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2018年11月22日 19:03:59

长兴县祛痣多少钱湖州曙光整形美容医院做双眼皮多少钱India#39;s gender chore gap, the difference between the amount of housework done by women and men, is the largest of any country for which data is available, according to new figures compiled by the World Economic Forum.India ranks top, or bottom (depending how you look at it), in terms of the number of minutes women spend on housework each day versus the amount of time men dedicate to daily household tasks世界经济论坛显示:在印度的男女之间差距在家务劳动分配比重中得以表现,并且相对于其他国家更为严重。印度女性家务劳动比重排名世界榜首。。Women in India on average spend 351.9 minutes every day doing housework, men spend just 51.8 minutes on such duties: a difference of 300.1 minutes. The next closest country is Mexico, with a gap of 260.7 minutes.The findings are part of the annual Global Gender Gap Report 2014 published Tuesday. This year, India fell 13 places to 114 out of 142 countries in the latest ranking, which measures equality between the sexes in access to work, education and healthcare. The fall was caused by a drop in economic participation and opportunity for women, as well as a dip in female educational attainment.2014年全球性别差距报告指出在印度的女性平均每天花351.9分钟做家务,男人花51.8分钟工作:一共300.1分钟的差距。下一个国家是墨西哥,差距为260.7分钟。今年,在142个国家的最新排名印度13个地方降至114位,用于衡量两性平等以及获得工作,教育和医疗的权利。下降是由于印度女性经济参与度和就业机会下降,以及女性的受教育程度。“Indian women end up doing very badly in paid work and one of the reasons for that is that they are spending so much time in unpaid work,” said Saadia Zahidi, head of the gender parity program at the WEF and one of the authors of the report.The decline in female participation in the workforce has fallen irrespective of the country#39;s economic growth, according to a report by the International Labor Organization in February 2013.Between 2004-05 and 2009-10, a period of rapid economic growth in India, female participation in the work force fell from 37% to 29%.“印度女性花了那么多时间在无报酬的家务劳动上所以不可能在出去找工作,”萨迪亚扎西迪说(世界经济论坛的性别平等程序主管和报告的作者之一)。女性就业的下降无关与国家的经济增长,国际劳工组织的一份报告显示。2004 - 05至2004 - 10年,印度经济快速增长的时期,女性劳动力的参与从37%降至29%。;Women have lost out in terms of employment in the growth story,; said Indrani Mazumdar, a senior fellow at the Centre for Women#39;s Development Studies in New Delhi.In rural areas, for example, increased use of machinery in farming has led to a reduction in jobs, and the jobs that remain usually go to men, Ms. Mazumdar said.But the chore gap is most pronounced in cities, rather than villages. Among women surveyed by India#39;s National Sample Survey Organization in 2011-12, around 39% in rural areas and about 50% in urban areas spent most of their time on domestic duties. Of those women, ;about 60 per cent in rural areas and 64 per cent in urban areas did so due to the reason #39;no other member to carry out the domestic duties,#39;; according to the survey.“女性在经济的增长之中失败原因有很多“Indrani Mazumdar说(妇女发展研究中心高级研究员)。例如在农村地区因为增加使用机械就会导致减少就业机会,但是仍然得有人干活。所以家务差距最为明显是在城市,而不是农村。印度国家抽样调查调查的女性组织在2011 - 12,大约39%在农村地区,约50%在城市花了大部分时间浪费在家务劳动上。Cultural taboos about female employment makes the problem more pronounced in cities, said Ranjana Kumari, author of ;Gender, Work, and Power Relations,; and director of New Delhi-based think tank the Centre for Social Research. ;Even if women are highly educated, they aren#39;t allowed by in-laws and husbands to do any job outside the home,; Ms. Kumari said. ;Women are graduating to get a good groom not a good job,; she added.So what are women in India spending their time doing? The NSSO survey found that the majority spent time making cow-dung patties–used for cooking fuel–collecting firewood, sewing, tailoring, or collecting drinking water.印度文化禁忌对城市女性就业是一个打击,Ranjana Kumari表示“如何处理好印度社会的性别、工作与权力的关系“即使是女性受过高等教育,但是公婆和丈夫不允许她们在外面做任何工作,”库玛丽女士说。“女人上大学是为了找好的新郎而不是为了找一个好工作,”她补充道。所以女性在印度花费他们的时间是在干什么?NSSO(国家样本测量组织)的调查发现,大多数花时间是把牛粪做成小馅饼样子当柴火用,还有做衣,或者收集饮用水(河边打水)。Urban Indian women also make cow-dung patties and walk to collect clean water, but in lower numbers. Other household chores performed by women included: fishing, grinding food grain, husking rice paddy, preserving meat and tutoring children.Solving India#39;s shortage of power and clean water could help get more women into the workforce, said Indu Agnihotri, director of the Centre for Women#39;s Development Studies.;Women spend so much time negotiating the lack of basic civic amenities, like water and power, that even though they have a desire for work there are obstacles to getting it,; Ms. Agnihotri said.印度城市女性也把牛粪做成馅饼,或者走到河边收集干净的水,但是比较而言城市女性更喜欢去钓鱼、磨粮食,剥稻壳,保存鲜肉和辅导孩子。如果能解决印度的电力短缺和干净的水的问题可以帮助更多的女性进入职场,妇女发展研究中心主任Indu Agnihotri说。“女人花那么多时间去承受缺乏基本的市政设施,像水、电的痛苦,即使他们渴望得到一份工作也是有障碍的“Agnihotri女士说。 /201412/349814浙江湖州市无痛隆鼻收多少钱

湖州痘痘留下的坑长兴县点痣多少钱There is nothing like a blank stone surface to inspire a widely shared urge to make art.没有什么东西会像空白的石头表面一样,能够激发广泛的艺术创作欲望。A team of researchers reported in the journal Nature on Wednesday that paintings of hands and animals in seven limestone caves on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi may be as old as the earliest European cave art.周三(本文最初发表于2014年10月9日),一组科研人员在《自然》杂志(Nature)上发表文章称,印度尼西亚苏拉威西岛七座石灰岩洞中发现的人手及动物图像,可能与欧洲最早的洞穴画一样古老。The oldest cave painting known until now is a 40,800-year-old red disk from El Castillo, in northern Spain.目前已知的最古老的洞穴画是西班牙北部卡斯蒂略金字塔中已有4万零800年历史的壁画。Other archaeologists of human origins said the new findings were spectacular and, in at least one sense, unexpected. Sulawesi’s cave art, first described in the 1950s, had previously been dismissed as no more than 10,000 years old.其他一些研究人类起源的考古学家表示,这一新发现相当引人注目,而且至少在一种意义上,出乎了人们的意料。20世纪50年代,首次出现了有关苏拉威西岛洞穴画的介绍。科研人员之前认为,这些壁画的历史不超过1万年。“Assuming that the dates are good,” Nicholas Conard, an archaeologist at the University of Tübingen in Germany, said in an email, “this is good news, and the only surprising thing is not that analogous finds would exist elsewhere, but rather that it has been so hard to find them” until now.“假设得出的年代准确,”德国蒂宾根大学(University of Tübingen)的考古学家尼古拉斯·科纳尔(Nicholas Conard)在电邮中说,“这是好消息,唯一令人意外的不是会在其他地方找到类似的发现,而是竟然一直都难以找到它们,”直到现在。Eric Delson, a paleoanthropologist at Lehman College of the City University of New York, agreed that the discovery “certainly makes sense.” Recent genetic findings, he said, “support an early deployment of modern humans eastward to Southeast Asia and Australasia, and so having art of a similar age is reasonable as well.”纽约城市大学莱曼学院(Lehman College of the City University of New York)的古人类学家埃里克·德尔森(Eric Delson)认同这项发现“无疑很合理”。他表示,最近在基因学上的发现“持了晚期智人一早向东迁移至东南亚和澳大拉西亚的说法,因此拥有相似年代的美术作品也是合情合理的”。The authors of the new study, a team from Australia and Indonesia, used a uranium decay technique to date the substance that encrusts the wall paintings — a mineral called calcite, created by water flowing through the limestone in the cave. The art beneath is presumably somewhat older than the crust.这篇新研究论文的作者是一群来自澳大利亚和印度尼西亚的研究者。他们利用铀衰变技术确定了壁画外层物质的年代。这种名为方解石的矿物由水流过山洞里的石灰石而形成。矿物层下的壁画的年代应该比矿物层本身更久远。Maxime Aubert and Adam Brumm, research fellows at Griffith University in Queensland, Australia, and the leaders of the study, examined 12 images of human hands and two figurative animal depictions at the cave sites.澳大利亚昆士兰格里菲斯大学(Griffith University)的两名研究人员马克西姆·奥贝特(Maxime Aubert)和亚当·布鲁姆(Adam Brumm)是团队带头人。他们对洞中12幅人类手部图画及两幅具象动物图画进行了检测。The researchers said the earliest images, with a minimum age of 39,900 years, are the oldest known stenciled outlines of human hands in the world. Blowing or spraying pigment around a hand pressed against rock surfaces would become a common practice among cave artists down through the ages — and even some of the youngest schoolchildren to this day.研究人员表示,其中最古老的图画至少有3万9900年的历史,是世界上已知的年代最久远的利用人手模板绘制的轮廓图。将手压到岩石表面,在其周围吹或喷洒颜料成为了后来的洞穴艺术家惯用的手法,甚至到了今天,一些年幼的学生还在使用这个方法。A painting of an animal known as a pig deer, of the species babirusa, was determined to be at least 35,400 years old. The team concluded that it was “among the earliest dated figurative depiction worldwide, if not the earliest one.”研究人员确定,一幅鹿豚——一种巴比如萨猪鹿——洞穴画至少有3万5400年的历史。团队认为,这“就算不是世界上最古老的具象图画,也属于最古老的行列”。The closest in age from Western Europe is a painting of a rhinoceros from Chauvet Cave in France, dated at 35,000 years old, although some archaeologists have questioned that estimate. The most familiar rock art in the region of Sulawesi was created by the Aborigines of Australia, modern humans who arrived there 50,000 years ago. But none of the surviving rock art is older than 30,000 years.西欧地区与其年代上最接近的图画是法国肖维岩洞的犀牛图。它有3万5000年的历史,但一些考古学家对这一估计表示怀疑。苏拉威西岛地区最为人所熟知的岩石艺术品是由澳大利亚的土著居民创作的。这些晚期智人在大约5万年前到达该地区。不过,现存的岩石艺术品的历史均未超过3万年。The Sulawesi dates challenge the long-held view about the origins of cave art in an explosion of human creativity centered on Western Europe about 40,000 years ago, Dr. Aubert said, in an announcement issued by Griffith University.在格里菲斯大学发表的声明中,奥贝特士表示,苏拉威西岛画作的年代对长期以来有关洞穴艺术起源的观点形成挑战。传统观念认为,人类创造力大爆发的现象以大约4万年前的西欧地区为中心,并由此产生了洞穴艺术。Instead, he said, the creative brilliance required to produce the lifelike portrayals of horses and other animals much later at famous sites like Chauvet and Lascaux in France could have particularly deep roots within the human lineage.他表示,与这种学说相反,很久以后法国肖维岩洞和拉斯科洞穴等著名古迹里出现的那种栩栩如生的马等动物的图像,所需要的创意才华可能深深扎根于人类血统中。But it is too soon to assess the discovery’s deeper implications, Wil Roebroeks, a specialist in human origins studies at Leiden University in the Netherlands, wrote in a commentary accompanying the report. “Whether rock art was an integral part of the cultural repertoire of colonizing modern humans, from Western Europe to southeast and beyond, or whether such practices developed independently in various regions, is unknown,” he wrote.荷兰莱顿大学(Leiden University)研究人类起源的专家维尔·罗伯罗伊克兹(Wil Roebroeks)在与论文同时发表的中写道,现在评估这项发现的深层含义还为时过早。“目前尚不清楚,岩石艺术究竟是从西欧迁移到东南部及更远的地方的晚期智人创造的文化技能的内在组成部分,还是在各个地区得到了单独发展,”他写道。“But what is clear,” Dr. Roebroeks continued, “is that no figurative art is known from before the time of the initial expansion of Homo sapiens into Asia and across Europe — neither from earlier H. sapiens in Africa nor from their contemporaries in western Eurasia, the Neanderthals.”“但已经明确的是,”罗伯罗伊克兹士继续写道,“还没有发现智人最初向亚洲及在欧洲各地迁徙前出现的具象艺术,也没有发现早期非洲智人或欧亚大陆西部同时代人类——尼安德特人——时期的具象艺术。”Dr. Conard, of Tübingen University, said he had long argued for what he calls polycentric mosaic modernity, in which similar kinds of cultural innovations happened in different contexts as modern Homo sapiens sp across the world and displaced archaic hominins.德国蒂宾根大学的科纳尔士表示,他早就提出了“多中心融合发展”的学说:随着晚期智人扩散至世界各地,取代早期智人,不同的地方出现了类似的文化创新活动。“I have never thought that complex symbolic behavior has a single point source and that cultural evolutions is like switching a light on,’” he said. “One would expect different regions to have distinctive signatures and to contribute to the story in their own way.”“我从不认为,复杂的象征性行为有一个单一的源头,也不认为文化进化就像关上灯的开关一样,”他说。“应该认为不同的地区有各自的特征,以自己不同的方式共同为历史贡献力量。”Dr. Delson, of CUNY, said he tended “to prefer the idea that art came as part of the ’baggage’ of Homo sapiens as they sp into Eurasia, mainly as we know that so many of the cultural features once thought to have developed in western Eurasia in fact occurred far earlier in Africa.”纽约城市大学的德尔森士则表示,他往往“倾向于这种想法,即艺术是智人扩散到欧亚大陆时携带的#39;行李#39;的一部分。这主要是因为,众所周知,那些曾被认为起源于欧亚大陆西部的文化现象实际上很早以前就出现在非洲。”He cited the examples of early use of pigments and engravings in Africa, as well as bodily adornment with shells and advanced stoneworking technology.他提到的例子包括,非洲的人类早早使用颜料、进行雕刻、用贝壳装饰身体,还拥有先进的砌石工艺。In their report, Dr. Aubert and Dr. Brumm took no sides in the debate. “It is possible that rock art emerged independently around the same time and at roughly both ends of the spatial distribution of early modern humans,” they concluded. “An alternate scenario, however, is that cave painting was widely practiced by the first H. sapiens to leave Africa tens of thousands of years earlier.”在论文中,奥贝特和布鲁姆对这一争论持中立态度。“岩石艺术有可能同时在早期智人分布地区的两端独立出现,”他们在结论部分这样写道。“然而,也可能是另一种情况,即再往前数万年,第一批离开非洲的智人广泛进行洞穴画创作。”If that is the case, the Australian-Indonesian research team predicted, “We can expect future discoveries of depictions of human hands, figurative art and other forms of image-making dating to the earliest period of the global dispersal of our species.”如果事实的确如此,澳大利亚和印度尼西亚的联合研究小组预测,“我们可以期待未来会发现人手图画、具象艺术,以及能够追溯到人类最早向全球扩散时期的其他一些成像艺术形式。” /201411/344939湖州曙光整形医院去疤多少钱湖州打一次美白针多少钱

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