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2018年10月19日 14:24:07来源:度排名快交流网

Uh-oh, the new year's just begun and aly you're finding it hard to keep those resolutions to junk the junk food, get off the couch or kick smoking. There's a biological reason a lot of our bad habits are so hard to break – they get wired into our brains.  噢喔,新的一年才刚刚开始,你就发现很难坚持“告别垃圾食品、远离沙发、戒烟”这些新年决心了吧?我们很难改掉坏习惯是由于生物学的原因——这些坏习惯根植于我们的大脑中。 That's not an excuse to give up. Understanding how unhealthy behaviors become ingrained has scientists learning some tricks that may help good habits replace the bad.  这并不是让人放弃新年决心的借口。了解不健康的习惯怎样变得根深蒂固可以启发科学家研究出一些让好习惯代替坏习惯的“技巧”。  "Why are bad habits stronger? You're fighting against the power of an immediate reward," says Dr. Nora Volkow, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and an authority on the brain's pleasure pathway.  诺拉#8226;沃尔科夫士说:“为什么坏习惯更加顽固?因为它能带来即时的犒赏,而这种即时犒赏的力量很强大。”沃尔科夫士是美国国家药物滥用研究所主任,同时也是大脑快乐通道方面的权威。  "We all as creatures are hard-wired that way, to give greater value to an immediate reward as opposed to something that's delayed," Volkow says.  沃尔科夫士说,“我们的这种天性决定了我们会更看重眼前的好处,而不是迟来的好处。”  Just how that bit of happiness turns into a habit involves a pleasure-sensing chemical named dopamine. It conditions the brain to want that reward again and again – reinforcing the connection each time – especially when it gets the right cue from your environment.  那么这一点快乐的感觉是怎样转化为一种习惯的呢?这与一种感知快乐的化学物质多巴胺有关。多巴胺使大脑不断期望得到这种犒赏,从而不断加强快乐感与这种行为之间的联系,特别是当它能从周围环境中得到正确的暗示时。 /201101/122583。

  • Forty years ago, when Janet Yellen, chairwoman of the US Federal Reserve, was an economist at Harvard University, she was interested in the film Five Easy Pieces. She noted the scene in which a diner waitress refuses to bring Jack Nicholson’s character an omelette with coffee and wheat toast because it serves omelettes with cottage fries and rolls. “I know what it comes with, but it’s not what I want,” he retorts.40年前,现任美联储主席珍妮特#8226;耶伦(Janet Yellen)还是哈佛大学(Harvard University)的一名经济学家时,她对电影《五只歌》很感兴趣。她注意到电影中的一个场景,餐厅女招待拒绝给杰克#8226;尼克尔森(Jack Nicholson)饰演的角色端上煎蛋卷配咖啡和全麦面包片,因为店里供应的是煎蛋卷配农家煎土豆和面包卷。尼克尔森反驳:“我知道这个的配菜是什么,但那不是我想要的。”The lesson that Ms Yellen and her co-author drew in a study of the economics of bundling was that it repays a restaurant to offer its customers an à la carte option alongside items on the set . Most people will be happy to choose from a fixed list, with lower prices, but “the à la carte is designed to capture consumer surplus from those gastronomes with extremely high valuations of particular dishes”.耶伦和她的合著者进行了一项关于捆绑销售经济学的研究,结论是,如果一家餐厅在固定菜单以外提供顾客单点的选择,餐厅能得到相应的回报。绝大多数人乐意通过比较便宜的固定菜单点菜,但“单点菜单是为了捕捉那些对某些菜品有极高评价的美食家消费者”。For Nicholson’s restless young oil-rig worker in Five Easy Pieces, a generation of rebellious millennials who have been angry at being forced to buy a cable subscription to watch Game of Thrones and True Detective on the HBO network. All they want are those shows, they protest, not the entire package.尼克尔森在《五歌》中饰演的不安分的年轻油田钻井工,折射出富有反叛精神的千禧年一代(millennial)。为了收看美国家庭电影频道(HBO)的节目《权力的游戏》(Game of Thrones)和《真探》(True Detective),他们被迫订阅有线电视务,为此他们感到愤怒。他们抗议称,他们只想看这些节目,而不是打包的全部频道。HBO gave in last week, announcing that it will offer a separate service for broadband users who have “cut the cord” to cable television or did not subscribe in the first place. It told investors it will go direct to the 10m Americans who use a cable or digital line for broadband rather than paying 0 a month for a multichannel subscription including HBO or Showtime.HBO近期做出了让步,宣布将为停止订阅或从未订阅有线电视的宽带用户提供单独务。HBO告诉投资者,务将直接面向这1000万美国人,他们使用有线方式上网,而不是每月付100美元订阅包括HBO和时间(Showtime)在内的多个有线电视频道。HBO’s move, in response to the rise of Netflix, an “over the top” service that does not require a cable subscription, is a big moment in broadcast history. It was followed by CBS, the broadcast network, unveiling a .99 a month online service, and promises to reset how US customers watch and pay for their television programmes.HBO的举措是为应对Netflix(一项无需订阅有线电视就能向客户提供节目的OTT(over the top)视频务)的崛起而做出的,这是广播电视史上的重大时刻。哥伦比亚广播公司(CBS)之后也效仿了HBO的做法,推出了5.99美元每月的在线务,并承诺将改革美国用户收看电视和付费的方式。Some analysts go further, suggesting that this will undermine bundling itself, and with it the economics of television. If people decide to buy popular programmes and channels à la carte rather than taking the 500-channel set , bn of revenue could vanish in the US. “Unbundling dwarfs any other risk to the television ecosystem,” Laura Martin, an analyst at Needham, an investment bank, wrote last year.一些分析师更进一步,指出这将削弱捆绑销售模式本身乃至电视制播的经济性。如果人们决定按照单点的方式购买受欢迎的节目和频道,而不是按照固定菜单订阅500个频道,700亿美元的营收可能在美国就此蒸发。“和去捆绑化相比,电视生态体系面临的其它任何风险都相形见绌,”投行Needham的分析师劳拉#8226;马丁(Laura Martin)去年写道。If, that is. There is clearly a move to what Ms Yellen called “mixed bundling” – the combination of set and à la carte. But the bundle is not dead simply because it is possible for the internet to fragment distribution entirely, with customers making micropayments for every ingredient of every dish.不过,那只是如果而已。业界显然出现了耶伦所说的“混合捆绑”的动向——将固定菜单和单点菜单结合起来。但仅仅因为互联网可以使电视节目的销售完全碎片化,让顾客为每一道菜的每一种食材付少量费用,并不会导致捆绑销售的消亡。In practice, most people prefer a simple life and some choices to be made for them, as long as they feel that they are getting a bargain. Indeed, consumers and businesses are increasingly paying subscriptions for digital packages of software and content, rather than buying them piecemeal.实际上,对大多数人来说,只要他们认为自己享受了优惠,他们更喜欢简单的方式,让他人替自己做出一些选择。的确,越来越多的用户和企业选择订购软件和内容的数字务包,而不是零散购买。This is evident in music. Digital piracy and services such as Apple’s iTunes initially fragmented consumption, leading consumers to stop buying albums and to choose individual tracks instead. A growing number, however, now subscribe to all-you-can-hear subscription services such as Spotify.这一点在音乐方面表现得很明显。电子盗版以及如苹果(Apple) iTunes这样的务最早使消费碎片化,致使消费者停止购买专辑,改为购买单曲。然而,现在有越来越多的用户付费订购如Spotify这样的“无限量收听”务。It is occurring in software, with cloud-based subscription packages replacing shrink-wrapped discs. The rise of software-as-a-service companies such as Salesforce.com has challenged software providers such as Oracle.软件方面也是如此,基于云务的订购务包替代了塑封光盘。类似Salesforce.com这样提供“软件即务”的企业正在崛起,挑战像甲骨文(Oracle)这样的软件供应商。IBM ’s poor financial results this week come as it struggles to compete with providers such as Amazon, which are offering cloud-based technology.IBM近期公布的财务业绩不佳,无独有偶的是,该公司正面临亚马逊(Amazon)等云务提供商的激烈竞争。It is also happening in television. In parallel with the push toward wider access to premium shows, cable and satellite companies are drawing customers into combined “triple play” subscriptions that fuse together telephone, broadband and television. Of British Sky Broadcasting’s customers, 37 per cent are now on triple play, compared with 23 per cent four years ago.电视业也在发生同样的事情。在努力扩大精品电视节目的覆盖人群的同时,有线电视公司和卫星电视公司正在引导用户订购将电话、宽带和电视融为一体的“三合一”务。英国天空广播公司(British Sky Broadcasting)目前有37%的用户使用三合一务,而4年前使用该务的用户占23%。The fact that bundling refuses to die is not surprising. As Ms Yellen and other economists have pointed out, it is an attractive pricing strategy for businesses because it is an effective way of appealing to groups of consumers with similar appetites, without the hassle of setting hundreds of prices.捆绑销售拒绝退出历史舞台,这个事实并不令人惊讶。正如耶伦和其他经济学家指出的,对企业来说,这是一种富有吸引力的定价策略,因为捆绑销售能有效地吸引口味相似的消费者群体,企业又不必费心设定数百种价格。Consumers like bundles for several reasons. One is that they are a form of insurance – paying a flat fee and being able to watch as much as you like is akin to insuring against an unpleasant shock when the bill arrives. Another is that it takes too much mental effort to keep on calculating whether any individual programme or channel is worth the à la carte price by itself.消费者喜欢捆绑销售的原因有几个。一个原因是捆绑销售是一种保险——付一笔固定费用后,你可以想看多少节目就看多少节目,与投保以避免账单到来时感到震惊和不愉快的行为非常类似。另外一个原因是,要不停地计算花费单点的价格订阅某个节目或者频道是否值得太费精力。Although digital technology seems to foster fragmentation, it makes bundling simpler and more attractive. There is logic to the fact that most physical goods are priced individually while digital ones are often grouped. In the online world, it is easier to discover the right price – one that attracts most consumers – for combinations.尽管数字技术似乎促进了碎片化,但它也使捆绑销售显得更简单,更有吸引力。绝大多数实体商品采用单独定价,而数字产品往往采用捆绑定价,这个事实符合逻辑。在网络世界,发现套餐的合理价格更容易——也就是吸引最多消费者的价格。The marginal cost of online distribution is near-zero: once a customer has a broadband link, it costs nothing to offer another item. This helps networks to discriminate flexibly – HBO thinks it can appeal to disenchanted cord-cutters without losing committed cable subscribers. Rather than abolishing bundling, the internet enables it to be practised with greater efficiency.在线销售的边际成本几乎为零:一旦客户有宽带连接,要销售另外一件商品或者务几乎不用花费任何成本。这帮助电视公司采取灵活的区分策略——HBO认为,它既可以吸引失去兴趣的“掐线族”,又不会失去忠实的有线电视订户。互联网没有废除捆绑销售,而是提高了捆绑销售的效率。That is what we are witnessing. The choice of everything or nothing is giving way not to anarchy but to a wider of set meals and à la carte. The bundle is dead; long live the bundle.这就是我们见的潮流。“要么全买,要么别用”的选择并没有变得混乱无序,而是让位于一份囊括固定套餐和单点菜品的更大菜单。旧的捆绑销售已经过时;为新的捆绑销售欢呼万岁吧! /201411/343590。
  • Having grabbed a big chunk of the profitable smartphone business from Apple Inc. and others, Samsung Electronics Co. now faces a new, enviable Apple-like challenge: a mammoth pile of unspent, accumulated cash.三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)从苹果(Apple Inc.)和其他公司那里夺走了大量利润丰厚的智能手机业务,如今,三星电子面临着一个与苹果类似的惹人嫉妒的新挑战:公司积累的大量闲置现金。After a first quarter marked by a 42% rise in net profit, Samsung said its cash and cash equivalents grew to nearly billion at the end of March. After stripping out debt, Samsung#39;s net cash position is 31.2 trillion won, or .5 billion. Aly one of the biggest in Asia, Samsung#39;s cash pile is building at an eye-popping rate. Its net cash has nearly tripled over the last year alone.在第一季度录得42%的净利润增长之后,三星电子说,该公司的现金和现金等价物3月底时已经增长到了将近400亿美元。剔除债务后,三星电子的净现金头寸为31.2万亿韩圆,即285亿美元。三星电子的现金规模在亚洲已经处于最高水平,目前仍以令人瞠目的速度增长。仅过去一年,三星电子的净现金就几乎增长了两倍。Analysts expect Samsung to use that money for acquisitions that will allow the company to beef up in certain areas like software and medical equipment. Shareholders are likely to start seeking higher returns, either through a boost in its dividend -- currently less than 1% of its share price -- or a share buyback. And while there is no sign yet of the market pressure that forced Apple to announce last month both such steps, investors are starting to notice.分析人士预计,三星电子将使用这些钱进行收购,从而增强公司在软件和医疗设备等领域的实力。股东们可能会开始寻求更高的回报,方法是增加派息──目前不到股价的1%──或是股票回购。尽管目前对于三星电子来说,还没有出现迫使苹果上个月宣布采取这两种措施的市场压力,投资者正在开始予以关注。#39;We will be asking them if they plan to keep all that cash,#39; said Willis Tsai, a San Francisco-based director in the equity research division at TIAA-CREF, which manages more than 0 million of Samsung shares, according to shareholder data from Samp;P Capital IQ. #39;When I see the company, it#39;ll probably be the first question I ask.#39;主流智能手机大比拼TIAA-CREF驻旧金山的股票研究部门的经理Willis Tsai说,我们将询问他们是否打算留下所有现金。根据标普资本智商公司(Samp;P Capital IQ)的股东数据,TIAA-CREF管理着市值超过4亿美元的三星电子股票。他说,如果我看到这家公司,这可能是我要问的第一个问题。In response to a Wall Street Journal question about its cash strategy, Samsung issued a statement last week saying its cash reserves will be managed in a way that prioritizes #39;investments sustainable for areas like facilities, Ramp;D, and marketing that will help the company solidify or boost competitiveness#39; in respective business areas. The company declined to comment on any specific dividend payout, share buyback or acquisition plans in the future.三星电子上周发表了一份声明回应《华尔街日报》关于其现金策略的质疑,声明说,其现金管理方式是重点对设施、研发和营销等领域进行可持续的投资,从而巩固和提高公司在这些领域的竞争力。三星电子拒绝谈论任何具体的股息派发、股票回购或收购计划。The growth in Samsung#39;s cash reflects a dramatic shift in how it generates its profit. In the past, Samsung#39;s chip and components divisions -- underpinned by years of massive capital spending -- propelled the company#39;s earnings. Now, its huge profit comes largely from smartphones, which generate more cash because they don#39;t require as much capital investment.三星电子的现金增长反映了其利润产生方式的明显变化。过去,三星电子的芯片和零件部门推动了公司的盈利增长,这些部门多年以来受到了大规模资本出的持。如今,三星电子的大量利润主要来自智能手机,由于智能手机不需要那么多的资本投资,它们能够制造更多现金。The division containing the mobile business accounted for 74% of Samsung#39;s operating profit, with consumer electronics -- such as TVs -- and components -- such as chips -- making up the rest in the first quarter of 2013. Three years earlier in the same quarter, the mobile-phone segment accounted for 25% of operating profit, with semiconductors and LCDs comprising 56%.2013年第一季度,手机业务所在的部门对三星电子运营利润的贡献率为74%,公司其余的利润来自消费电子产品(如电视机)和零部件(如芯片)。三年前的一季度,手机业务对三星电子运营利润的贡献率为25%,半导体和液晶显示器的利润贡献率为56%。Samsung routinely outspends rivals on capital expenditures to build newer and bigger factories. During market downturns, when competitors would scale back on investment, the world#39;s top producer of memory chips would continue to spend billions of dollars -- allowing it to extend its market-share lead and give it scale to gain more bargaining power in price negotiations.三星电子用来建设更新和更大厂房的资本出通常高于竞争对手。在市场低迷期间,竞争者纷纷削减投资,这家世界顶尖的内存芯片制造商继续斥资数十亿美元进行投资,这帮助三星电子扩大了市场份额方面的领先优势,也使公司在价格谈判中拥有了更多讨价还价的权力。But in recent years, Samsung has kept capital spending mostly flat -- albeit at levels far greater than its competition. Samsung spent 22.8 trillion won in capital expenditures in 2012. It was largely unchanged from 2011 and the company has said it would keep spending flat this year.但是最近几年,三星电子的资本出虽然仍远高于其竞争对手,但却没有太大变化。三星电子2012年的资本出为22.8万亿韩圆,与2011年基本持平。三星电子表示,今年的出仍将保持在这个水平。#39;The cash balloon never got that big because they were reinvesting it all, but now that#39;s starting to change,#39; said Mark Newman, a Hong Kong-based analyst for Sanford C. Bernstein., who estimates that Samsung#39;s cash may grow to 100 trillion won by the end of 2015. #39;It#39;s getting near the point where it#39;s more than enough.#39;美国投行Sanford C. Bernstein驻香港的分析师纽曼(Mark Newman)说,三星电子的现金规模从来没有像现在这么大,因为该公司以往会将手中的现金全部用于再投资,但是现在情况已经变了。纽曼估计,三星电子的现金储备到2015年底时可能增长到100万亿韩圆。纽曼说,它正在超出满足需要的水平。Based on the amount of cash and liquid securities sitting on its balance sheet at the end of its most recent business year, Samsung has the second-biggest cash pile in Asia behind China Mobile Ltd.#39;s billion war chest and ahead of Toyota Motor Corp.#39;s .5 billion cash reserves, according to data from Samp;P Capital IQ, which excludes financial and energy companies,标普资本智商提供的数据显示,在三星电子刚刚结束的这个财年,该公司资产负债表上的现金和易变现券规的模,在不包括金融和能源企业的亚洲公司中排名第二,仅次于中国移动(China Mobile Ltd.)640亿美元的现金规模,超过了丰田汽车(Toyota Motor Corp.)275亿美元的现金储备。The stockpile is building rapidly in part because of Samsung#39;s conservative use of cash. The company#39;s latest annual dividend of 8,000 won translates to a fairly modest yield of 0.54% relative to its share price. As a percentage of net profit, Samsung#39;s total dividend payout has decreased for five years in a row to 5% in 2012, from 15.8% in 2007.三星电子手中现金迅速增加的部分原因是该公司对现金的保守使用。三星电子最新的年度股息为每股8,000韩圆,仅相当于该公司股价的0.54%。三星付的股息总数与公司净利润的比率已经连续五年下降,从2007年的15.8%下降到2012年的5%。In addition, Samsung hasn#39;t bought back shares since 2007. Between 2004 and 2007, it bought back at least 1.8 trillion won, or .6 billion, of shares every year. The impetus for a share buyback may have diminished because Samsung#39;s stock price has nearly tripled since the start of 2008.此外,三星自2007年以来一直没有回购过股票。2004至2007年,三星每年至少回购了价值1.8万亿韩圆(合16亿美元)的股票。由于三星股价自2008年初以来上涨了近两倍,回购股票的动力可能已经减弱。With regard to acquisitions, Samsung has gone for either relatively small companies or small stakes in larger companies. The last big deal it tried to pull off -- an acquisition of flash-memory supplier SanDisk Corp. for .85 billion in 2008 -- failed because the two parties couldn#39;t agree on a price.在收购方面,三星的收购对象要么是规模相对较小的公司,要么是大公司的少数股权。该公司最后一次尝试进行的大规模收购是在2008年试图以58.5亿美元收购闪存供应商SanDisk Corp.,该交易由于双方无法就价格达成一致而失败。According to research firm Dealogic, the biggest overseas deal Samsung Electronics has ever completed is a two-part acquisition of Irvine, Calif.-based AST Research Inc. for a total of 0 million, more than a decade ago. Its most recent deal, announced in March, was an acquisition of a 3% stake in struggling Japanese electronics manufacturer Sharp Corp. for about 6 million.研究公司Dealogic的数据显示,三星电子曾经完成过的最大规模海外收购交易是十多年前分两步收购了加州尔湾(Irvine)的AST Research Inc.,该交易总计为8.4亿美元。其最新的收购交易于今年3月宣布,三星称它将以大约1.06亿美元收购陷入困境的日本电子产品生产商夏普(Sharp Corp.) 3%的股份。Bernstein#39;s Mr. Newman said it is growing more likely that Samsung may look for a larger, multibillion-dollar acquisition in the near future. He didn#39;t specify any potential targets. One area where the company has been expanding its reach through a series of smaller acquisitions is medical equipment.Bernstein的纽曼说,三星目前已更有可能在不久的将来寻求进行耗字数十亿美元的更大规模收购。他没有具体说明任何可能的目标。三星一直在通过一系列较小的收购行动来扩大影响力的一个领域是医疗设备。Mr. Newman expects the company to perform some kind of return to shareholders within the next two to three years. Based on its history, the company is more likely to do a share buyback, he said.纽曼预计,三星未来两到三年可能会以某种形式回报股东。他说,根据三星的历史,其更有可能进行股票回购。Samsung still has time before its cash pile becomes an Apple-sized issue. Apple#39;s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities reached 4.7 billion at the end of March. Under pressure from investors to return more cash to shareholders, Apple announced last month that it plans to return more cash to investors than previously planned. In a series of moves aimed at returning 0 billion in cash to shareholders by the end of 2015, Apple increased the size of its share repurchase program and raised quarterly dividends.在三星的现金储备问题变得像苹果公司的这一问题那般严重之前,三星还有时间。苹果的现金、现金等价物和适销券在3月底达到1,447亿美元。在投资者要求向股东返还更多现金的压力下,苹果上个月宣布其计划向投资者返还超过以前计划的现金。苹果采取了一系列行动,目的是在2015年底之前向股东返还1,000亿美元现金,这些行动包括扩大股票回购计划的规模以及增加季度股息。Apple and Samsung have totally different cash needs. While Samsung#39;s memory and panel businesses may not be as critical to current earnings, they are still leading their respective industries and they will continue to require cash for capital spending to stay ahead of the competition.苹果和三星有着截然不同的现金需求。虽然三星的存储器和面板业务对该公司当前利润的贡献率可能不是那么大,但它们仍在各自的行业占据领先地位,为保持这种竞争优势,三星电子依然需要在这两项业务上投入现金以用作资本出。Also, fortunes can change quickly in the technology industry. Samsung only needs to look to its once-bigger rival Panasonic Corp.同时,在科技行业,运气也可能随时发生变化。三星只要看看曾经比自己规模更大的竞争对手松下(Panasonic Corp.)就知道了。When flat-panel televisions started to replace bulky cathode-ray tube TV models, Panasonic invested heavily in plasma displays. It built several billion-dollar factories to churn out the displays, only to see those investments suffer during a prolonged downturn.在平板电视开始取代笨重的显像管电视时,松下在等离子显示屏上投入巨资。该公司修建了耗资数十亿美元的工厂以生产显示器,但等离子显示屏行业旷日持久的不景气却使这些投资遭遇了损失。After losing more than 1.5 trillion yen, or .3 billion, over the last two years, Panasonic has seen its credit rating cut to below investment grade, or #39;junk#39; status, by rating agency Fitch in November.过去两年亏损逾1.5万亿日圆(合153亿美元)之后,松下的信用评级在去年11月被评级机构惠誉(Fitch)下调至投资级以下,跌入“垃圾”级。Christopher Wong, a Singapore-based senior investment manager at Aberdeen Asset Management, said it is #39;not a bad thing#39; for Samsung to maintain a large cash balance because of the size of Samsung#39;s annual capital expenditures and the cyclical nature of the technology industry.新加坡安本资产管理公司(Aberdeen Asset Management)的高级投资经理Christopher Wong说,由于三星年度资本开的规模和科技行业的周期性质,三星持有大量现金不是坏事。#39;We#39;re quite relaxed when it comes to the cash pile as long as it continues to find uses for the cash,#39; said Mr. Wong.他说,我们并不担心现金储备的问题,只要三星能继续为这些现金找到用途就行了。 /201305/239269。
  • Apple’s design chief took a swipe at copycats as he explained some of the secretive group’s product development processes ahead of the launch of its Watch and latest iPads.苹果(Apple)首席设计师对模仿者作出了批评。在苹果即将推出Apple Watch和最新款iPad之前,乔纳森#8226;艾夫爵士(Sir Jonathan Ive)介绍了这家善于保密的集团的某些产品开发流程。In an interview at Vanity Fair magazine’s New Establishment Summit in San Francisco, Sir Jonathan Ive admitted that he sounded “a little bit harsh and perhaps a little bit bitter” in his response to a question about whether imitation by Asian rivals such as Xiaomi was “flattering”.在《名利场》(Vanity Fair)杂志于旧金山举办的New Establishment峰会上,乔纳森爵士接受了采访。他坦承,在被问到小米(Xiaomi)等亚洲竞争对手的模仿是否“令他感到荣幸”时,他的回答听上去“有点刺耳,或许还有点愤愤不平”。He said: “I think it’s really straightforward. It really is theft, and it’s lazy, and I don’t think it’s OK at all.”他说:“我认为,这件事确实很简单。这么做就是偷窃,是偷懒,我根本不认为这样做没问题。”Apple has fought many legal battles over patent infringement of the iPhone’s technology and designs, including winning an initial bn verdict against Samsung in 2012. While it has been some time since Apple initiated any new cases, Sir Jonathan’s sensitivity to copying comes ahead of the release of Watch.苹果因为iPhone技术和设计专利遭到侵权的问题打过多次官司,其中包括在2012年首次告赢三星(Samsung)并获赔10亿美元。苹果已有一段时间没有再提起新的诉讼,但乔纳森爵士在苹果将推出智能手表之际对抄袭的问题依然十分敏感。“When we started working on it, it seemed like a very natural, obvious place for technology to end up,” he said.他说:“当我们开始设计这款产品的时候,它看起来就像是技术的一个自然、显而易见的终点。”This iPhone accessory, which will cost upwards of 0, was conceived after Steve Jobs’ death, but Sir Jonathan said he was trying to maintain Apple’s founding ethos of making technology more personal and accessible. “I do see that the Watch is a move away from what is traditionally understood as consumer electronics,” Sir Jonathan said.这款iPhone配件售价将超过350美元,是在史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)过世之后构想出来的。不过乔纳森爵士表示,他试图保持苹果的创立宗旨:让科技变得更加个人化和易于使用。他说:“我确实认为,相对于传统上人们理解的消费电子产品,苹果手表有所不同。”Apple is courting the fashion and luxury market with the device, including a showcase during Paris Fashion Week held at the chic boutique store Colette.苹果正在以这款设备取时尚和奢侈品市场的好感,包括在巴黎时装周(Paris Fashion Week)期间特意在柯莱特时尚店(Colette)陈列该产品。Sir Jonathan’s appearance came in the same week that Vogue China featured a model wearing Apple Watch, the first fashion magazine to style the watch on its cover.就在乔纳森爵士现身的同一周,《Vogue China》还登出了一位戴着苹果手表的模特,这是第一家在封面展示这款手表的时尚杂志。Vogue’s praise for the Watch is a far cry from Sir Jonathan’s first attempt at designing a phone, in the UK in the late 1980s. He won a Royal College of Arts competition with a contraption that reimagined the telephone, rearranging the speaker, mouthpiece and handle.《Vogue》对苹果手表的赞许与乔纳森首次尝试设计一部电话之时已不可同日而语,那是上世纪80年代末他在英国的时候。他以一款重新设计的电话赢得了英国皇家艺术学院(Royal College of Art)的一次竞赛。这款电话的扬声器、话筒和手柄都经过重新设计。Shown a photo of the clunky device on stage by Vanity Fair editor Graydon Carter, Sir Jonathan blushed. “Obviously it wasn’t a good idea,” he said.《名利场》杂志主编格莱登#8226;卡特(Graydon Carter)在台上展示了这款笨重电话机的照片,乔纳森爵士有点难为情,他说:“显然,这不是个好的创意。”But the bursary he received from winning helped him, in 1989, to make his first trip to Silicon Valley. “I was just blown away by the optimism and enthusiasm that provided such a fantastic environment to try and develop new ideas,” Sir Jonathan told Mr Carter.不过,在比赛中拿到奖金后,他在1989年首次造访了硅谷。他告诉卡特:“那里的乐观和热情为尝试和研究新创意营造了绝妙的环境,我被深深打动了。”“It’s very difficult to develop new ideas in the context of cynicism and sarcasm. It makes for good comedy but it’s a horrible way of trying to develop products.”“在愤世嫉俗和冷嘲热讽的氛围中,人们很难提出新的创意。这种氛围容易催生出好的喜剧,然而对于产品开发来说是十分糟糕的。”Describing Apple’s product development processes, Sir Jonathan said his team of 16 designers gathered three or four times a week around its studio’s table, which resembles those that display products in its retail stores.在讲述苹果的产品开发流程时,乔纳森爵士表示他的团队由16名设计师组成,每周会围着工作室的桌子开三四次会,这种桌子与苹果门店中展示产品的桌子相似。“We draw, we still draw,” he said. The team also creates plastic or metal models of its concepts. “When there is an object to touch, everything shifts.”他说:“我们会画出设计图样,我们仍然会采用绘画方式。”除此以外,该团队还会根据其设计理念,制作出塑料或金属的模型。“一旦有了可触摸的实物,就一切都不同了。” /201410/335026。
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