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2018年11月18日 02:59:09 | 作者:飞度技术健康管家 | 来源:新华社
My colleagues and I are fascinated by the science of moving dots.我和我的同事对移动圆点背后的科学非常着迷。So what are these dots? Well, its all of us.那么这些小圆点是什么呢?就是我们自己。And were moving in our homes, in our offices, as we shop and travel throughout our cities and around the world.我们在家里,办公室里来回走动,也在世界各地旅行和购物。And wouldnt it be great if we could understand all this movement? If we could find patterns and meaning and insight in it.如果我们能弄清这些移动,并从中发现规律,意义并提出见解,不是一件很棒的事吗?And luckily for us, we live in a time where were incredibly good at capturing information about ourselves.很幸运的是,我们生活在这么一个时代,我们非常擅长捕捉关于自身的信息。So whether its through sensors or s, or apps, we can track our movement with incredibly fine detail.不管是通过传感器,视频或软件应用,我们都能详尽地追踪到个人移动的轨迹。So it turns out one of the places where we have the best data about movement is sports.这就让我们发现,最佳的数据来源之一就是体育运动。So whether its basketball or baseball, or football or the other football,因此无论是篮球、棒球、橄榄球或足球,were instrumenting our stadiums and our players to track their movements every fraction of a second.我们都可以在场馆内,甚至运动员身上装上设备来追踪他们每个时刻的运动数据。So what were doing is turning our athletes into -- you probably guessed it -- moving dots.所以我们要做的--你们大概已经猜到了--就是把运动员的移动,转化成圆点的移动。So weve got mountains of moving dots and like most raw data, its hard to deal with and not that interesting.所以我们收集了不计其数的移动小圆点,就像多数原始数据一样难以处理,也没什么趣味。But there are things that, for example, basketball coaches want to know.但数据里面蕴藏着,比如篮球教练想知道的事情。And the problem is they cant know them because theyd have to watch every second of every game, remember it and process it.但问题是,除非教练们把每场比赛里每一秒数据都记下来再去思考,否则他们没法从中得到想要的信息。And a person cant do that, but a machine can.人类大脑无法做到这件事,但机器没问题。The problem is a machine cant see the game with the eye of a coach.然而,机器没办法自己以教练的视角去看一场比赛。At least they couldnt until now. So what have we taught the machine to see?直到现在,我们做到了。那么,我们让机器去观察些什么呢?So, we started simply. We taught it things like passes, shots and rebounds. Things that most casual fans would know.先从简单的开始。我们先教会它传球、投篮和篮板球,这类普通球迷也知道的事。And then we moved on to things slightly more complicated. Events like post-ups, and pick-and-rolls, and isolations.然后我们开始教它一些稍复杂点的事情,比如落位背打、挡拆和拉开单打。And if you dont know them, thats okay. Most casual players probably do.你们如果不了解这些名词,没关系。打球的人大都了如指掌。Now, weve gotten to a point where today, the machine understands complex events like down screens and wide pins.迄今为止,我们已经能够让机器理解下掩护和无球掩护这类复杂的、只有专业人士才懂的战术。Basically things only professionals know. So we have taught a machine to see with the eyes of a coach.于是我们已经教会电脑用教练的视角去观察数据了。So how have we been able to do this?我们是怎么做到的呢?If I asked a coach to describe something like a pick-and-roll, they would give me a description,如果我让一个教练讲解挡拆,我会得到一个定义,and if I encoded that as an algorithm, it would be terrible.如果我把这个定义编码成一个算法,估计会惨不忍睹。The pick-and-roll happens to be this dance in basketball between four players, two on offense and two on defense.挡拆就是四个球员之间的舞蹈,两人进攻,两人防守。And heres kind of how it goes.大概是这么个过程:So theres the guy on offense without the ball the ball and he goes next to the guy guarding the guy with the ball,一个没有带球的进攻球员,跑向持球的防守队员,站在那里待一会儿,and he kind of stays there and they both move and stuff happens, and ta-da, its a pick-and-roll.然后他们一起移动(制造机会),嗒哒,这就是挡拆。So that is also an example of a terrible algorithm.这也是个糟糕的算法实例。So, if the player whos the interferer -- hes called the screener -- goes close by,如果那个干扰的球员--或者叫掩护者--只是跑过来but he doesnt stop, its probably not a pick-and-roll.干扰一下而不停下,这可能就不是挡拆了。Or if he does stop, but he doesnt stop close enough, its probably not a pick-and-roll.就算他停下来,但停的位置不够接近,那也不算是挡拆。Or, if he does go close by and he does stop but they do it under the basket, its probably not a pick-and-roll.或者,就算他足够近而且停下来,但他是在篮下完成的,那也不算挡拆。Or I could be wrong, they could all be pick-and-rolls.或者我可能错了,这些都是挡拆。It really depends on the exact timing, the distances, the locations, and thats what makes it hard.是否是挡拆要根据发生的时间、球员间距、位置而定,这些都很难去界定。So, luckily, with machine learning, we can go beyond our own ability to describe the things we know.幸运的是,有了机器学习技术,我们就能超越自身的能力来描述我们已知的事物。So how does this work? Well, its by example.这个技术要如何实现呢?举个例子:So we go to the machine and say, ;Good morning, machine.我们对机器说,“早上好,机器。Here are some pick-and-rolls, and here are some things that are not. Please find a way to tell the difference.;这儿有些挡拆例子,还有一些不是。你来找出不同点吧。”And the key to all of this is to find features that enable it to separate.这其中的关键是电脑能找出区别两者的特征来。So if I was going to teach it the difference between an apple and orange, I might say, ;Why dont you use color or shape?;所以如果我要教会机器辨别苹果和橘子,我可能会说:“不妨用颜色和形状来区分吧?”And the problem that were solving is, what are those things?而目前要解决的问题就是,要区分事物的特征是什么?What are the key features that let a computer navigate the world of moving dots?电脑需要掌握的整个移动圆点世界的关键特征是什么?So figuring out all these relationships with relative and absolute location, distance, timing, velocities搞清楚所有这些相对位置、绝对位置、距离、时机、速率之间的关系thats really the key to the science of moving dots,就是移动圆点科学的真正关键所在,or as we like to call it, spatiotemporal pattern recognition, in academic vernacular.换成专业术语,我们喜欢称之为:时空模式识别。Because the first thing is, you have to make it sound hard -- because it is.因为首先,你要让它听起来很难懂、很专业--因为事实的确如此。The key thing is, for NBA coaches, its not that they want to know whether a pick-and-roll happened or not.对于NBA教练们来说,判断是否是挡拆并不是关键,Its that they want to know how it happened. And why is it so important to them?而这个挡拆是怎么发生的才是他们关注的。为何教练们如此关心这一点?So heres a little insight. It turns out in modern basketball, this pick-and-roll is perhaps the most important play.这儿我要解释一下。在现代的篮球比赛中,挡拆几乎是最重要的战术。And knowing how to run it, and knowing how to defend it, is basically a key to winning and losing most games.了解如何使用以及怎样防守挡拆,基本上是比赛输赢的关键。So it turns out that this dance has a great many variations and identifying the variations is really the thing that matters,因此挡拆的步伐多种多样,能够识别这些不同的形式是非常重要的,and thats why we need this to be really, really good.这就是为什么我们对机器的智能性要求相当高。So, heres an example. There are two offensive and two defensive players, getting y to do the pick-and-roll dance.举个例子。这儿有两个进攻队员和两个防守队员,他们准备开始实施挡拆。So the guy with ball can either take, or he can reject. His teammate can either roll or pop.那么持球人既可以选择利用挡拆,也可以放弃挡拆,他的队友可以拆向篮下,或撤到一个无人盯防的空位。The guy guarding the ball can either go over or under.防守持球者的人可以上前绕过掩护,或者从后方绕过掩护。His teammate can either show or play up to touch, or play soft and together, they can either switch or blitz而他的队友则可以探出补防,或保持近距离防守,亦或者向后消极防守。两个防守球员也可以换防,或者包夹。and I didnt know most of these things when I started and it would be lovely if everybody moved according to those arrows.一开始的时候我也不是很懂这些,如果每个人都能沿着箭头方向移动,事情就好办多了。It would make our lives a lot easier, but it turns out movement is very messy.这会让我们的工作简单很多,但往往这些移动非常杂乱。People wiggle a lot and getting these variations identified with very high accuracy, both in precision and recall,球场上会发生很多突然的变动,要在查准率和查全率方面准确识别这些变化是相当困难的,is tough because thats what it takes to get a professional coach to believe in you.但只有这样,才能让专业教练相信你的技术。And despite all the difficulties with the right spatiotemporal features we have been able to do that.尽管在准确的时空特性识别上困难重重,我们还是成功地做到了。Coaches trust our ability of our machine to identify these variations.教练相信我们的机器能够识别这些变化。Were at the point where almost every single contender for an NBA championship this year is using our software,目前,我们已经推出了相关的识别软件,几乎每个觊觎今年NBA总冠军的球队都在使用我们的这款软件,which is built on a machine that understands the moving dots of basketball.其功能就是通过机器识别篮球领域的移动。So not only that, we have given advice that has changed strategies that have helped teams win very important games,不仅如此,我们还对如何改善战术提供建议,并帮助球队赢得过重要的比赛。and its very exciting because you have coaches whove been in the league for 30 years that are willing to take advice from a machine.能够让联盟中执教30年的老教练愿意听取机器提供的意见,这太让人激动了。And its very exciting, its much more than the pick-and-roll.不仅仅局限于挡拆,更让我们兴奋的是,Our computer started out with simple things and learned more and more complex things and now it knows so many things.我们让电脑从简单的事情着手,逐渐学会了更复杂的事物,如今它已经掌握了丰富的知识。Frankly, I dont understand much of what it does, and while its not that special to be smarter than me,老实说,我不大明白它是怎么做到的,不过就算比我聪明也没什么特别的,we were wondering, can a machine know more than a coach?但我们在想,机器能否比教练懂得更多呢?Can it know more than person could know? And it turns out the answer is yes.它能比人类懂得更多吗?事实上,是肯定的。The coaches want players to take good shots.教练想让球员投出好球。So if Im standing near the basket and theres nobody near me, its a good shot.所以如果我站在篮筐旁边,周围没人,这就是好的投篮时机。If Im standing far away surrounded by defenders, thats generally a bad shot.如果我站得远,而且被对方包围住,通常来讲这球投不进。But we never knew how good ;good; was, or how bad ;bad; was quantitatively. Until now.但我们无法定量衡量这个“好”有多好,“差”有多差,但现在不同了。So what we can do, again, using spatiotemporal features, we looked at every shot.同样,我们能做的就是利用时空特性来分析每次投篮。We can see: Where is the shot? Whats the angle to the basket? Where are the defenders standing?我们可以看到:在哪里投篮?投篮的角度是多少?防守方的站位?What are their distances? What are their angles?他们间的距离以及角度如何?For multiple defenders, we can look at how the players moving and predict the shot type.防守球员不止一名的情况下,我们能够通过观察球员的移动来预测投篮类型。We can look at all their velocities and we can build a model我们可以根据他们的速度建立一个模型,that predicts what is the likelihood that this shot would go in under these circumstances?预测在这些情况下进球的可能性。So why is this important? We can take something that was shooting, which was one thing before, and turn it into two things:为什么这一点很重要?因为我们可以通过分析投篮这一单一行为得到不同以往的两种信息:the quality of the shot and the quality of the shooter.投篮的质量以及投手的质量。So heres a bubble chart, because whats TED without a bubble chart?我们可以看一下这个气泡图,没有气泡图,还算什么TED呢?Those are NBA players. The size is the size of the player and the color is the position.这些气泡都是NBA球员。大小代表球员的体型,颜色代表他们的位置。On the x-axis, we have the shot probability. People on the left take difficult shots, on the right, they take easy shots.x轴代表投篮的命中率。靠左的球员偏向勉强投篮,靠右的球员会在有空当时才出手。On the is their shooting ability. People who are good are at the top, bad at the bottom.Y轴代表的是投篮质量。好投手在上面,较差的在下面。So for example, if there was a player who generally made 47 percent of their shots, thats all you knew before.举个例子,有一个球员的投篮命中率是47%,以前你只能知道这么多。But today, I can tell you that player takes shots that an average NBA player would make 49 percent of the time, and they are two percent worse.但如今,我能告诉你NBA球员投篮的平均命中率是49%,他还低了两个百分点。And the reason thats important is that there are lots of 47s out there.因为我们要在众多47%的球员中选择一个。And so its really important to know if the 47 that youre considering giving 100 million dollars to那么重点就在于要搞清楚,让你付了一大笔美金的人,is a good shooter who takes bad shots or a bad shooter who takes good shots.到底是个经常勉强投篮的神投手,还是一个愿意空位出手的差投手。Machine understanding doesnt just change how we look at players, it changes how we look at the game.机器分析不只改变了我们对球员的看法,也改变了我们看待比赛的方式。So there was this very exciting game a couple of years ago, in the NBA finals.几年前有一场很激烈的NBA总决赛,Miami was down by three, there was 20 seconds left. They were about to lose the championship.迈阿密落后三分,只剩20秒了。他们将要失去总冠军了。A gentleman named LeBron James came up and he took a three to tie. He missed.一位叫勒布朗·詹姆斯的年轻人,上去想投个三分追平。但他没投中。His teammate Chris Bosh got a rebound, passed it to another teammate named Ray Allen.他的队友克里斯·波什拿到篮板,传给另一个队友雷·阿伦。He sank a three. It went into overtime. They won the game. They won the championship.他投中了一个三分,比赛进入加时。最后他们赢了比赛,得了总冠军。It was one of the most exciting games in basketball.这是篮球比赛中最激动人心的时刻之一。And our ability to know the shot probability for every player at every second,而我们能知道每个球员在每一刻的投篮命中率and the likelihood of them getting a rebound at every second can illuminate this moment in a way that we never could before.以及抢到篮板的可能性,这种能力是前所未有的。Now unfortunately, I cant show you that . But for you, we recreated that moment at our weekly basketball game about 3 weeks ago.有点可惜,我无法给大家展示这个精片段。但为了在座的各位,我们在三周前的篮球周赛上重塑了那经典一刻。And we recreated the tracking that led to the insights. So, here is us.我们也重新加入了电脑追踪数据的演示。This is Chinatown in Los Angeles, a park we play at every week,这就是我和同事们在洛杉矶的唐人街,我们每周都会去打球的公园,and thats us recreating the Ray Allen moment and all the tracking thats associated with it. So, heres the shot.我们在重塑雷阿伦时刻,所有的轨迹都与之相关。就是这个投篮。Im going to show you that moment and all the insights of that moment.你们会看到这一经典时刻以及这一刻背后都发生了什么。The only difference is, instead of the professional players, its us, and instead of a professional announcer, its me. So, bear with me.唯一的不同就是,我们取代了专业球员,而我取代了专业讲解员。大家请见谅。Miami. Down three. Twenty seconds left. Jeff brings up the ball. Josh catches, puts up a three!迈阿密。落后三分。还有20秒。杰夫带球。约什接球,三分出手!Wont go! Rebound, Noel. Back to Daria.进不了!诺尔的篮板。传回给达丽亚。Her three-pointer -- bang! Tie game with five seconds left. The crowd goes wild.球进了--三分!打平了,还剩5秒。观众们沸腾了!Thats roughly how it happened. Roughly.真实情况大概就是这样。差不多。That moment had about a nine percent chance of happening in the NBA and we know that and a great many other things.在NBA有9%的概率会发生这样的时刻,我们知道的还有很多。Im not going to tell you how many times it took us to make that happen.我是不会告诉你们我们尝试了多少次才成功的。Okay, I will! It was four. Way to go, Daria.好吧,我还是说吧,四次。达丽亚,三分球还得努力啊。But the important thing about that and the insights we have for every second of every NBA game -- its not that.但那段视频以及我们对每场NBA比赛的细微观察并不是重点。Its the fact you dont have to be a professional team to track movement.事实上,你无需组建一个专业团队才能追踪移动。You do not have to be a professional player to get insights about movement.你也无需成为专业运动员,去理解那些移动。In fact, it doesnt even have to be about sports because were moving everywhere.而且,这不仅限于运动,因为我们无时不刻不在移动。Were moving in our homes, in our offices, as we shop and we travel throughout our cities and around our world.我们在家里、在办公室里来回走动,我们也在世界各地、各个城市购物旅行。What will we know? What will we learn?我们能发现什么?我们能学到什么?Perhaps, instead of identifying pick-and-rolls, a machine can identify the moment and let me know when my daughter takes her first steps.或许,除了识别挡拆,机器还能识别某些时刻,让我知道我女儿何时迈出她的第一步。Which could literally be happening any second now.她现在随时都有可能学会走路。Perhaps we can learn to better use our buildings, better plan our cities.或许我们能合理地利用我们的建筑物,更加好地规划我们的城市。I believe that with the development of the science of moving dots, we will move better, we will move smarter, we will move forward.我相信随着移动圆点这一科学的发展,我们能更好地移动、更智能地移动,一路向前。Thank you very much.谢谢大家。201706/513922

;Twenty years ago, I started to making gelato, because gelato is something make you feel happy.;“20年前,我开始制作冰淇淋。因为它能让人感到快乐。”Gianluigi Dellaccio came to America with a sweet tooth, a scooter and a dream.带着自己对甜食的喜爱,一台踏板车还有一个梦想,吉安路易吉·德拉西奥只身来到了美国。When I was 6 years old, I had this accident, and the accident, it put me in a position that I had to go swim to help my scoliosis.“6岁的时候,我遭遇了一场事故。正是因为这起事故,我不得不去游泳,从而改善自己脊柱侧弯的情况。;A water polo coach noticed him and a little more than a decade later he scored this,当时一个水球教练注意到了他,十多年后,他取得了这样的成绩,game-winning goal in a junior national championship on his way to join the Italys national team.在国家青少年锦标赛上打出了致胜一球,并顺利加入了意大利国家队。All the strength, all the dedication that I put in the sport I choose to invest it in my own life.“我决定曾在这项运动上付出了多少努力和汗水,如今就要投入多少到自己的生活中去。”The investment put Dellaccio in Germany, learning the gelato business from family there.为了全心投入自己的人生,他去了德国,从家人那里学习打理冰激凌生意。He mastered his craft in Milan where he touched gelato making at a youth jail.在米兰的一个少年监狱中,他接触到了冰激凌制作,并习得了一手好手艺。It was his first chance to use the type of authentic, gelato-making equipment that would shape his future.那是他第一次使用真正的冰激凌制作机器,为他日后的道路打下了基础。My dream was always to open a gelato shop here, in the ed States, and I started in 2006 Dolci Gelati.“我一直以来的梦想就是在美国开一家冰激凌店。终于,2006年我拥有了Dolci Gelati。”But the road to Dolci wasnt easy.但这条路其实并不容易。It took Dellaccio 6 years to get a green card so he could legally work in the US.德拉西奥用了6年的时间才获得了绿卡,这之后才能在美国合法工作。And the American Dream wasnt exactly what he expected.而美国梦也并不完全是他所期望的样子。It was very tough, because sometimes, you know, you have those days that you feel lonely and sad — homesick.“这一路走来真的挺难的,因为有时候,总有那么一些日子,你会觉得很孤单,很难过——特别想家。Those days helped me to build my strength.;这些想家的日子让我变得更加努力。”Until he went to what he knew: Selling gelato from the back of an iconic Italian scooter.直到有一天,他从自己了解的东西开始做起:在一辆标志性的意大利踏板车后面推销冰激凌。;I had a cooler in the back of the Vespa with samples going to restaurants, to different restaurants to let the chef try the product.;“我在黄蜂踏板车后面放了一个装着样品的冷藏箱,然后跑去各种餐馆里面,请厨师尝一尝我的产品。”His direct marketing worked, a decade later, Gianluigi has two stores in the Washington area.终于,他的直销手段生效了。十年之后,吉安路易吉在华盛顿地区开了两家门店。He buys local when he directly employes 18 people and countless others along the supply chain.店里所需材料都是在本地购买,同时他还直接聘用了18名当地人,在供应链上也请了许多其他工人。He serves some big names, he even has a stand at Major League Baseball Park.他还为一些知名人士提供过产品。甚至在美国职业棒球大联盟公园也开设了一家门店。Once you reach a goal, you need to put another target to keep going, because if you reach one goal then you settle,“一旦你达成一个目标,就需要树立下一个来保持前进的步伐,因为如果实现一个目标之后就安于现状,thats the day that you go down,;那么止步之日便是你堕落之时。”Dellaccio was a recent finalist in Chicago at the Gelato World Tour.德拉西奥最近刚刚入围意式手工冰激凌世界巡回赛的决赛。He will compete for the Worlds Best Gelato in September 2017.2017年9月,他将为争夺“世界上最好吃的冰激凌”而战。Its all part of a sweet dream -turned-reality through years of work, lots of smiles and a little scooter.经过多年的努力工作,Dellacci骑着自己的小踏板车,满脸笑意地将梦想迎进现实,而我的讲述也只是他追梦路上的一部分。Arash Arabasadi, VOA news, Washington.VOA新闻,阿拉什·阿拉巴萨第于华盛顿为您播报。201706/515550

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201607/452250

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201610/467992

I have a cat. Her name is Cameo, shes adorable, and recently she peed inside of a potted plant.我有一只叫Cameo的喵,她非常可爱,最近她总去盆栽里嘘嘘。But can you imagine how amazing it would be if she could roar… while peeing inside of a potted plant?但是你能想象她一边在盆栽里嘘嘘一边嘶吼的场景么?Shed be like, ;give me some treats; and then like ferocious roar... it would be so cute!就像是说,“我要小鱼干”,然后开始嘶吼...那一定会非常可爱吧!But domestic cats cant roar. Only four species in the cat family can: lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars.但是家猫可不会嘶吼。只有四种猫科动物可以:狮子、老虎、豹子和美洲虎。Heres the weird thing, though: zoologists are pretty sure those four species of cats cant purr.不可思议的是,动物学家非常确信,这四种猫科动物不会发出呜呜声。So even though my cat cant roar, the reason probably has a lot to do with the things in her throat that let her purr.所以尽管我的喵不会嘶吼,但是她可以发出呜呜声,这一定与她喉咙里的某些东西有关。Now, we still arent - this is amazing - totally sure how cats purr.如今,我们依然无法确信猫是如何发出呜呜声的。Theres no, like, ;purr box; that we can locate in a cat,并没有“呜呜箱”这种东西能够用于定位一只猫,and no ones ever stuck a purring cat in an MRI to find out exactly whats happening.也从来没有人能够在MRI中困住一只猫,乖乖的让我们检查其中奥秘。But weve known for a while that it probably involves the larynx, aka the voice box.但是我们一直都知道,这可能与喉(也称喉头)有关。Back in 1834, a British zoologist named Richard Owen noticed that 1834年,一位名叫理查德·欧文的英国动物学家发现there was an anatomical difference between the cat species that purred and the ones that roared会呜呜的猫和会嘶吼的猫有结构上的差异:roaring cats had a more flexible hyoid.嘶吼猫类有着更加灵活的舌骨。The hyoid is a structure that supports the tongue and larynx. In humans, its horseshoe-shaped.舌骨是撑舌头和和喉头的一个构造。人类的舌骨是马蹄状的。Its basically the first bone under your chin in the front of your neck,舌骨基本上是位于你脖子上边,下巴底下的第一块骨头,although, you shouldnt be able to feel it from the outside, so maybe dont go squeezing up around in there.虽然,你可能从外边摸不到它,但是也不要挤压它。On the murder shows, its how they know people called strangled when they got killed.在仿谋杀秀上,他们正是通过这一点来判断死者是被勒死的。Theyre always like, ;the hyoid is broken! Thats how we know that the murder was the squeezy neck kind.;他们通常都会说,“死者舌骨破裂!是被勒死的,这是谋杀案。”In cats, the hyoid is more of a hook that hangs down and connects the back of the skull to the front of the larynx and the base of the tongue.对于猫科动物来说,舌骨是钩挂和连接背骨与前部喉头的吊钩,位于舌根部。In most species of cat, including the domestic cat, the hyoid bone is very … bony.大多数猫科动物包括家猫,它们的舌骨非常...瘦窄。Its said to be completely ossified, meaning that its fully hardened bone.据说也非常僵硬,这就意味着它们的舌骨是完全坚硬的骨头。And all of the cats that have a completely ossified hyoid can purr, but dont roar.所有拥有僵硬舌骨的猫都能发出呜呜声,而无法嘶吼。The cats that do roar dont have a fully ossified hyoid, meaning that it hasnt fully hardened into bone, so its a lot more flexible.会嘶吼的猫都没有僵硬的舌骨,这意味着它们的舌骨还没有完全硬化成骨头,因此更加灵活。The tissue is more like the ligaments that normally connect bones to each other.组织就像是韧带,通常连接着每块骨头。Owen thought that flexibility was the key to roaring.欧文认为灵活性是嘶吼的关键。Roaring is a low, deep, resonant sound, so cats need long vocal folds to do it, just like people with longer vocal folds have deeper voices.嘶吼是一种低沉而洪亮的声音,因此猫科动物需要很长的声襞才能嘶吼,就像有着更长声襞的人类,他们的声音更加低沉。And Owen figured a more flexible hyoid was what let a cats vocal folds stretch enough for them to roar.欧文发现更加灵活的舌骨使得猫科动物能充满伸展它们的声襞并发出嘶吼声。For a long time, pretty much everyone agreed with this idea.一直以来,相当多的人都同意这个观点。They also assumed that hardened, bony hyoids were the reason why all the species of cat that couldnt roar could purr.他们也假定坚硬和瘦窄是解释所有种类的猫能发出呜呜声而无法嘶吼的原因。But there is one exception: the snow leopard.但是也有例外:雪豹。Snow leopards dont have a fully hardened hyoid — they have the more flexible kind that lions do. But they cant roar.雪豹的舌骨并非完全坚硬——它们和狮子一样拥有灵活的舌骨。但是它们却不会嘶吼。And even though weve known about the snow leopard exception since at least 1916, scientists didnt really question the hyoid idea until the late 1980s.尽管我们至少在1916年就知道雪豹这个例外,但是直至1980年代末,科学家也没有真正质疑过舌骨概念。That was when researchers realized that there is another difference between cats that can roar and cats that cant:从那时开始,研究者才意识到会呜呜和会嘶吼的猫科动物之中还存在其他差异:roaring cats have thick pads of tissue on their vocal folds.嘶吼猫科动物的声襞中的衬垫组织较厚。The pads make their vocal folds longer and heavier, which allows them to vibrate more slowly and make a lower-pitched sound.衬垫使得它们的声襞更长、更重,让它们可以缓慢的颤动并发出更加低频的声音。Only lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars have these pads, with no exceptions — not even snow leopards. So roaring isnt entirely about the hyoid bone.只有狮子、老虎、豹子和美洲虎才拥有这种衬垫,无一例外——就连雪豹也是。所以,嘶吼并不仅仅与舌骨相关。Sure, the extra flexibility might help, but they also need that extra tissue that our domestic cat friends dont have.当然,额外的灵活性或许也有帮助,但是它们也需要额外的组织,而这些是家猫所没有的。These pads also help explain why cats that roar cant purr. When cats purr, they vibrate their vocal folds about 26 times per second.这种衬垫也能够解释会嘶吼的猫科为何不会呜呜。但猫呜呜时,它们的声襞每秒颤动26次。There seems to be some mechanism in their brains that controls the vibrations.似乎在它们的大脑中存在一些机理以控制颤动。As they inhale and exhale, the vocal folds open and close, which is what makes the purring sound.当它们吸气呼气时,声襞的张合使它们发出呜呜声。Its like how you can make that motorboat sound by vibrating your lips, except they do it inside of them with their vocal folds.就像是,你可以通过唇部发出类似托艇的声音,而它们是用它们的声襞在内部发声。But the extra padding that allows lions, tigers, leopards, and jaguars to roar would dampen the constant vibrations that theyd need to purr.但是额外的衬垫能够让老虎、狮子、豹子和美洲虎嘶吼,却抑制了声襞的连续颤动使它们无法发出呜呜声。The females of those species do make purring-like noises when theyre in heat,这些种类的雌性确实可以发出呜呜声——像是遭受炎热时发出的声音,but those noises dont seem to be quite the same as true purring. Theyre closer to a growl.但是这些声音和真正的呜呜声还不太一样。它们更像是咆哮。So, my cat cant roar because her vocal folds just arent shaped for it.所以,我的喵无法嘶吼,因为她的声襞不允许。But she can purr, and thats pretty dang cute and I like it.但是她会呜呜,真是太TM可爱啦,我喜欢。Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow, and thanks to Patreon patron Janet Neidlinger for asking about how cats purr!谢谢观看这一期的科学秀,谢谢Patreon 赞助人 Janet Neidlinger关于猫如何发出呜呜声的提问!If youre curious about why cats purr in the first place, check out our where I explain that its not necessarily because theyre happy.对为什么猫会呜呜好奇?请点击我们的视频,我们能够为您解答——没必要解释太多,因为她们开心。201706/515523

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