that were five inches or longer (i.e., iron lotuses) would have significantly fewer marriage prospects. The #39;lotus feet#39; tradition lasted through a millennium.因为小脚是高修养的象征,可以增加女人的;可嫁性;,所以很多女孩子从五六岁就开始缠足。;三寸金莲;最为理想。而有着一双五寸或更长的脚(也称;铁莲;)的姑娘的结婚机会将会变少。这种缠足传统延续了一个千禧年。3.Corsets3.束腰Corsets were bodywear that could be tightened to reshape the torso. Corset-created 13-inch waists were never the norm, but women did use corsets to squeeze their bodies many inches inward, causing negative effects on health. The pressure led to constipation and organ damage. Shallow breath caused dizziness and fainting. Women#39;s back muscles were also weakened by regular use.束腰是一种通过;拉固;来重塑体型的紧身衣。虽然;13英寸;腰围从来都不是标准,但还是有许多女人用束腰来把腰往里挤,这对她们的健康是非常不利的。来自束腰的压力会造成便秘,还会给器官带来损害。束腰带来的浅呼吸会使人头晕甚至晕过去。常常穿戴束腰还会使女人的背部肌肉减弱。Corset wearing has continued into the modern day. Waist training, also known as tight-lacing, is advertised as a way to shape the body; to flatten the stomach while maintaining desirable curves elsewhere. Some pros recommend women pair waist training with diet and exercise for the best results. Others recommend avoiding corsets altogether. Spanx are a type of modern-day corset, and they compress the body enough to cause nerve problems, stomach pain, and other bodily issues affected women who wore whalebone corsets not so long ago.束腰直到现在还是非常流行的。束腰,也叫紧身衣,打着;重塑身形;的广告,在保持别的完美线条的时候收紧腹部。有的持者推荐女人把束腰和平衡饮食还有锻炼相结合,以得到最好的瘦身效果。而反对者倡导完全摆脱束腰。瘦身裤是一种新型束腰,它对身体的压力足以造成神经问题、肚子痛,以及其它不久前鲸须束腰胸衣会造成的身体问题。2.;Toebesity; surgery2.缩趾手术Something of a new phenomenon, toe-besity surgery beautifies ;fat feet.; It allows people have more confidence as they wear sandals and show off their piggly wigglies. It also allows some to fit into high heels or other shoes that don#39;t conform to their natural foot shape. Surgery to shave toe fat and bone would have been considered ludicrous at the turn of the century, but this cosmetic procedure has been gaining traction over the last decade. According to the American Podiatric Medical Association, foot surgery is usually performed out of necessity. People who elect to have any medically unwarranted procedure put themselves at risk. The dangers of surgery include infection, a negative reaction to anesthesia, unsatisfactory results, pain, and the unexpected need for more surgery in the future.从某种意义上说缩趾手术是一项奇迹,它可以使;巨足;变美。它使人们穿凉鞋时更自信也能让他们炫耀从小猪扭扭购买到的鞋子。同时它可以让某些人穿上高跟鞋或其他一些之前脚型不能驾驭的鞋子。在本世纪之交,足部矫形手术被认为是荒唐的,然而在过去的十年中,针对这类美容手术我们已经有了牵引治疗。根据美国足部医学协会的说法,足部手术通常被认为是不必要的。那些寻求足部治疗但没有任何正当理由的的人都会置身于风险之中。手术的风险包括感染、麻醉的不良反应、不理想的结果、疼痛、以及一些无法预料的后续手术。1.Breast Augmentation1.隆胸The first silicone breasts were implanted Houston, Texas in 1962. Now breast augmentation is the second-most popular elective cosmetic surgery performed worldwide. Countries that perform the procedure most include the ed States, Brazil, Italy, and China. On top of the normal risks of surgery, breast augmentation poses other dangers. Implants may last for decades. On the other hand, they can rupture in a matter of weeks, in which case another full-cost surgery is required.1962年在美国华盛顿德克萨斯州,第一例硅酮隆胸物被植入。在当今世界,隆胸在最流行的整容手术中名列第二。其中表现最明显的国家包括:美国、巴西、意大利、以及中国。隆胸手术除了一些常规的手术风险外还会造成一系列的其他危险。植入物可能只能维持数十年。另一方面,它们可能会在几周后就发生爆裂,这种情况下手术又需要重头开始。Women who have breast implant surgery may develop breast tissue atrophy, unpleasant changes in breast sensitivity, or scar tissue that causes pain. Asymmetry, unexpected deformities, and generally disappointing results are not uncommon. Breast implants have also been linked to cancer in rare cases. Those aren#39;t even close to all of the painful possibilities, but potential problems are often ignored in favor of a little extra bulk in the bra. Is it really that unusual? Clearly, people have been compromising their health for beauty for thousands of years.有过隆胸手术的女人很可能会发生胸部组织萎缩,胸部过敏会有不良反应,伤疤组织会引起疼痛。胸部不对称,意外的畸形,以及令人失望的结果都是很常见的。在某些案例中,胸部植入物也可能引发癌症。而这些还不是所有的负面可能性,然而为了内衣里那些额外填充物,这些潜在的问题经常被忽略。它真的那样非比寻常么?很显然,人们为了美丽已让健康妥协了数千年了。翻译:哈利小王子 来源:前十网 /201512/413910。

  Literature : The Qing emperors understood themselves as patrons of artistsand writers. Especially the Emperor Kangxi promoted the compilation and publication of all knowledge and writing of China.文学:清朝统治者把自己看成是艺术家和作家们的守护神,尤其是康熙皇帝,他促成了中国的知识和作品的编辑发行。During his reign the History of Ming Dynasty came off the press, along with, the illustrated encyclopedia Gujin Tushu Jicheng , the Collection of Tang Poetry and Tang Prose Writings , the character dictionary Kangxi Dictionary , the Rhyme Dictionary , and the collection Siku Quanshu , a compendium that tried to subsummize all existent writings that had ever been published. Emperor Kangxi made great cotributions to Chinese literature.在他执政时期,出版发行了《明史》、《古 今图书集成》、《全唐诗》、《全唐文》,以及《康熙字典》、《佩文韵府》和《四库全书》。 《四库全书》尝试着对所有已发表的作品进行总结。康熙皇帝为中国文学发展作出了很大贡献。However his two successors went to far In order to ensure their rulership, they got literary inquisitions into full swing. Therefore, literary critics at that time were punished. The literary standard of the Qing rulers also enclosed demoralizing writings. Qing novels, which are colorful and rich in daily language, is therefore very different from Yuan and Ming novels.但是,他的两个继承人为了确保他们的统治地位而大搞“文字狱”。 为此,清政府时期的文学家受到了惩罚。清朝统治者的文学标准封杀了有伤风化的文学作品,清朝时期的小说与元朝和明朝时期的多姿多的和日常生活用语丰富的小说不一样。Qing novels like Cao Xueqin^ 14 Dream of Red Mansion , Wu Jingzi#39;S The Scholars , 〇nd Xi〇 Jingxu^ u Words of an Old Peasant Sunning are written in a very subtitle language with many reminiscences to the old literature that can only be understood by well educated people.清朝时期的小说主要有曹雪芹的《红楼梦》、吴敬梓的《儒林外史》、夏敬渠的《野叟曝言》,所有这些小说语言精练,并大多数都带有古文学 的味道,并且只有那些受到过良好教育的人才能读懂。Likewise are the short story collections like Pu Songling 44 Strange Accounts from, the Leisure Study , Yuan Mei^ u What Confucius did not Say f,, and Ji Yun u Essays from the Short Grass Hall”? Less popular anthologies are Pu Songling’s “Xingshi Yinyuan” or a Matrimonial Causations Awakening the World.同样的作品还有蒲松龄的短篇小说集《聊斋志异》、袁枚的《子不语》、纪昀的《阅微草堂笔记》等。还有一些 就是和前者相比略显逊色的蒲松龄的《醒世因缘》等等。In the sphere of high-class theatre, we also find a subtle and romantic style in the plays of Li Yu (the erotic novel M Rouputuan or M Carnal Prayer Matyi is attributed to him), Hong Sheng (u Hall of Everlasting Life ) 〇nd Kong Shangren ( Peach Blossom Fan ).戏曲方面有创作细腻、充满浪漫色调的戏曲作品,如,李渔(性爱小说《肉蒲团》就是描写李渔的)、洪升(《长生殿》)和孔尚任(《桃花扇》)等的戏曲作品。From the end of 18th century on, the private correspondence between scholars was written in a very free and apolitical style (for example, the autobiography u Six Records of an Unsteady Life ty by Shen Fu), and even in the public sphere, we find writers that did not hesitate to show their unconventional standpoint, like the poet and essayist Yuan AAei and Li Ruzhen (writing the nover“The Causal Connection of a Flower and Its Mirror Reflection”)who both supported thoughts of equal rights for women.从18世纪末期开始,文人之间开始用自由的非官方用语的形式互通信件(如 沈复自传《浮生六记》)。不仅如此,甚至在公开场合下也使用自由体和非官方文 体,他们毫不犹豫地表达了自己的非传统观点,如诗人和散文作家袁枚和李汝珍 (著有《镜花缘》)。同时,这两位作家还赞成男女平等的女权主义思想。For the scholars that lived during the conquest of the Manchu, the downfall of the Ming regime was a prove for the abuse of authoritarian power of the central government in Beijing.对于那些见了满清的征又看到了明朝的灭亡的学者们来说,他们知道明朝时期北京政府的高度集权和滥用职权最后导致了明朝的灭亡。However, these people did not only criticize the Ming autocracy, and thereby supporting the new Qing rulers. Thinkers and philosophers of the new age (mid 17th century to 18th century) also criticized the traditional, sterile and impeding style of Confucian classics that had been interpreted by the Neo-Confucianists of the Song and Ming eras. Criticizing or overworshiping the liter-ature authoritarism of the Ming also meant doubting the legitimacy of the new rulers.但是,这些文人墨客们,一方面 批判明朝的独裁统治,一方面又持新的清朝独裁统治者。新时期(从17世纪中 期到18世纪)的思想家和哲学家们也批判宋、明时期所演绎的传统、乏味和有碍于文学发展的儒家作品。批判和过于尊崇明朝时期的文学同样都是质疑清朝早期统治者的权威性。Many scholars were put to death for opposing the Qing regime, like Jin Shengtan, but others stayed unmolested, like the important history critics Huang Zongxi, the evolution theoretician Wang Fuzhi, Fang Yizhi, and Gu Yanwu. All of these philosophers were oriented to practical sciences and interpreted philosophy only as one part of a cosmism of sciences, the study of classical Confucian writings and their interpretations were by no means the heart of education.清朝时期也有很多学者由于反对清朝的统治而被处死,如金圣叹等。但是,也有一些人却安然无恙,如,举足轻重的历史学家黄宗羲,进化论观点持有者王夫之、方以智和顾炎武,所有这些哲学家们都致力于研究实学、并声称哲学不过是科学宇宙进化论的一部分而已,对儒家作品的研究和释义无论如何都不能 成为学习和教育的重心。This viewpoint was deduced by Gu Zuyu, Mei Wending, Yan Yuan, and Li Gong. The school of thinking that leads to a deepgoing change in the life of Confucian classics was the movement of text criticism that came up during the second half of 17th century.这一观点得到了顾祖禹、梅文鼎、颜元和李埭的进一步演 绎。这一导致儒家大作深刻变化的思潮源于17世纪后期对教科书的批判。The Rites of Zhou and the Book of Documentswere identified as later compositions than they purported to be, many histories and stories about early Confucian saints and rulers were detected as being later inventions. The Book of Songs did not only contain hymns for the Zhou rulers, but also simple love songs.《周礼》和《尚书》事实上要比人们所认为的出现的晚得多,其中,很多有关早期儒家圣 人和统治者的历史和故事也不过是人的杜撰而已。《诗经》不仅有关于周朝统治者 的颂歌,也有关于朴素爱情的诗歌。Confucius and the writings attributed to him were dethroned by man like Wan Sida, Yan Ruoqu, Hu Wei, Yuan Mei, Wang Zhong, Cui Shu, and Hui Dong.那些被认为是属于统治者的儒家思想和作品 则被清朝时期的文人和作家所废弃,这些人有万斯大、阎若璩、胡渭、袁枚、汪中、崔 述和惠栋等。This movement was quite similar to the first researches of the Greek and Hebrew original texts of the bible, a book whose Latin version had been sacrosanct since the being of Christianity.这种举动和对希腊语、希伯来语版本的《圣经》的早期研究极为相似, 而拉丁语版本的《圣经》自从基督教诞生以来被认为是最为神圣的。Zhang Xuecheng was one of the first historians to lay stress on the importance of local history of the huge empire of China. Every document, he said, had to be incorporated into a historiography, and not only annals and edicts like the official histories did. Historiography should also be a personal work although there might be subjective interpretations.章学诚是首先 强调庞大中国地方历史的历史学家之一。他认为,每卷史书都应融人编年史者的 工作,而不应该像官府史书那样仅仅是历史记载和政府法令的记录,编史工作可以 是个人行为,尽管会掺杂有个人的主观释义。Probably the most important writer and scientist of early and middle Qing peri-od was Dai Zhen, a universal scholar, mathematician, philologist, one of the ed卜 tors of the collection Siku Quanshu , and philosopher; the most objective and earnest criticist of Neo-Confucian interpretation of the classical writings and their nature philosophy.可以说,清朝早、中期的最主要的作家和科学家是戴震。戴震是一位多才多艺 的学者,他是数学家,语言学家,《四库全书》编纂者之一和哲学家,是古典文学作品 新儒思想释义和自然哲学最客观、最认真的家。His most important philosophical writing might be The Origin of Goodness ’’ or Yuanshan ? Instead of the Neo-Confucian universal order, he interpreted any being as being guided and led by breath, odem or matter that helps the abstract cosmic order to manifest all appearances.其最主要的哲学作品是《原 善》。他解释说任何人都受呼吸和气的引导,而不是新儒理论,气能助道在各方面 展现。Books about practical science and philology were not only written and published by scholars or officials, but also by rich merchants that patronized writers and artists and that engaged themselves in studies about geography, chronology, epigraphy, mathematics, philology, and the Confucian Classics.除此之外,有关实学和语言学的书籍也由学者和官方大量出版。同时,那些 赞助作家和艺术家的、甚至自己也直接参与学习研究地理、编年史、碑文学、数学、 语言学和儒家思想的富商们也积极出版发行作品。The places for scholars preparing for the state examinationswere provided by private academies. Private studies and patronage only ended with the financial and economical ruin of the rich merchant families of the lower Yangtze area at the end of 18th century. But all of these made the writing prosperous in the early and middle of the Qing Dynasty.当时,学子们备考科举的地方276由书院提供。最后,由于18世纪末期长江下游富商之家金融和经济的衰败而致使 私学和个人资助而告终。不过,所有这些,还是让清朝早中期的文学曾经一度繁荣。Science and technology : There are many fields of social activities and sciences the two cultural spheres learned from each other. During the end of Ming and beginning of Qing Dynasty, the Jesuit padres residing at the imperial court in Beijing was important media for the cultural and technical exchange from east to west and vice versa.科学技术:清朝时期,东西方在很多社会活动和科学领域中相互学习。明末清初,耶稣教传道士居住北京皇宫,这就是东西方文化和科技交流的重要媒介。While the Jesuits showed to the Chinese upper class the technical inventions made in Europe during the past century, like watches and astronomical instruments, they were impressed by the high standards of Chinese medicine, and land surveying.当这些耶稣使者向中国的上层阶级展现欧洲在上一个世纪重大科技发明的同时,包括 手表、天文仪器等,他们也被中国的高超的医疗水平和土地勘查所深深打动。Chinese painters and musicians adopted European concepts of art. Chinese painters and calligraphers had always stood in the century-old tradition of elder patterns and models. Musicians did not live as famous composers, but as nameless instruments of the ritual art of music.中国 画家和音乐家吸收采纳了欧洲艺术概念。那时,中国画家和书法家一直停留在对 有百年之久的老格局和传统模式的表达。音乐家不是作为著名的创作人而存在,而是音乐形式艺术中名不见经传的乐器而存在。The west was inspired by technically improved objects like suspension-bridges with iron chains, a push cart with a sail, rotating de-spelting machines, magnetism, and much more. The great universal genius Leibniz undertook deepgoing investigations into Chinese technique.西方被中国的高科技成就,如铁 索悬桥、有帆手推车、磁力学等所震惊。世界著名天才人物雷柏尼茨曾经对中国科 学技术进行过深人研究。Silk worms were introduced to the west some centuries before, but industrial production of silk could only be established in the 16th century. The German J. F. Bett-ger accidentally invented porcelain, but the need for Chinese porcelain was very high in the stream of a China fashion in 18th century Europe.中国蚕丝在几个世纪之前就传人欧洲,但是,丝绸工业生 产直到16世纪才出现。德国人J. F.伯特格尔一次偶然的机会发明了瓷器,但是, 18世纪的欧洲仍然大量需要中国瓷器。Philosophers interpreted the tranquil and prosperous empire of the Kangxi and Qianlong Emperors as the ideal state, headed by a wise monarch. Until the end of 18th century, China was technically much more advanced than the west, and only the industrial revolution helped the western states to become prevalent powers during the 19th century, giving them a sentiment of being superior to the backward Chinese empire.哲学家们认为,清朝康熙、乾隆统治时期 的两大盛世理想的国度,是明君执政的理想国度。直到18世纪末,中国在科技方 面一直比西方世界先进,只是后来19世纪的工业革命使西方诸国变成优势国家, 让他们有了比落后的中国王朝先进的优越感。Art:Qing Dynasty art can be called a culmination of all art styles that have been developed during the past 2500 years. Unlike Ming artists , artisans, painters, calligraphers and craftsmen during the Qing period used very old forms and shapes for their works of art.艺术:清朝时期的艺术是过去2500年间中国各种艺术形式发展的顶峰时期。 不同于明朝,清朝时期的艺术家、手工艺人、画家、书法家以及工匠们在创作艺术作 品时都使用极为传统的形式和格式。Chinaware and lacquerware objects were given not only the bulgy shapes that had developed since the Song Dynasty, but we find also vases or cups with the shape of Shang or Zhou bronze ware like the zun type. Gourd shapes vessels,vases with three openings or more,the typical “rice” bowls and the small tea cups and tea pots we know today all developed during the QingDynasty.瓷器和漆器制作时,不仅使用了源于宋朝的 突出形状,花瓶和杯子也采用了商、周的铜器形状,如樽等。葫芦状容器、三开嘴或 多开嘴的花瓶、独有特色的“饭”碗,以及小茶杯、茶壶等,即便是现代的人们也是耳 熟能详,都是源于清朝时期。The typical bluegreen of the Ming chinaware changed to a broader palett of colors, ranging from orange to green and gold ; Qing chinaware is much more colorful than the former types.明朝时期的蓝绿色为特色的瓷器,在清朝时期发生了 极大变化,色趋向多样化,从橘黄色到绿色、金色等。所以清朝时期的瓷器比以 往任何朝代的瓷器都更加丰富多。New materials extensively used now are enamel, cloisonne and glass ware. Materials like jade, gold and cloisonne are first combined in a single art object.现在,人们广泛使用的新材料是珐琅、景泰蓝 和玻璃制品。玉、黄金和景泰蓝第一次同时使用在一件制品中。Additionally, a dark wooden base for vases or other i-tems came up. We also possess a lot of objects made from easy decayable materials like wood or bamboo, for example furniture, and of course cloth material that served as daily worn dress, or as simple object of admiration.除此之外,黑木花 瓶和其他艺术品也开始出现。到现在我们仍然拥有大量的使用易于腐烂的材料如 木头和竹子制成的物件,如家具等。当然,还有我们日常穿戴的布料或者简易的小 饰品等。In the field of calligraphy, Qing artists went on to use the traditional styles of writing, but unlike Ming calligraphers, people now studied the oldest examples of Chinese script like the oracle bones and bronze vessel inscriptions. With the advent of Christian missionaries in China, Chinese painters learned from the Jesuits Western painting techniques like perspective and the use of oil-paint instead of monochrome ink.在书法领域,清朝书法家继续沿用传统的书法形式。但是,与明朝书法家 不同的是,清朝书法家研究的是中国手迹的最古老的范本,如卜骨和铜器上的刻文 等。清朝时期随着大批基督教传道士的到来,中国画家也吸收了基督教中的绘画 技巧,如透视法和油画技术取代了单色墨画。Even buildings and palaces were constructed according to the Western style, like the Yuanmingyuan Palace that was destroyed in the 19th century the Eight-Power Allied Forces. Typical for the Qing Dynasty private houses are the many gardens laid out by rich families in Suzhou and Hangzhou.甚至楼房和宫殿的建造也是仿照西 方风格,如在19世纪被八国联军毁掉的圆明园。清朝时期民间建筑的典型形式是 苏州、杭州的富有之家建造的众多园林建筑。 /201603/428572

  A few months ago, I stood at the corner of a busy roundabout called Place Lamartine, across from the Roman gates leading into Arles in southern France, on a spot that was pivotal in the life of Vincent van Gogh. Behind me was the Rhone River, where he painted sparkling reflections from the quay on one particularly memorable starry night. Before me was a run-down commercial strip leading toward vast fields of the sunflowers he painted time and again.几个月前,我站在人来人往的拉马丁广场的拐角,马路对面是进入法国南部阿尔勒的古罗马门。这个地方对文森特·梵高(Vincent van Gogh)的一生都至关重要。我身后是罗纳河,一个繁星满天的夜晚,梵高曾在这里的码头画下了河中闪烁的倒影。在我面前是一条破败的商业街,通向大片大片的向日葵花海,而它们曾一次次地出现在梵高的画作中。It was where Vincent van Gogh’s Yellow House once stood, the sun-drenched Proven home that was the subject of his 1888 oil painting, where he took a period of “enforced rest” as he put it, in a pale violet-walled “Bedroom” he depicted in oil paintings three times that year.这里曾经矗立着梵高的黄房子,那个洒满阳光的普罗旺斯住宅是他1888年的油画的主角。用梵高自己的话来说,他曾在里面度过了一段“集中休憩”的时光,“卧室”的墙壁是淡紫色的,那一年曾三次出现在他的油画中。The little house contained legends: It was where one of the world’s most famous artists pushed his painting technique to its peak with works such as “Café Terrace at Night,” “Sunflowers” and “The Sower.” And it was where his personal life turned a dramatic and tragic corner. Here, van Gogh had a tumultuous fight with his friend, Paul Gauguin, and sliced a blade through his own ear, before admitting himself to the local mental hospital.这栋小房子充满了传奇色:在这里,世界最负盛名的艺术家之一把自己的绘画技术推向了巅峰,创作了《夜晚露天咖啡座》、《向日葵》和《播种者》等作品。在这里,梵高的个人生活出现了戏剧性和悲剧性的转折。在这里,他与好友保罗·高更(Paul Gauguin)发生了激烈的争吵,用刀割掉了自己的耳朵,入住了当地的精神病医院。From March to August, I traveled to many of the landmarks of van Gogh’s artistic life, beginning in the Belgian mining town of Mons, where the 27-year-old Dutchman was fired from his job as a missionary working among local coal miners for “undermining the dignity of the priesthood” by opting to live in the same squalid conditions as the miners — and where he instead began to draw. From there, I traveled to his renowned painting locations, Montmartre in Paris and Arles and St. Rémy in Provence, and ultimately to the Parisian suburb of Auvers-sur-Oise, where his life was cut short in his 37th year.去年3月到8月,我造访了梵高艺术生涯中的许多重要地点,起点是比利时矿业城市蒙斯。27岁的荷兰人梵高曾在那里失去了在当地煤矿公司传教的工作,原因是他选择和矿工生活在同样肮脏的环境里,“破坏了传道士的尊严”,并开始在画画。此后,我来到了他一些知名画作的诞生地,巴黎的蒙马特、普罗旺斯的圣雷米和阿尔勒,最后是见梵高匆匆走完37年人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦。I was on the trail of the artist during Van Gogh Europe 2015, the year that commemorates the 125th anniversary of his death, observed by cultural events and exhibitions related to van Gogh throughout the Netherlands, Belgium and France. What struck me was that, considering how famous and beloved van Gogh is, there are a number of historical landmarks of his life that have not been preserved, or are neglected. A few spots, however — such as van Gogh’s room at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence and his hotel room in Auvers-sur-Oise, where he died — have been handsomely renovated to great effect for visitors interested in the artist’s life, and for the local communities, which benefit economically from this form of gentle cultural tourism. 我的梵高之旅正好赶上了2015欧洲梵高年。为了纪念梵高逝世125周年,荷兰、比利时和法国举办了大量文化活动和与梵高有关的展览。让我难以置信的是,虽然梵高享有如此的声望和爱戴,他生命中好几处重要地标竟然没有被保护起来,或者无人问津。不过,有几个位置——比如梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院房间,以及他度过最后人生的瓦兹河畔欧韦的酒店房间,都被精心地修葺,迎接着对这位艺术家的人生感兴趣的游客和当地居民。当地人也从这种轻文化旅游中获得了丰厚的经济利益。Hoping to replicate these strong examples, officials involved in Van Gogh Europe 2015 said their aim was to promote the forgotten sites, to focus attention on the fact that many sites linked to van Gogh were still in need of preservation.为了复制这些强大的典范,与2015欧洲梵高年有关的官员称,他们打算大力宣传这些被遗忘的角落,让人们了解到许多与梵高有关的遗迹还需要保护。“There’s a huge amount of interest worldwide in van Gogh’s paintings, and there’s a great audience for his work in museums,” Frank van den Eijnden, chairman of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation, said in a phone interview. “But generally there is less money for restoration and preservation of van Gogh heritage, mainly the local heritage sites that you can find in France, Belgium and the Netherlands. We needed more attention for all the organizations involved, and especially from the governments that were linked to these locations. We really want van Gogh heritage to be a world heritage in the coming years.”“世界各地的人们对梵高的画作都有着强烈的兴趣,他在物馆的作品有庞大的拥趸,”梵高欧洲基金会主席弗兰克·范登艾金登(Frank van den Eijnden)在电话采访中说。“但总体来说,用于恢复和保护梵高遗产的资金却不多,主要包括在法国、比利时和荷兰的遗产。我们需要为相关机构赢得更多关注,尤其是来自政府机构的关注。我们真心希望梵高的遗产在未来几年成为世界性的遗产。”Mostly, in places where van Gogh lived, there are a number of plaques featuring van Gogh images or words from his letters, in sometimes inscrutable locations. In St.-Rémy-de-Provence, for example, there is a plaque that shows his “Green Wheat Field With Cypress” posted in front of the white stucco wall of a private home. 在梵高居住过的地方,往往会看到梵高的照片或用梵高信件中的文字制作的牌匾,有些会出现在不可思议的位置。例如,在普罗旺斯的圣雷米,一户私人住宅的白色灰泥墙前就有一块牌匾,上面印着他的《麦田里的丝柏树》。I wasn’t a van Gogh fan when I embarked on this journey. I moved to the Netherlands nine years ago to do research for a novel on Rembrandt, and my passion lies more in the Dutch old masters. My trouble with van Gogh’s work was that, to me, it had the familiarity of cereal boxes — or, as Andy Warhol might have it, soup cans — copied and reproduced to the point of unseeability. Even when I was standing among the originals, the freshness of his work evaded me. Also, I was weary of what seemed like a triteness in van Gogh’s biography, the tortured-genius-who-never-sold-a-painting-in-his-life.踏上这次旅程时,我并不是梵高的仰慕者。九年前,我为了给一本关于伦勃朗的小说做研究搬到了荷兰,我更偏爱荷兰的早期绘画大师。对我来说,梵高作品的问题在于,它熟悉得就像是麦片包装盒——安迪·沃霍尔可能会说像汤罐头——如此频繁地遭到模仿和复制,到了让人无感的程度。即使站在真迹面前,我也感受不到新鲜。此外,我也厌倦了梵高传记的陈词滥调,它们无一例外地把他描述成“一生中从未卖出一幅画的饱受折磨的天才”。I often write about van Gogh, because I’m an American art journalist based in Amsterdam, where tourists flock by the millions to the largest trove of his paintings anywhere in the world, the Van Gogh Museum, at the center of Amsterdam’s sprawling Museumplein (museum square).我经常写梵高的故事,因为我是驻阿姆斯特丹的美国艺术记者,而每年会有大量游客来到全世界最大的梵高作品收藏地——梵高物馆,它就位于阿姆斯特丹庞大的物馆广场的中央。But when I learned that van Gogh once sat down in front of one of Rembrandt’s most famous works, “The Jewish Bride,” in the Rijksmuseum (also on Museumplein, next to the Van Gogh Museum) and confided to a friend, “I should be happy to give 10 years of my life if I could go on sitting here in front of this picture for two weeks, with only a crust of dry b for food,” I began to think about van Gogh and his creative process. That painting, to which Rembrandt applied yellow paint in such thick impasto that it lifts right out into three-dimensionality, was the link for me into the world of van Gogh.然而当我了解到,梵高曾经坐在阿姆斯特丹国家物馆(也在物馆广场,梵高物馆旁边)里面伦勃朗最著名的画作《犹太新娘》前对一个朋友说,“如果我可以在这幅画前坐上两周,我宁愿少活10年,哪怕只吃干面包充饥都行,”我开始思考梵高和他的创作过程。伦勃朗利用厚重的黄色油塑造出立体形象的这幅画,让我走进了梵高的世界。So, that is what brought me, in the heat of July, to the busy intersection in Arles, to see if, in a place that he once inhabited, I could find traces of van Gogh’s soul. But there was no more Yellow House. It was demolished in the 1940s in World War II, I would find out later. In front of me was a white plaque affixed to a pole that stood on the sidewalk, with an image of van Gogh’s painting, all shades of golden hay, fresh butter and sunlight, under a stippled blue sky. There was that impasto yellow again, straight out of Rembrandt’s palette. But no van Gogh.因此,在7月的炎热天气里,我来到了阿尔勒这个繁忙的交叉路口,想看看在他曾经住过的地方,我是否能找到梵高灵魂的踪迹。但是黄房子已经不在,后来我才知道,它于上世纪40年代在“二战”中被摧毁。我面前是一块白色的牌匾,固定在人行道的柱子上,图片上是梵高的画作:各种色调的金黄干草,新鲜的奶油和阳光,在点手法绘出的蓝色天空之下。画上又见浓墨重的黄色,如同脱胎于伦勃朗的调色盘。但那不是梵高。Disappointed, I got back in my car and decided to try to find another van Gogh location on my list: Langlois Bridge, a drawbridge on the outskirts of Arles, which he depicted nine times in 1888. I knew it was still there because it’s now called Pont Van-Gogh.大失所望的我回到车里,决定寻找我的单子上另一个与梵高有关的地点:阿尔勒郊外的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,他在1888年画这座桥画了九次。我知道它仍在那里,因为它现在叫做梵高桥。The Borinage, Belgium比利时里纳日I began my journey not in van Gogh’s birthplace, but in the location where van Gogh the artist came to life: in the gritty, drab eastern coal-mining region of Belgium called the Borinage, where van Gogh at age 25 went to minister to the destitute, soot-blackened workers of the coal pits. Because this is where he was rejected from the priesthood and began his artistic career, the city of Mons has declared this the “birthplace of the artist,” with a host of events and an exhibition of his early work at the Museum of Fine Arts, in Mons, which ended in May. (Van Gogh’s birthplace was in Zundert, the Netherlands.)我此行的起点不是梵高的出生地,而是梵高作为画家的诞生地:在比利时东部破旧乏味的煤矿区里纳日,25岁的梵高曾在这里向煤矿里贫穷、被煤灰熏得漆黑的工人布道。因为他就是在这里被剥夺了传道士的身份,开始了艺术家的生涯,蒙斯城已经宣布这里是“这位艺术家的诞生地”。蒙斯的美术馆举办了大量活动和早期作品展,这些活动已经于5月结束(梵高的出生地是荷兰的津德尔特)。Van Gogh lived in a few locations in Mons; but he found himself ashamed to be living so well while the people to whom he ministered lived in overcrowded huts, and so he jettisoned his middle-class possessions and moved into smaller and simpler homes. He had started out in a large home up the hill from the local mine, in a red brick house he rented from a landlord named Jean-Baptiste Denis.梵高在蒙斯的几个地方居住过,但是他发现自己羞耻于自己过着优越的生活,听他传道的人们却只能生活在拥挤棚屋里,所以他放弃了中产阶级的财产,搬到了更小更简陋的房子里。他开始时租住在山上的一所大红砖房子里,房东名叫让-巴蒂斯特·丹尼斯(Jean-Baptiste Denis)。Everyone I spoke to told me that Maison Denis was only about a 15-minute drive outside Mons, but it took me an hour of driving in circles. It’s not on any map and I got there by chance: I asked directions from a man who happened to be a private van Gogh tour guide in the area. Finally, there it was: At the bitter end of a seemingly endless stretch of ramshackle rowhouses at 221, rue Wilson was a square red brick house with a red tile roof, only a bit larger than the houses that surrounded it.人们都告诉我,这栋房子位于蒙斯城外,相距只有15分钟左右车程,但我花了一小时才找到。地图上没有这个地方,我能找到全凭运气:我向一名男子问路,而他刚好是该地区的一名私人梵高路线导游。最后,我终于看到了它,在威尔森街221号的一排似乎没有尽头的破破烂烂的房屋的最远端,有一栋方方正正的红砖房子,屋顶铺着红瓦,比周围的房屋稍大一点。The home was one of the sites that Mr. van den Eijnden of the Van Gogh Europe Foundation had told me was nearly dilapidated, but thanks to fund-raising by a local foundation for Van Gogh Year, renovation of the house was underway. The house was still shuttered and there was a large fence around the property, but I walked to the edge of the backyard, where it bordered a grassy field blanketed in wildflowers that followed all the way down the hill to where I could see the colliery of the Marcasse mine, now closed. The refurbished house has since opened as Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine, and can be visited on weekends from 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. 梵高欧洲基金会的范登艾金登告诉我,许多与梵高有关的宅子都已经倾圮,这座房屋是其中之一,多亏了当地的一家基金会为梵高年进行的筹资,这栋房屋的翻新正在进行当中。房屋仍然关闭,外面围着巨大的栅栏,我走到了后院的边上,它毗邻的草地上开满野花,从山下一直开到我能看到马卡斯煤矿的地方。这座煤矿现在已经关闭。房屋经过修缮目前已经重新开放,叫做“科尔方丹的梵高故居”(Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine),周末上午10点到下午6点可供参观。The attraction’s previously poor state was in sharp contrast to the other landmark van Gogh home in the Borinage, in the village of Cuesmes, Maison Van Gogh, a quaint cottage on a plot of grass at the end of a gravel road where van Gogh lived in 1879 and 1880. This was the location where he regrouped after he was told to abandon his ministry because he had disgraced the church, and where he wrote a letter to his brother, Theo, telling him he would like to try his hand at art. “Try to understand the last word of what the great artists, the serious masters, say in their masterpieces; there will be God in it,” he wrote. “Someone has written or said it in a book, someone in a painting.”这个景点之前的破败景象,与另一处位于尔纳日奎姆村的梵高故居形成了鲜明对比。这所别致的小房子位于一条砂砾路尽头的草地上,梵高1879年和1880年曾在此居住。正是在这里,他因为令教廷蒙羞被要求放弃传教士的工作,他写信给弟弟提奥,跟他说自己想要尝试画画。“试着理解伟大的艺术家、严肃的大师在作品中表达的最后一句话;那里面会有上帝,”他写道。“有人在书里写作或表达,有人在画中。”Inside this tourist site (which has an admission fee of 4 euros, or about .25 at .06 to the euro) I was one of only a few visitors, and watched a short biographical , looked at some of van Gogh’s early, clumsy sketches displayed in a glass vitrine and spent a few minutes among his spartan furnishings — a small wooden writing table, a chair and a wood-burning stove.在这处故居中(门票4欧元,即大约4.25美元),我是为数不多的参观者之一,我观看了一部梵高的传记短片,欣赏了玻璃橱窗里展示的一些粗糙的早期素描,花了几分钟看了看他简朴的家具——一张小木书桌,一把椅子,一个燃烧着木头的壁炉。Nuenen, the Netherlands荷兰纽南After he had resolved to devote himself to art, van Gogh moved back to the Netherlands, to live with his parents for two years in the town of Nuenen, where his father was the local minister. This town is proud of its legacy as the place where the itinerant artist remained for the longest stretch of his adult life, and where he painted “The Potato Eaters,” which is now known as his early masterpiece.决心投身绘画之后,梵高搬回了荷兰,与在纽南的父母生活了两年。他的父亲是当地的一名牧师。令这座小城自豪的是,这位四处漂泊的艺术家成年期间在这里居住了最长时间,而且这里也是《吃马铃薯的人》的创作地。这幅画目前被认为是梵高的早期杰作之一。Nuenen has turned the former town hall into the Vincentre, with a museum largely devoted to van Gogh’s family relationships, a cafe and a gift shop. The center is at the heart of Van Gogh Village Neunen, and the starting point of an outdoor museum, a 22-point walking or biking tour that takes you to some lovely locations where van Gogh painted, and to the Starry Night bike path that lights up with swirls of twinkling stones after dark.纽南已经把从前的市政厅变成了文森特中心(Vincentre),包括一座基本上完全用来展示梵高家庭关系的物馆,一家咖啡馆和一家礼品商店。这个中心是纽南梵高村的核心,也是一个户外物馆的起点,可以步行或骑自行车游览22处景点,包括梵高画过的一些美景,《星夜》自行车道上的石头在天黑之后呈现出螺旋形的灯光。It is also directly across the street from van Gogh’s family home, a two-story brick house, now a private residence that one can’t visit. Next to it is the home of Margot Begemann, the girl next door, who fell in love with the artist and tried to poison herself with strychnine when her family objected to the affair. Her family home, called Nune Ville, which came on the market recently by chance, has become a focus of efforts by local historic preservationists who would like to turn it too into a van Gogh heritage site.马路对面正好是梵高父母的家,一栋两层的砖房,现在是一处私人住宅,无法参观。它旁边是玛高特·贝格曼(Margot Begemann)的家,这个隔壁女孩爱上了梵高,当她的家庭阻止他们的恋情之后,她曾试图用番木鳖碱自杀。她家的房子名叫 “Nune Ville”,已经成为当地历史保护专家的重点保护对象,他们也想把它打造成一处梵高的遗产。Over last summer, when I visited, most of the rooms of the stately home were given over to contemporary artists who had created room-size installations inspired by van Gogh, in an exhibition called “The Vincent Affair,” which ended in October. Since then, attempts to find investors who could help turn the site into a permanent tourist spot have stalled, Mr. van den Eijnden said.去年夏天,我来参观的时候,这个庄重住宅的多数房间都被当代艺术家占据,他们受到梵高的启发,创作了一些房间大小的艺术装置,展览的名字叫“文森特集市”(The Vincent Affair),10月份结束。范登艾金登说,此后,寻找投资者把这里变成长期旅游景点的努力陷入停滞。Montmartre, Paris巴黎蒙马特Van Gogh didn’t stay in Nuenen long after the end of the Margot Begemann affair. He moved first to Antwerp, Belgium, and then to Paris, where his brother Theo had a job as an art dealer with the leading art gallery, Goupil amp; Cie. Van Gogh moved into his brother’s third-floor apartment at 54, rue Lepic in Montmartre, which is a private residence now, and designated only by a marble plaque: “Dans cette maison Vincent van Gogh a vécu chez son frère Théo de 1886 à 1888.” (“In this house Vincent van Gogh lived at his brother Théo’s place from 1886 to 1888.”) And some plastic sunflowers dangle from the window grate.在与玛高特·贝格曼的爱情告终之后,梵高没有在纽南待太长时间。他搬到了比利时的安特卫普,然后又搬到了巴黎。他的兄弟提奥在巴黎顶尖的画廊Coupilamp;Cie做艺术品交易的工作。梵高搬到了弟弟位于勒皮克大街54号三楼的公寓。这里现在是一处私人住宅,只有一块大理石板上写着,“1886年到1888年,文森特·梵高来到这栋房子与弟弟提奥同住。”窗户的格栏上挂着几朵塑料向日葵。The Rue Lepic arcs upward through Montmartre, passing the old windmills, and ultimately arrives at the Sacré-Coeur. On the way up, one can discover many prime landmarks of the nearly two years that van Gogh spent here, including the apartment of his friend Henri Toulouse-Lautrec and the oldest surviving Parisian vineyard, where van Gogh sometimes painted, now on Rue Saint Vincent.勒皮克大街向北蜿蜒穿过蒙马特,经过一些老风车,最终抵达圣心圣殿。在路上可以发现梵高在这度过的两年留下的许多足迹,包括他的友人亨利·图卢兹-罗特列克(Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec)的公寓,以及现在位于圣文森特街的最古老的巴黎葡萄园,梵高有时会在这里画画。The area, which was a hamlet outside Paris when van Gogh lived there, was critical to his progress as a painter, because it is where he met many of the Impressionists and other artists, including his friend Paul Gauguin, and imitated and explored various Parisian painting styles. There are no physical landmarks one can enter and explore in Montmartre to get a sense of how he lived, though there are museums, like the Musée d’Orsay, that now contain his work.梵高在那里居住时,这片地区是巴黎城外的一个小村子。这里对于他作为画家的成长至关重要,因为他遇见了许多印象主义和其他流派的画家,包括好友保罗·高更,模仿并探索了巴黎的各种绘画风格。在蒙马特没有一个有形的场所可以让你走进去探索并感受梵高当时的生活,但是有些物馆收藏了他的作品,比如奥赛物馆。Provence, France法国普罗旺斯Finding original artworks by van Gogh in most of the locations I visited would have been nearly impossible except for the special exhibitions designed for Van Gogh Year. The Fondation Van Gogh in Arles, an expansive exhibition space topped with an artwork of colored glass refracting Proven light through its roof, which opened in 2014, is a notable exception. Through an agreement with the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam, the foundation will have one original van Gogh painting on display year-round.在我参观的多数地方,想找到梵高的真迹几乎都是不可能的,除非是在专门为梵高年举办的展览上。阿尔勒的梵高基金会(Fondation Van Gogh in Arles)是一个宽敞的展览空间,顶棚是色玻璃的艺术设计,可以让普罗旺斯的阳光折射进来。这处2014年开设的场所是一个例外。凭借与阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆的一份协议,基金会全年都会展示一幅梵高的真迹。The final stages of van Gogh’s life are the best preserved, and they are also the most moving. After he cut off a part of his ear in Arles, he was admitted to the Arles hospital in Provence, where he painted the lush gardens that are still on display free to the public, as Espace Van Gogh. When he found that this was not sufficient treatment, his brother secured a spot for him at the asylum in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, about 30 minutes to the north. The drive there took me past the endless stretches of sunflowers now so closely associated with his art, and through the foothills of the range of small mountains at the base of the Alps, called the Alpilles, where he painted a series of “Wheat Fields” and his most famous “Starry Night.”梵高人生最后几个阶段的故居保存最完好,也最打动人。他在阿尔勒切掉了一片耳朵之后,被送到了普罗旺斯的阿尔勒医院,他在那里画下的郁郁葱葱的花园目前仍然免费展示给公众,这家医院目前叫做梵高医院。当他发现这里不能提供足够的治疗时,他的弟弟在北部30分钟路程的普罗旺斯的圣雷米的精神病院为他安排了一个床位。开车前往这家精神病院的途中,我路过了一片片绵延不断的向日葵,以及阿尔卑斯山脚下的山麓丘陵,叫做阿尔皮勒,梵高在这里画下了《麦田》系列和最著名的《星夜》。The municipality of St. Rémy has done van Gogh tourists a service by creating a 19-point walking tour from the city center called Promenade de van Gogh, which can be complemented with an app called Van Gogh Natures that adds information about paintings he made in and around the asylum. I followed this self-guided tour up the hill, finding myself softly whispering: “Vincent, where are you? Are you here?” I realized, for the first time on my journey, that I had come in search of a ghost.圣雷米市为梵高的游客提供了一个从市中心出发的包含19个景点的徒步旅行路线,叫做梵高人行道,游客还可以下载Van Gogh Natures的应用程序,获取关于他在精神病院和周围创作的画作的信息。我按图索骥来到了山上,突然发现自己在轻声低语:“文森特,你在哪呢?你在这儿吗?”我在旅行中第一次意识到,我是在寻找一个灵魂。The destination was the St. Paul de Mausole, a Romanesque former religious cloister that is part of a still-functioning mental hospital, and its sumptuous surrounding gardens. Depending on the season when you visit, you can find all the beautiful irises and lilies that inspired van Gogh’s paintings. And around the asylum are the twisted olive groves and the tall elegant cypresses that he captured with dense, emotional brushwork.终点是莫索尔的圣保罗修道院(Saint Paul de Mausole)和它周围华丽的花园。这里曾经是一个罗曼式建筑风格的修道院,目前属于一所精神病院。在适当的季节,你可以看到为梵高绘画带去灵感的美丽的鸢尾花和百合。精神病院周围是扭曲的橄榄树,以及他曾经用浓烈而情绪化的笔触描绘过的高耸而优雅的丝柏树。Inside the cool cloister, through its medieval stone halls and up the shallow Romanesque stairs, is van Gogh’s preserved former room at the asylum. The steel bars on the windows are a jarring counterpoint to the easel positioned next to his wrought-iron bed, but what is more shocking is the room next door with two steel baths used for administering “hydrotherapy treatments” — only a hint of the therapeutic tortures he might have endured here. I wandered through the gardens for a moment of calm after seeing the hospital cell, my mind raging with thoughts of van Gogh’s suffering, and wondering how he managed to paint at all during the time he was at the asylum — let alone make 143 oil paintings and 100 drawings.在修道院内,穿过中世纪的石头大厅和浅浅的罗曼式的楼梯,就来到了梵高在精神病院住过的房间。窗户上的钢铁栅栏和他铁床边的画架形成了强烈的反差,但更加令人震惊的是,隔壁的房间有两个用于“水疗护理”的钢铁浴盆——这只会让人联想到他可能遭受的折磨。在参观完了病房之后,我在花园中游荡,寻找片刻宁静,满脑子都在想梵高的痛苦,我好奇他在精神病院里是怎么画画的——更不用说他还创作了143幅油画和100幅素描。Auvers-sur-Oise, France法国瓦兹河畔欧韦Van Gogh’s troubles did not end, though he finally left the St. Rémy hospital. He made his way back to northern France, to the town of Auvers-sur-Oise, about a 30-minute drive from Paris. It is where I visited the most poignant landmark, Van Gogh’s Room in the historic inn Auberge Ravoux. This tiny second-floor room (even smaller than his room at the asylum) remained empty for years after van Gogh died, suffering the curse of any French hotel room that was thought to be the scene of a suicide, and has been restored entirely through the efforts of a citizen, Dominique-Charles Janssens. This room, where van Gogh completed more than 80 paintings in just 70 days, with its only access to natural light a small ceiling window, is reminiscent of a coffin. Here is where van Gogh died of a fatal gunshot wound — probably self-inflicted — with his brother at his side.虽然梵高最终离开了圣雷米精神病院,他的不幸没有结束。他回到了法国北部的瓦兹河畔欧韦镇,这里距离巴黎有30分钟车程。我在那里参观了最令人印象深刻的地标,梵高在历史悠久的拉乌餐厅旅馆(Auberge Ravoux)的房间。因为被认为是自杀的不祥之地,这个二楼的小房间(比他在精神病院的房间还小)在梵高去世之后空了很多年,通过一位名叫多米尼克 - 查尔斯詹森的公民的努力得到了完全的修复。在这个房间里,梵高用了仅仅70天的时间完成了超过80幅画作,屋子里只能通过天花板上的小窗获得一些自然光,感觉就像一口棺材。梵高在这里死于致命伤——可能是自己开的——弟弟当时就在他身边。And in close walking distance is his grave, alongside his brother and confidante, Theo, who died six months later, at age 33.他的坟墓就在附近,葬在他身边的是弟弟兼好友提奥。提奥在梵高去世的六个月后去世,终年33岁。What is more compelling, however, was a short walk away from his grave: the wheat fields down the dusty road where he painted his final series of canvases.不过,从他的坟墓走不了多远,有更为值得一看的地方:沿着尘土飞扬的路走下去,是一片麦田,梵高在这里创作了他最后系列的油画作品。By the end, the trip became something of a pilgrimage. I had gone to where van Gogh trekked alone with his easel on his back, gazing at the crooked olive groves, the obelisk-like cypresses and the swirling starry nights.到了最后,这趟旅程已经有了几分朝圣的味道。我来到了梵高背着画板独自远行,以及他凝视着歪橄榄树、方尖碑样的丝柏树和令人眩晕的星夜的地方。When I tramped down a dirt road along a river in Arles to the Pont de Langlois, which van Gogh depicted in four drawings, one watercolor and four oil paintings, I wondered: Why, when living in the center of a city like Arles, dotted with beautiful Roman ruins that filtered evening light in dramatic and wonderful ways, he was instead attracted, over and over again, to this slightly old-fashioned little drawbridge miles outside of town. And, having come all the way from Amsterdam, through so many van Gogh locations, I realized that I knew. Although van Gogh traveled far to discover the right effects, the right light and the right subjects for his paintings, all the while he was longing for a sense of home.当我踏着阿尔勒一条河边的泥土路,来到梵高在四幅素描、一幅水和四幅油画中描绘过的朗格鲁瓦吊桥,我在想:梵高住在阿尔勒这样一座城市的市中心,周围散落着美丽的罗曼式旧建筑遗迹,以奇妙和梦幻的方式照进夜晚的灯光,为何他还一次次地执迷于城外几里地远的这座有点过时的小吊桥?从阿姆斯特丹千里迢迢来到这里,造访了那么多梵高的故居之后,我意识到,我知道。尽管梵高为了寻找恰当的效果、光线和绘画对象而远走他乡,但他一直都渴望家的感觉。The more I traveled the more I became fascinated by this man van Gogh, who transmuted the reality of things he saw into images that are more real than real. The landmarks provided me with a starting point, from which I could travel out, and get a sense of the distances he traveled, both physically and mentally, to achieve the remarkable heights of artistic creation in the short span of a 10-year career.走的地方越多,我对梵高就愈加着迷。他把眼中的世界幻化了比真实更加真实的画面。这些地标是我的起点,我可以继续远行,去感受梵高在短短10年绘画生涯中要达到如此惊人艺术创作高度,其肉体和心灵所走过的距离。IF YOU GO参观建议In the Netherlands荷兰Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam (Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200; Vangoghmuseum.nl) is the world’s largest trove of artworks by van Gogh. It is in the heart of Amsterdam, with a permanent exhibition of his work as well as temporary exhibitions that relate his works to other great artists.阿姆斯特丹的梵高物馆(Museumplein 6; 31-20-570-5200;vangoghmuseum.nl)是世界上最大的梵高作品收藏中心。它位于阿姆斯特丹的中心位置,长期展出他的作品,以及与其作品有关的当代展览。Vincentre / Van Gogh Village Nuenen(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; for biking and walking tours, April through October), a small museum, is the beginning of an open-air walking tour that takes you through important locations for van Gogh’s painting in Nuenen, where he lived with his parents for two years, and fell in love with Margot Begemann. (Above, van Gogh’s father’s Reformed Church in Nuenen.)文森特中心/纽南梵高村(Vincentre Berg 29, Nuenen; 31-40-283-9615; 4月到10月,自行车和徒步旅游路线),一家小型物馆,你可以从这里开始一次露天的徒步之旅,途径梵高画作中在纽南的重要景点。梵高在纽南与父母居住两年,并在这里爱上了玛高特·贝格曼。Van Gogh Starry Night Bike Path(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx), which lights up at night, begins at the Opwettense watermill in Nuenen and ends at the Collse Watermill in Eindhoven.梵高星夜自行车道(vangoghvillagenuenen.nl/het-vincentre.aspx),道路在夜晚会发光,起点是纽南的Opwettense 水车,终点是埃因霍温的Collse水车。Van Gogh House in Zundert(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99; vangoghhuis.com), where van Gogh was born, was torn down in 1903, but the new house was built in 2008 with a permanent exhibition about his birthplace, Zundert.津德尔特的梵高故居(Markt 27, Zundert; 31-76-597-19 99;vangoghhuis.com),梵高出生的地方,1903年被拆除,2008年重建,长期举办关于梵高的展览。In Belgium比利时The Borinage: Maison Van Gogh (Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes; en.maisonvangogh.mons.be), just outside of Mons, in bucolic Cuesmes, is a little brick house and museum that tells the story of van Gogh’s time in this part of Belgium. (Above, inside Maison Van Gogh in Cuesmes, the Borinage.)里纳日:梵高故居(Rue du Pavillon 3, Cuesmes;en.maisonvangogh.mons.be),一栋小砖房,如今是一座物馆,讲述着梵高在比利时这个地区度过的时光。Maison Van Gogh in Colfontaine(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine), also known as Maison Denis, the newly renovated house van Gogh rented when he arrived in Mons to be an evangelist, is near the Marcasse Mine.科尔方丹的梵高故居(Rue Wilson 221, formerly rue du Petit-Wasmes, Colfontaine; mons2015.eu/en/maison-van-gogh-colfontaine),也被称作丹尼斯的房子,这是梵高抵达蒙斯担任福音传道者时租住的房子,目前已经被翻修,位于马卡斯煤矿附近。BAM/Musée des Beaux-Arts in Mons(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/) had an exhibition dedicated to van Gogh in the Borinage in 2015, but that show is now over. But exhibitions are often linked to the painter, who had a tremendous influence in Mons.蒙斯美术馆(Rue Neuve, 8, Mons; 32-65-39-5939; www.bam.mons.be/)2015年举办了一个关于梵高在里纳日的展览,目前已经结束。但这里的展览经常与梵高有关,梵高对蒙斯产生了深远的影响。In France法国Fondation Vincent Van Gogh in Arles(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/), in the center of the old city of Arles, is a great place to begin a tour of van Gogh locations throughout Arles. Exhibitions are connected to van Gogh’s work; and at least one original van Gogh painting is on display in the museum all year round.阿尔勒的文森特·梵高基金会(35 rue du Dr. Fanton; Arles; fondation-vincentvangogh-arles.org/),位于阿尔勒老城的中心,从这里开始在阿尔勒寻访梵高的足迹再合适不过了。这里的展览都与梵高的作品有关,全年至少有一幅梵高的真迹在物馆展出。St. Paul de Mausole Monastery(Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00) is the “asylum” where van Gogh received treatment in St.-Rémy-de-Provence, and where you can visit his former room and see the lush gardens and landscapes he painted during his time there. Different flowers are in bloom throughout the year; check for seasons for irises, almond blossoms and sunflowers.莫索尔的圣保罗修道院 (Chemin St. Paul, 13210 St.-Rémy-de-Provence; 33-4-90-92-77-00)是梵高在普罗旺斯的圣雷米接受治疗的“精神病院”,你可以在这里参观他当时的病房,看到他在此治疗期间画过的茂盛的花园和风景。全年都有不同的花儿绽放;在适当的季节可以看到鸢尾花、杏花和向日葵。Maison de Van Gogh(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60), the restaurant and inn Auberge Ravoux, the last place where van Gogh lived, and where he died. You can see the tiny room he inhabited, and eat a classic French meal at the lovely restaurant downstairs.梵高故居(Place de la Mairie, Auvers-sur-Oise; 33-1-30-36-60-60),拉乌餐厅旅馆,梵高居住过的最后一个地方,他也在这里走完了人生。你可以看见他居住的小房间,在楼下的迷人的餐厅享受一顿传统的法餐。 /201602/426533


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