原标题: 平湖市红十字会医院脱毛多少钱飞度排名快交流网
In this day and age, living without money sounds almost impossible, but that#39;s exactly what this Australian couple has been doing for almost a year. It#39;s been anything but easy, but they#39;ve somehow made it work.在如今这个年月,不花钱过活几乎不太可能。不过,一对澳大利亚夫妇近一年来就过着这样的生活。这样过日子可不简单,但他们还是想方设法做到了。Rachel Newby, 24, and Liam Culbertson, 26, have come up with innovative ways of making it through the year without any cash. They built themselves a new home on a friend#39;s plot in West Gippsland, a rural region in Victoria. The house is made entirely out of scrap timber and recycled materials. They grow their own food, and at times, don#39;t hesitate to dive into dumpsters for leftovers. They also help out local farmers in exchange for fresh produce and yarn.蕾切尔·纽比现年24岁,她的丈夫利亚姆·卡伯特森26岁。夫妇俩为了可以不花一分钱过上一年想出了种种奇招。他们给自己在维多利亚州乡下的西吉普斯兰地区盖了一个新家,新家建在朋友的一块地皮上。房子完全由木材废料和可循环材料建成。他们自耕自给,偶尔也到垃圾桶里找些残羹冷炙。他们还为当地农民打下手,好换得一些新鲜食物和纱线。“We enjoy the feeling of being able to choose what we do regardless of money,” said Rachel. “We don#39;t have to worry about rent or plane tickets or food or fancy clothes. Effectively, all of our time is free time because we get to decide how we spend it.”“我们享受这种抛开金钱,自给自足的生活。”蕾切尔说,“我俩不必操心房租、机票、食物或华到底要多少钱。事实上,现在的生活自由极了,我们能完全自主地安排自己的时间。”Rachel and Liam moved into the house in January, but this isn#39;t the first time they#39;re experiencing living off the land. While Rachel spent two years previously on an organic farm in Canada, Liam has traveled to the Arctic. They#39;ve both always tried to use local produce and be as eco-friendly as possible.一月,蕾切尔与利亚姆搬进了新家,这可不是他们第一次过自给自足的生活了。此前,蕾切尔在加拿大的一个有机农场生活过两年,利亚姆则曾赴北极旅行。夫妻俩都尽量使用当地土产品,不破坏生态环境。But in spite of all their experience, they claim that this last year has been quite difficult. The soil on their patch of land is rather infertile, so they#39;ve been struggling to grow crops. The climate is pretty harsh as well, so their makeshift residence isn#39;t holding out too well. The thrifty home – a 2.5 square meter structure – is really only good for privacy. They shower under cold rainwater collected on the roof, and share toilets with the rest of the community. And because they have no appliances, they wash their clothes in the sink.尽管有过自给自足的经验,两人依然表示,过去的一年困难重重。他们居住的地方土地贫瘠,种植粮食并非易事。当地气候条件严苛,临时居所时常风雨飘摇。这间2.5平米的小屋,仅仅是个简陋的容身之处。两人不得不搜集屋顶的冰冷雨水用于洗浴,上厕所还得与他人共用。家中没有任何电器,夫妻俩只能在水槽中洗衣。Even though they don#39;t have jobs, Rachel and Liam don#39;t have a lot of leisure time to waste. They spend most of the day working for local farmers – planting vegetables and picking berries, just so they can earn their next meal. They have five ducks that provide them with fresh eggs, but when supplies go low, they have to go sift through dumpsters for discarded vegetables, fruit, and b.虽然两人没有工作,蕾切尔与利亚姆却也没有多少休闲时间。他们大部分时候得帮当地的农民打打下手,比如种菜或采莓子,才能换得一顿吃的。他们饲养了5只鸭子,不时能吃上新鲜鸭蛋。不过,食物不够了,他们就得到垃圾箱里找吃的,拣别人扔掉的蔬菜、水果和面包。Despite the couple#39;s best efforts, their experiment hasn#39;t remained totally cash free – Liam needed dental work earlier this year, which cost the couple 0, and Rachel also had to spring for a new bike so she could ride into town. But those were pretty much their biggest expenses for the year.夫妇两人虽苦心经营,但还是碰上了花钱的时候。今年早些时候,利亚姆去看牙医,花掉了300美元,蕾切尔为了方便进城,也不得不买了辆新自行车。不过,这些钱大概是他们这一年里最大的开了。With only a few months left of their cashless year, the couple hasn#39;t decided if they#39;re going to return to civilization or not. It#39;s not easy, but they might just continue to live off the grid. They seem quite happy with their lifestyle despite the hardships, and they get along really well with their neighbors too. “Older folks seem to love the idea of us doing what they used to do as kids, or in some cases, as young hippies,” Rachel told That#39;s Life! Magazine, adding that she and Liam might just burn out from all the work, but they#39;re enjoying themselves for now.还有几个月,他们分文不花的生活就要满一年了。夫妻俩尚未决定是否要回归文明世界。自给自足并不容易,但他们或许打算继续过下去。尽管困难重重,两人似乎开心不已,与邻居相处得也十分融洽。“老一辈似乎很持我们,毕竟他们小时候就是这么过的。他们中有人年轻时还当过嬉皮士哩,”蕾切尔告诉《活出精!》(That#39;s Life!)杂志。她说,虽然丈夫和自己最终可能精疲力尽,但两人都很满意目前的生活。 /201509/400520;In the long term, we will probably see equal or higher sales in China than in the ed States. That may take five or six years,; Elon Musk, CEO of electric automobile maker Tesla Motors, told Xinhua on Friday.10月23日,特斯拉电动汽车首席执行官埃隆·马斯克表示,“从长远来看,特斯拉在中国的销量将有望达到或赶超美国,这可能需要五六年的时间”。Sales in China in the first three quarters of 2015 reached 3,025 cars, with 791 sold in Q1, 882 in Q2 and 1,345 in Q3, respectively, Musk said at a press conference to unveil Tesla’s new Autopilot system in Beijing.2015年前三季度特斯拉在中国共售出3025辆,第一季度销量为791辆,第二季度销量882辆,第三季度1345辆。马斯克在北京新闻发布会揭开了特斯拉新自动驾驶系统。Musk said the figures are good on a percentage growth basis, and he is very optimistic about Tesla’s future in China. He said he wants to emphasize that Tesla is still a small company. ;We get the press of an elephant, but are the size of a mouse,; he said.马斯克表示,这些数据的百分比均呈上升态势,他十分看好特斯拉在中国的未来。他强调,特斯拉现在仍然是小公司,“媒体看来我们看起来像只大象,但从规模上讲我们还只是只老鼠”。The company is in talks with officials at the national and provincial levels about potential joint ventures in China, according to Musk. In a previous interview with Xinhua, Musk said Tesla plans to localize production and engineering in China in three years. ;That timetable is still approximately correct. It’s my best guess,; he said on Friday when asked if there had been any change of plans.马斯克表示,目前公司正与国家级及省级官方举行会谈,探讨潜在的合作关系。在早前接受新华社的采访时,马斯克表示特斯拉计划三年内在中国实现本地化生产和工程设计。周五的新闻发布会上,当被问及计划是否会有变时,马斯克回应,“乐观估计,公司未来发展和这一计划基本一致”。Tesla has been increasing its retail outlets and supercharging networks in China, having aly installed 84 superchargers and 1,500 destination chargers after sales in the country reportedly fell below expectations last year.自去年报导特斯拉在中国的销售额未达到公司预期值,特斯拉便一直在中国增加其零售网点及超级充电网络系统,已建成84个超级充电站及1500个目的地充电站。Musk said Tesla is now in a ;pretty good place,; even as traditional car makers such as BMW and Audi unveiled their own electric vehicle concepts in China. ;We are trying to put localized production in China. In the years to come, you’ll see some fairly significant partnership announcements,; Musk added.马斯克表示,虽然诸如宝马、奥迪等传统汽车公司纷纷发布电动汽车的概念,但特斯拉在竞争中还是占据良好的位置。马斯克补充说,“我们计划在中国实现本地化生产,在不久的将来,你们就能看到一些重要的合作关系”。China’s automobile sales rebounded in September mainly due to growth in passenger car and new energy vehicle sales. Official data showed that electric and hybrid electric cars outperformed their peers in September, registering 210- and 220-percent year-on-year growth in output and sales, respectively.由于小轿车和新能源汽车的销量增加,中国的汽车销量在9月有所回升。官方数据显示,电动和混合动力汽车在9月份的销量表现优于其他汽车,年产量增长率达到210%,年销量增长率达220%。Industry analysts said his choice of Beijing as the launch site for Tesla’s Autopilot indicates Tesla’s determination to win over China, the world’s biggest auto market.业内人士分析,特斯拉选择北京作为其自动驾驶系列的首发地,表明特斯拉要赢得中国这一全球最大汽车市场的决心。However, Musk did not shy away from admitting that Tesla had ;made some mistakes; on its initial entry into China. The lesson learned is that no matter how anxious customers are to get the product, it shouldn’t be launched unless everything is y, he said. Tesla is limiting expansion into other markets as a result of the lessons learned in China, Musk said. ;We shouldn’t make that mistake in the future.;然而马斯克并不否认,在初入中国市场时,“犯了一些错误”。但我们从中吸取到教训:无论市场顾客对这一产品多么期待,都不能在产品还没完全准备好的时候投入市场。由于中国这一市场的经验教训,特斯拉现在并不急于拓展其他市场,马斯克表示,“在将来我们不能再犯这样的错误了”。Meanwhile, he is also optimistic about China’s economy, despite the recent slowdown. ;If you look at China’s fundamentals over the long term, they are extremely good,; Musk said, citing the country’s highly educated workforce and high percentage of engineering graduates.同时,他对中国的经济前景持乐观态度,尽管近期有所放缓。“要用长远的眼光看待中国的经济基本面,形势还是一片大好”,马斯克和有高等学历的员工和工程专业的学生交流时说到。Apart from Tesla, Musk is also the CEO of private rocket firm SpaceX and chairman of solar company Solarcity. He dismissed the possibility that all the companies under his helm would be restructured to follow Google’s recent reorganization under conglomerate Alphabet Inc.包括特斯拉,马斯克同时也是私人火箭太空探索技术公司(SpaceX)的首席执行官,以及太阳能公司的董事长。他否认了他掌舵的所有公司将进行重组的消息,因为谷歌最近重组成立了Alphabet公司。He said he enjoys getting involved in the ;front line execution; of the companies, but said Tesla will add new brain power to its team, which will ;make it easier; for him.马斯克表示他很享受参与到公司一线执行活动的过程,但特斯拉团队需要输入新的智慧,这能使他轻松不少。 /201510/405983Population人口The population could be derived from the official record of Chen Shou’s Sanguo Zhi.人口记载可能来源于陈寿的《三国志》中的官方记录。In terms of manpower, the Wei was by far the largest, retaining more than 660000 households and 4400000 people within its borders.就人力而言,魏国是最多的,在其领地内大约有超过660000户和4400000人。Shu had a population of 940000, and Wu 2300000.蜀国有940000人,吴国则有2300000人。Thus, Wei had more than 58% of the population and around 40% of territory.因此,魏国占有总人口的58%以上并拥有大约40%的领地。With these resources, it is estimated that it could raise an army of 440000 whilst Shu and Wu could manage 100 000 and 230 000.依托这些资源,魏国据估计可以建立一个440000人的军队,而蜀国和吴国分别可以管理100000和230000人的军队。The Wu-Shu alliance against the Wei proved itself to be a militarily stable configuration;吴蜀联军共同抗击魏国明其是一个稳定的军事结构;the basic borders of the Three Kingdoms remained almost unchanging for more than forty years.三个国家的基本国界线在长达四十多年的时间里都没有改变过。 /201510/398393

A short nap could reduce impulsive behavior and improve the ability to withstand frustration, a small study suggests.一项小型研究表明,午睡片刻可以减少冲动行为,改善人承受挫折的能力。Researchers studied 40 people aged 18 to 50. After three nights of normal sleep, the participants took computer-based tests of frustration tolerance — which consisted of trying to complete an impossible task — and completed questionnaires on sleepiness, mood and impulsivity. Then they were randomly assigned to take an hour’s nap, or to watch a nature . At the end of the process, they were tested again. The study appears in Personality and Individual Differences.研究人员招募了40名年龄在18岁至50岁之间的参与者,并让他们在正常睡眠三个晚上后,接受通过计算机进行的挫折承受力测试(包括试图完成一个不可能完成的任务),并回答有关睡意、情绪和冲动性的调查问卷。然后,参与者们被随机分为两组,一组午睡一个小时,另一组观看自然题材的纪录片。待上述程序都结束后,他们又再度接受了测试。该研究发表在《个性与个体差异》杂志(Personality and Individual Differences)上。Before the nap period, everyone spent about the same amount of time on the unsolvable task, but afterward nappers, who all reported having slept at least part of the time, spent significantly more time working at it than they had before their nap, while non-nappers gave up sooner. Nappers also rated their behavior as less impulsive than non-nappers.在午睡之前,每名参与者面对无法解决的任务时花的时间大致相同;但在午睡之后,报告在那一小时期间至少睡着了一会儿的所有参与者在任务上花的时间都比之前显著增加,而没有午睡的参与者则更快地选择了放弃。与没有午睡的人相比,午睡组在评定自己的行为时普遍认为自己的冲动程度较低。The lead author, Jennifer R. Goldschmied, a doctoral student at the University of Michigan, acknowledged that the sample is small, involved mainly college students and may not be applicable to other populations. The sleep calculations also did not use electronic devices to precisely measure sleep and wakefulness.该研究的主要作者,密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的士生珍妮弗·R·戈德施米德(Jennifer R. Goldschmied)承认他们的样本较少,而且大部分都是在校大学生,因此可能并不适用于其他人群。在计算睡眠时也没有使用电子设备来精确测定参与者的睡眠和清醒状况。Still, she said, “These results are valuable and have put us on the route to understanding how we can utilize naps. Now people are starting to understand how powerful short bursts of sleep can be.”不过她还是认为“这些结果很有价值,它指引我们走上研究如何充分利用午睡的道路。现在人们已经开始认识到睡眠时的短脉冲有多么强大了”。 /201511/408479

The average person in the ed States watches almost five hours of television a day, more than an hour greater than the average of people in the world#39;s biggest economies, new research says.新研究指出,美国平均每人每天看近五个小时电视,比世界经济大国民众看电视的平均时间多一个小时。2015#39;s International Communications Market report, an annual survey by the UK#39;s telecoms regulator Ofcom, said the average American watches 282 minutes of broadcast television a day - or four hours and 42 minutes.英国通信进行的2015年国际通信市场年度调查报告显示,美国人平均每天看282分钟电视——即4小时42分钟。In comparison, the average Brit watches three hours and 40 minutes of TV - one minute below the average.相比之下,英国平均每人每天看电视的时间是3小时40分钟——比世界平均时间少1分钟。However, the figures include only live television and recorded programmes, not catch-up television or recorded media - which Ofcom said the UK leads the world in.然而,该数据只包括电视直播和录制节目,不包括网络电视和纪录片——英国通信称英国在这两方面的观看时长居世界之首。The UK saw the greatest decline in linear TV viewing last year, down 4.9 percent, but Ofcom said the UK appears to be ;the most technologically-advanced of European nations;.去年英国有线电视收看下降4.9个百分点,是下降最多的国家。但英国通信说英国似乎是“拥有最先进技术的欧洲国家”。81 percent of Brits have used an online service to watch TV or films, such as Netflix or B iPlayer, in the last month, while 16 percent have watched catch-up TV on a tablet. Both were ahead of any other country in the group of the world#39;s biggest economies.上个月,81%的英国人用在线设备看电视节目或者电影,比如用网飞和B iPlayer应用软件,16%的人用平板看网络电视。在世界最大经济体中,这都领先于其他任何国家。42 percent of UK households own a TV connected to the internet, more than any country except Spain.42%的英国家庭有一台连接互联网的电视,仅次于西班牙,排名世界第二位。In comparison, the US#39;s broadcast TV viewing per day declined by 3.8 percent last year, and France#39;s declined by 2.2 percent.相比之下,去年美国广播电视收视率下降3.8个百分点,法国下降2.2个百分点。Of the 15 countries included in the survey, Sweden, China, Korea, the Netherlands and Australia watch less linear TV a day, compared to the UK.在包括瑞典、中国、韩国、荷兰和澳大利亚的15个调研国家中,他们看电视的时长都比英国少。 /201512/415608HONG KONG — Wallace Chan, the Hong Kong jeweler behind the creation of what has been called the world’s most expensive diamond necklace, began working with his hands when he was 8 years old.香港——“世界上最昂贵的钻石项链”背后的创作者是香港珠宝设计师陈世英(Wallace Chan),他从八岁就开始做手艺活了。In the 1960s his family migrated from the impoverished Fujian Province to Hong Kong, where they made money from odd jobs. The boy was put to work on repetitive tasks best done by small hands, like spooling yarn or assembling cheap decorative goods.20世纪60年代,陈世英一家从贫困的福建省移居香港,靠打零工为生。年幼的陈世英做的是那些只有小手才能做的重复性劳动,比如绕纱线,或组装廉价的装饰品之类。“We made plastic flowers until our fingers bled,” he said, speaking in Cantonese during an interview at his studio. “We got 10 cents for every bag of plastic flowers. I still remember — and for 15 cents we could get two pineapple buns.”“我们做塑料花,直到手指流血,”他在自己的工作室接受采访时用粤语说道,“我们每做一袋塑料花能赚一毛钱。我还记得,有一毛五分钱就可以买两个菠萝包。”Mr. Chan, 59, now works in an upstairs studio in Central Hong Kong, something of a fortress, with double electronically locked doors. A slight man with a long gray beard, wearing a plain black suit, he sat in a back room — a black cloth thrown over his desk, the shades drawn against the sunlight — and assessed bag after bag of uncut, unpolished stones, each one the size of a golf ball. “The stone tricks the eye, so I have to outsmart it,” he said, peering at a lump of topaz with a flashlight. “I can see its flaws and angles. There are elements I want to hide and elements I want to bring out. I am chasing its light.”陈先生今年59岁,他在香港中环上层的办公室有点像一座城堡,有两道带电子锁的门。他身材瘦小,留着长长的花白胡子,穿着一身朴素的黑色西装,坐在办公室里屋,桌上铺着黑布,色调反衬着阳光。屋子里有一袋袋未经切割打磨的原石,每一块都是高尔夫球大小。“石头会欺骗眼睛,所以我得比它聪明才行,”他用手电照着一大块托帕石,打量着它。“我可以看到它的瑕疵和角度。有些东西是我想隐藏起来的,有些东西是我想打磨出来的。我在追逐它的光。”In September, Mr. Chan unveiled A Heritage in Bloom, called the world’s most expensive diamond necklace, at an estimated cost of 0 million. Its 11,551 diamonds, with jade pieces to create the butterflies and bats that Mr. Chan loves, total 383 carats; the centerpiece diamond alone weighs 104 carats.九月,陈世英发布了“裕世钻芳华”(A Heritage in Bloom),它被称为世界上最昂贵的钻石项链,估价2亿美元。它使用玉块及11551颗钻石,拼出陈先生喜欢的蝴蝶与蝙蝠图样,重达383克拉。主钻重达104克拉。The project started in 2010 when Chow Tai Fook, a Hong Kong jewelry company, acquired an extremely rare, unpolished 507-carat diamond found in the Cullinan mine in South Africa. It commissioned Mr. Chan to craft the stone into a masterpiece that would become part of China’s long history of jewelry design.这个项目始于2010年,当时香港珠宝公司周大福获得了南非库利南矿山出品的一块极为罕有、未经琢磨的钻石原石,重达507克拉。陈先生接受委托,把这块石头打磨成一件中国漫长的首饰设计史上的杰作。“When I saw it, I felt my spirit leaving my body and returning,” Mr. Chan said. “I looked at that rock for three years before I touched it.” The final product took 47,000 hours of work from 22 craftsmen.“我一看到它,就觉得魂魄离开身体,然后又回来了,”陈先生说,“我对着这块石头看了三年,之后才着手。”最终成品是22位手工艺人花费47000小时的成果。In late November, as part of the viewing period for its Dec. 1 gem auction, Christie’s Hong Kong opened an exhibition featuring 30 exceptionally technically difficult works by Mr. Chan, some of which had not been seen publicly before. The show, which didn’t include sales, coincided with the introduction of “Wallace Chan: Dream Light Water,” a 380-page book written by the jewelry expert Juliet W. de La Rochefoucauld and published by Rizzoli.12月1日,佳士得香港将举办珠宝拍卖。作为拍卖观赏期的一部分,11月底,佳士得举办了一次展会,内容是陈先生的30件工艺极为复杂的作品,其中有些从未公开展出。这次展览不包括销售,正好与《陈世英:梦光水》(Wallace Chan: Dream Light Water)一书同时推出,这本380页的书由珠宝专家朱丽特·W·德·拉·罗切夫考尔德(Juliet W. de La Rochefoucauld)创作,由里佐利出版社(Rizzoli)出版社出版。The 0 book will be available in the ed States on Jan. 28, when Mr. Chan is scheduled to hold a talk and book signing at the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum in New York.这本书售价280美元,将于1月28日在美国上市,届时陈先生将在纽约的库珀·休伊特,史密森尼亚设计物馆(Cooper Hewitt,Smithsonian Design Museum)做讲座和签名售书活动。In his studio’s conference room, Mr. Chan carefully flipped through the exhibition version of the book, which is more than two feet long, and features close-ups of his detailed works.陈先生在工作室的会议室里小心地翻着这本书的展览版本,它大约有两英尺多长,其中有他精美作品的照片特写。His favorite pieces are playful, whimsical, even humorous. There are dangling blue earrings called Dancing Elf; a rainbow-colored lark with a diamond in its beak; and a fish with translucent fins blowing bubbles. Mr. Chan particularly loves butterflies, a motif that appears in works such as Fluttery-Painted Lady, patterned with grass and flowers, and Ragtime, with flamelike wings crafted from paper-thin sheets of mother of pearl.他最喜欢的作品有趣、古怪,甚至很有幽默感。其中有名叫“舞蹈精灵”的蓝色耳坠;虹色调的云雀嘴上嵌着一颗钻石;鱼儿长着半透明的鳍,还吐着着泡泡。陈世英尤其喜欢蝴蝶,这是他作品中常常出现的主题,比如:在“鼓翼的蛱蝶”(Fluttery-Painted Lady)中,蝴蝶与花草一起出现,在“拉格泰姆”(Ragtime)中,蝴蝶火焰般的翅膀用薄如纸张的珠母片做成。When an idea comes to him, he grabs a pencil and sketches, quickly and fluidly. During the interview, he dreamed up a horse’s head with a flowing mane, which turns into another horse’s head, that then drops down into a jeweled pendant.他一有想法,就会抓起铅笔迅速流畅地画下来。在采访中,他想象出一个鬃毛飘扬的马头,鬃毛又幻化作另一匹马的头,最后成为一个珠宝吊坠。Mr. Chan’s hands are small enough for him to try on his own ladies’ jewelry. He slid on a ring he called My Dreams, which is extraordinarily light and slimming to the fingers, considering that it is made of two large jeweled cubes.陈世英的手很小,能够试戴自己做的女式首饰。他戴上一只叫做“我的梦”(My Dreams)的戒指,它由两大块珠宝立方体组成,却极为轻盈,在手指上显得很纤细。Using both hands, he picked up a large flower brooch, called Vividity, that is an explosion of hot pink and bright green. It, too, is surprisingly light for its size, the result of Mr. Chan’s technique of using titanium, which has a fraction of the density of gold.他双手拿起一个大大的花卉胸针,它的名字叫做“鲜明”(Vividity),艳粉与亮绿色碰撞在一起。这款珠宝虽然大,但也出人意料地轻盈,这是因为陈先生采用了钛金属工艺,所以它的密度只是金子的零头。His two workshops — one in Hong Kong and one in Macau, employing artisans who have worked with Mr. Chan for 15 to 30 years — produce only about a dozen pieces of year. “I spend so much time with one piece that it becomes me,” he said. “The stone is me, and I am the stone.”陈世英的两个工作室分别在香港和,聘用了与他合作过15到30年的工匠们,一年只生产十几件珠宝。“我在一件作品上花费很多时间,于是它就成了我的一部分,”他说,“那块石头就是我,我就是那块石头。”Mr. Chan became interested in precious stones when, at 16, he got a job at a workshop that carved Chinese religious icons. At 17, he begged his father for 1,000 Hong Kong dollars, now about 0, and used the money to buy a carving machine and a hunk of malachite and started selling small carvings door-to-door.陈世英从16岁起开始对宝石感兴趣,当时他在一家雕刻中国宗教塑像的工作室找了份工作。17岁那年,他向父亲要来1000港币,用这些钱买了一个雕刻机和一大块孔雀石,开始挨家挨户地卖小雕像。His family was pleased that he had found a steady job; but in his late 20s, he became restless.家里对他有份稳定工作感到很满意;但他快到30岁的时候,开始感到焦虑。“I wanted to be more than a workman,” he said. “I wanted to study art and watch films. I wanted to make things I loved. I wanted to make jewelry that dances with you, creations that have a story and a soul.”“我不想只做个工人,”他说,“我想研究艺术、想看电影。我想做我喜欢的东西。我想做出能与人共舞的珠宝,想创造出拥有故事和灵魂的作品。”So at the age of 28, against his family’s wishes, he moved to Macau, then still a Portuguese colony but aly a free-wheeling gambling haven.于是28岁的时候,他不顾家人的反对移居。当时的还是葡萄牙的殖民地,不过已经是个自由自在的避风港了。He became obsessed with the fact that a flaw could be reflected many times in a cut stone — creating an optical illusion similar to a double-exposure photograph. From 1985 to 1987, he developed the Wallace Cut, the technique that would bring him international fame. The Wallace Cut involves drilling a hole into the back of a multifaceted stone and then carving and etching an image, in reverse. When viewed from the front, the image will be reflected multiple times.他开始对一件事着迷:切割之后的宝石里,一个瑕疵可能会被反射很多次,创造出一种光学幻象,类似二次曝光摄影。从1985年到1987年,他开发出了“世英切割”(Wallace Cut),这项技术为他带来了国际声誉。这种技术包括在多面的宝石背面钻孔,然后雕刻和蚀刻出一个反向的图像。从正面看的时候,这个图像就会被多次反射。He also developed a very small, very fast drill because the technique requires that the stone be drilled, cooled in water because of the friction caused by the head of the drill, dried and drilled again multiple times — using elements of centuries-old European techniques such as intaglio printmaking and cameo carving.“世英切割”需要钻孔,由于钻头擦生热,还需要在水中冷却,干燥后继续钻,如此反复多次,他因此开发出一种又小又快的钻头,借鉴了几个世纪前欧洲的技术,比如凹版印刷和宝石浮雕。His most famous Wallace Cut was an homage to the Horae, the Greek goddesses of the seasons, in blue topaz. A German dealer took one look at Horae and told Mr. Chan that he had to take it to Europe. He showed it at the 1991 Intergem Fair and the Deutsches Edelstein Museum, both in Germany, and began to be known as a carving prodigy.“世英切割”最著名的作品以希腊的时序女神(Horae) 命名,用蓝色托帕石制成。一个德国商人只看了一眼这件“时序女神”,就告诉陈先生,他一定要把它带到欧洲去。后来,陈先生在德国的1991年Intergem览会与德意志伊德尔斯泰因物馆(Deutsches Edelstein Museum)展出了这件作品。One of Mr. Chan’s largest and most unusual commissions came in the late ’90s, when a Taiwanese temple asked him to make a three-foot-high great stupa of gold, crystal and ruby to house a relic believed to be Buddha’s tooth. Mr. Chan worked for months to figure out how to encase the tooth in concentric crystal globes; the project, completed in 2001, took two years in all.陈先生最大的、也是最特别的委约作品之一是在90年代末期,一个台湾寺院请他制作一尊三英尺高,镶嵌水晶和红宝石的金舍利塔,用来盛放佛牙圣物。陈世英研究了好几个月,才想出如何在构成同心圆的水晶球中放入佛牙;这个项目在2001年完工,历时两年。Fran漀椀猀 Curiel, chairman of Christie’s Asia-Pacific, in an email called Mr. Chan a “Renaissance man in the best sense of the world — a scientist, designer, sculpture; but my best description of him is as a visionary.佳士得亚太地区主席高逸龙(Fran漀椀猀 Curiel)在电子邮件中称陈先生是“一位典型的文艺复兴式人物——科学家、设计师、雕塑家;但对他最好的描述一个有远见的人”。“He has the curiosity, courage and, above all, the talents to push boundaries, artistically and geographically,” Mr. Curiel continued. “He is one of the first Chinese jewelry artists to make his name in the international arena.”“他有好奇心,有勇气,最重要的是,还有突破边界的才华,无论是艺术的边界还是地理上的边界,”高逸龙说,“他是首批享誉国际的中国珠宝艺术家之一。”Mr. Chan finally broke through a glass ceiling in the jewelry world when, in 2012, he became the first Asian designer to be invited to exhibit at the Biennale des Antiquaires in Paris, the world’s premiere haute jewelry exhibition.陈世英最终打破了珠宝世界中的玻璃天花板,2012年,他成了第一个受邀参展巴黎古董双年展(Biennale des Antiquaires)的亚洲设计师,这是世界顶尖的高端珠宝展览。“The Path to Enlightenment — Art and Zen” had pieces that were entirely different from those by European designers: a swirling Chinese dragon, a jade-green cricket, a translucent swan and fighting scorpions. The Great Wall, Mr. Chan’s necklace of antique Chinese imperial jadeite and diamond-encrusted maple leaves, sold for 56 million euros, or .6 million.“启蒙之路:艺术与禅”(The Path to Enlightenment — Art and Zen)的展品与欧洲设计师们的珠宝内容截然不同:盘旋的中国龙、绿的蟋蟀、半透明的天鹅和打斗的蝎子。陈先生的“长城”(The Great Wall)是一款项链,带有钻石镶嵌的枫叶,售价5600万欧元,或约合5960万美元。Mr. Chan is said to sell works only to clients he likes — a practice he neither confirmed or denied.据说陈先生只把作品卖给自己喜欢的客户——这件事他既不承认也不否认。“Let’s just say I don’t choose business just because of money,” he said. “Each work is from my heart, my hands. I suffer through each one. The buyer needs to understand that it is from my heart — that they are taking my child.”“这么说吧,我不会只为了钱而交易,”他说,“每件作品都是我用心、用双手做成的。每一件都让我付出心血。买家要理解它们发自我的心灵——他们带走的是我的孩子。”“If someone just says, ‘I have money, I want it,’ and they don’t understand, then I don’t want to give it to them.”“如果有人说,‘我有钱,我想要’,那么他们就没有理解,我也不想把作品卖给这样的人。”Both Mr. Chan and his staff are extremely protective of customers, saying all sales are confidential. And auction reports on his pieces just note “private buyer.”陈先生和员工都极为保护客户,说所有交易均要保密,作品的拍卖报告上只写着“私人买家”。Mr. Chan lives simply. He wears no jewelry, drinks endless cups of plain Chinese tea and still resides in a quiet corner of Macau.陈先生的生活很简谱。他不戴珠宝,一杯又一杯地喝着普通的中国茶,他依然住在一个安静的角落。He doesn’t particularly want to discuss his eye-popping price tags or prominent clients.他不太想谈那些让人瞠目结舌的价格,或是那些显赫的客户。“I want to leave a legacy,” he said. “Chinese jewelry has a history of 6,000 years, and I want to be part of it.”“我想留下一份遗产,”他说,“中国的珠宝有6000年历史,我希望成为其中的一部分。” /201601/419351

Many of us choose antibacterial soap thinking we are taking extra measures to protect ourselves from germs.不少人在洗手时会用除菌皂,认为这能提供额外保护,是我们应对细菌的有效措施。But now, a study has found it is no more effective than plain soap at killing bacteria.但目前一项研究发现,它的除菌效果其实并不比普通肥皂好。Millions of consumers in the US use antibacterial hand soap and body wash products, spending nearly billion annually, researchers said.研究人员表示,全美境内有几百万人会选购除菌洗手皂和身体清洁用品,每年花费于此的金额约十亿美金。In the UK, the soap, bath and shower market, which includes both anti-bacterial and plain soap, was worth 638 million euros in 2014, according to Mintel.市场调查公司英敏特称,全英国境内,肥皂(包括除菌皂和普通皂)和各类沐浴用品市场在2014年市场价值约为6.38亿英镑。The expectation is that antibacterial products will provide more protection from germs than plain soap, the researchers continued.研究人员还补充道,顾客对于除菌产品的期望是:此类用品要优于普通肥皂,能为他们提供更好的保护,免于细菌的伤害。However, their study revealed there is #39;no significant#39; difference between antibacterial soap and the normal type.然而,他们的研究表明,除菌皂和普通肥皂其实并没有“显著”区别。Korean scientists examined the effect of triclosan, the active antiseptic ingredient most commonly used in these types of soaps.三氯生是此类肥皂中最常见的活性除菌原料,来自韩国的科学家做了实验来检验三氯生的除菌效果。They examined how effectively the ingredient killed bacteria, testing it against 20 strains.实验检验了此原料面对20多类细菌,杀菌能力到底有多强。They added triclosan to bacteria warmed to 22°C (room temperature) and 40°C (warm temperature) for 20 seconds, to recreate the conditions under which humans normally wash their hands.他们在22度的细菌培养皿(室内温度)和40度的细菌培养皿(暖和的温度)内加入三氯生,并等待20秒,来重现人们洗手的场景。They used a triclosan concentration of 0.3 percent - the maximum allowed by law.他们使用的是浓度为0.3%的三氯生,为法定最高浓度。They found triclosan had killed significantly more bacteria after nine hours or more, but not during the short time required for hand washing.他们后来发现,在等待九个多小时以后,三氯生的杀菌效果非常卓越,但洗手的短暂时间仍不足以杀死细菌。Then, they compared the ability of antibacterial and non-antibacterial soap to remove bacteria from human hands, by using 16 healthy adult volunteers.然后,他们通过16位健康成人志愿者的参与协助,再次比较除菌皂和普通肥皂去除手上细菌的能力。They found it was no more effective, both experiments indicating that there is #39;no significant difference#39; between the effects of plain soap and antibacterial soap when used under ‘real life’ conditions, they concluded.他们最后总结道,结果表明除菌皂不比普通皂有效,所有的实验结果都明这两种肥皂在“日常生活”中并没有“显著区别”。The paper#39;s lead author, Dr Min-Suk Rhee, of Korea University, said #39;advertisement and consumer belief regarding the effectiveness of antibacterial soaps needs to be addressed.#39;高丽大学的李敏硕士是本论文的第一作者,他表示,“关于除菌皂的能力,广告的错误引导和消费者扭曲的认知都需要改改了。” /201509/399928China is considering extending hukou, or household registration, to 13 million unregistered citizens, according to the Ministry of Public Security.据公安部表示,中国计划将1300万“黑户”人口纳入户籍人员之列。Minister of Public Security Guo Shengkun presided over a meeting on Saturday to discuss the issue.Registration is a fundamental right for all citizens that is endorsed by the constitution and the law, according to the meeting.公安部高胜坤周六在主持一次会议时讨论了这个问题。会议指示,按照国家和法律规定,户籍登记是每位公民拥有的合法权利。According to the National Population Census in 2010, there are 13 million unregistered people nationwide, accounting for 1 percent of the country#39;s population.根据2010年全国人口普查,全国共有1300万“黑户”人口,占据总人口的1%。Without a hukou, a person is denied access to public education, reimbursement for healthcare costs and other welfare benefits.Parents who were unable to have more than one child under the old family planning policy, cannot register their children unless they pay a significant sum of money.如果一个人没有户口,他就没法上学,就医不能享受医疗保险和很多其他的社会福利。在传统的计划生育政策下,夫妇如果不缴纳巨额罚款就无法生育二胎。More than 60 percent of China#39;s unregistered people are in this category, according to research in 2014 by the Institute of Social Development at the National Development and Reform Commission.Other unregistered people include abandoned children, children born out of wedlock and those whose documents are missing.根据2014年国家发改委社会发展部门的调查, “超生”人口占据了“黑户”人口的60%。其他“黑户”人口包括孤儿、非婚生子女以及丢失文件的人。The research found that unregistered people tend to lack a sense of personal security, as they are excluded from the social security system. Without legal documents that identify them, unregistered people cannot travel long distances easily, which restricts population mobility, the research found.研究发现无户籍的人口因为被排除在社保体系之外,他们缺乏个人的安全感。研究发现,因为没有合法身份件明自己的存在,“黑户”人员不能长距离旅行,这样也限制了人口流动。Social instability increases and social inequalities escalate if some people are excluded from the hukou system, the ministry said during Saturday#39;s meeting.周六会议上,公安部表示,如果一些人没有户口,这会增加社会的不稳定性和加剧社会的不公平。The ministry declared its intention to help unregistered people obtain proper recognition and protect every citizens#39; right to hukou.公安部表示了其将帮助非户籍人口获得合法认可,保护每位公民的户口权利。Since the Third Plenum of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China in 2013, the top leadership has issued several documents on hukou reform, signaling a determination to reform the system.2013年中央第十八届三中全会第三次会议以来,中央领导先后多次发布对户口进行改革的方案,确定了改革的决心。In late 2013, the government first relaxed the family planning policy, allowing couples to have a second child if one spouse was an only child.2013年底,政府第一次放宽了计划生育政策,允许夫妻双方一方为独生子的即可生育二胎。In October, China introduced an overall two-child policy, reducing the possibility of people remaining unregistered due to a violation of the country#39;s laws.今年10月,中国全面放开二胎政策,降低了因违法法律而增加未登记户口的人员的可能性。 /201511/412374

When you meet someone for the first time, do you put across a good impression? And what do we mean by #39;good#39; in this context?与人第一次见面时,你能给人留下一个好印象吗?在这里我们所谓的“好”又指的是什么呢?According to Presence, a new book by Harvard Business School professor Amy Cuddy, people assess you on two main criteria when they first meet you:哈佛商学院教授艾米·库迪的新书《存在》 ,谈到了影响第一印象的两个主要评判标准:1. Can I trust this person?他(她)值得我信赖吗?2. Can I respect this person?他(她)值得我尊重吗?You level of trustworthiness, or warmth, is the most important factor in how people initially perceive you, Cuddy says—yet many mistakenly believe that the second factor, characterised as competence, is more important.库迪说,可信度(或者说亲近感)是影响人们第一印象最重要的因素。但许多人错误的认为第二个因素——能力——才更重要。;From an evolutionary perspective,; Cuddy writes, ;it is more crucial to our survival to know whether a person deserves our trust.;库迪在书中写道:“从进化的角度看,知晓一个人是否值得我们信任,对我们的生存更为重要。”While displaying competence is certainly beneficial, particularly in a work setting, Cuddy warns that focusing on winning people#39;s respect, while failing to win their trust, can backfire - a common problem for young professionals attempting to make a good impression early on in their careers.向别人展示能力当然会对我们有好处,尤其是在工作场合。但库迪提醒大家,只顾赢得别人的尊重而忽视赢得别人的信任,可能会适得其反。想要在事业早期给别人留下好印象的职场新人,普遍存在这个问题。;If someone you#39;re trying to influence doesn#39;t trust you, you#39;re not going to get very far; in fact, you might even elicit suspicion because you come across as manipulative,; Cuddy says.库迪说:“如果你尝试去影响的人并不信任你,那么你是走不了很远的;事实上,因为你给别人留下了控制欲强的印象,他们反而对你有疑虑。”;A warm, trustworthy person who is also strong elicits admiration, but only after you#39;ve established trust does your strength become a gift rather than a threat.;一个平易近人、值得信任,同时能力又强的人,才会让人心生敬佩。不过,只有在你们之间建立了信任后,你的能力才会变成一种优点,而不是一种威胁。In Cuddy#39;s book she also explains some of the science that can help you spot a liar.库迪在书中也提供了一些科学理论,可以帮你识别撒谎的人。When a person is lying there is likely to be discrepancies between what they are saying and what they are doing, she suggests.她表示,一个人在说谎时,他的言行可能会有不一致的地方。;Lying is hard work,; she writes. ;We#39;re telling one story while suppressing another, and most of us are experiencing psychological guilt about doing this, which we#39;re also trying suppress. We just don#39;t have the brainpower to manage it all without letting something go—without #39;leaking#39;.;她写道:“说谎并非易事,编造谎言的同时也意味着隐瞒另一个事实,大多数人还会因撒谎而心生愧疚,并试图掩盖愧疚。我们人类的脑力还没有强大到可以在撒谎时做到天衣无缝——即不让自己“露馅”。The author adds that these #39;leaks#39; can be seen in a person displaying conflicting emotions, like a happy tone of voice paired with an angry facial expression.作者补充说,如果一个人表达的情感产生了冲突——比如语调是欢快的,但同时呈现的面部表情却是愤怒的——最容易被人抓住撒谎的漏洞。;It#39;s about how well or poorly our multiple channels of communication—facial expressions, posture, movement, vocal qualities, speech—co-operate,; she adds.她还说,这跟我们与人交流时,对身体协调能力的掌控有关:包括面部表情、姿势、动作、音质以及说话方式。Professor Cuddy argues that most of us are not very good at spotting a liaras we are distracted by the words coming out of their mouth.库迪教授说,大多数人并不善于识别说谎者,因为我们可能会被他们的言语分散注意力。;When we#39;re consciously looking for signs of deception or truth, we pay too much attention to words and not enough to the nonverbal gestalt of what#39;s going on,; the professor adds. ;Truth reveals itself more clearly through actions than it does through our words.;她补充说:“当我们小心翼翼找寻谎言或事实的迹象时,我们往往会过分关注说话人的言语,而忽视与之同时出现的肢体语言。肢体动作比言语更能揭示出事实真相。” /201602/426441“We’re steeped in Viking history, with all its fantastic stories, and if you have a story you can sell more,” said Patricia Retson, Highland Park’s brand heritage manager, after we had toured the distillery’s dankly atmospheric cellar and sleek tasting room. “But we’re also trying to make a real connection, and if it’s going to work, it has to be authentic.” To that end, the distillery’s Loki gets its mischievousness from an aroma that is all sweet apples, but turns to smoke and wood on the palate. Its Leif Erikssonis aged in 100 percent American oak barrels.“我们是浸透着维京历史的,有许许多多幻异故事,有了故事,东西就更好卖,”高原骑士品牌传承经理帕特莉西亚·雷特逊(Patricia Retson)说,她刚刚带着我们参观了阴冷潮湿的酒窖和装潢精美的品酒厅。“但是我们也在努力建立一种真正的联系,这种联系要想发挥作用,必须得纯正才行。”为此,酒厂出品的Loki(洛基)用甜苹果的芳香构成了一种调皮的气质,但尝起来却是烟熏和木味。而它的Leif Erikssonis(莱夫·埃里克松)是在百分之百的美国橡木桶里陈放的。Yet in downtown Kirkwall, where the Romanesque cathedral, built of sandstone, houses the relics of St. Magnus Erlendsson, the Norse-descended Earl of Orkney who was martyred after an unsuccessful battle with a rival chieftain in the early 12th century, and where miniature Viking ships still cap the post office lintel, Donna Heddle had no doubt the connection went considerably deeper than mere marketing.与此同时,在柯克沃尔市中心那座砂岩建造的罗马式大教堂里,存放着诺尔斯世袭的奥克尼伯爵圣·马格努斯·厄林德孙(St. Magnus Erlendsson)的遗物,他在12世纪初被一个敌对的高地领主击败,后被册封为圣人,在这里的邮局门楣上,至今还有维京人的船只造型。在唐娜·黑德尔(Donna Heddle)看来,跟维京的关联绝对不只是市场营销那么肤浅。As the director of the Center for Nordic Studies, Dr. Heddle sees evidence of Norseness almost everywhere: in the Orkney dialect that puts its prepositions at the end of sentences; in a concept of social justice that emphasizes egalitarianism and spurns status or rank; in the fact, she said, that 66 percent of Orcadians’ DNA is Norwegian. And just as the Nordic presence helps explain the separate sense of identity that Scots feel from the English, so too does it explain the separate identity that Orcadians feel from mainland Scots. “Vikings are very sexy now,” she said. “But for us it’s more than that. You can see it in our knitting patterns and our sailing skills and in the can-do attitude. This is a living legacy.”作为北欧研究中心(Center for Nordic Studies)主任,黑德尔士能在每个角落找到诺尔斯文化的痕迹:将介词放在句子最后的奥克尼方言;强调平等主义、摒弃尊卑或等级的社会正义观念;还有,她说奥克尼人有66%的挪威人基因。北欧特征让苏格兰人对英格兰产生了身份认同上的隔阂,同样也让奥克尼人跟苏格兰大陆有了距离感。“维京人现在很时兴,”她说。“但对我们来说不是那么简单。在我们的编织图案、我们的航海技巧、我们的进取心里都能看到。这是一份鲜活的遗产。”Living, but also dead. After Kirkwall, we drove across windswept hills and muddy farmlands, before arriving at Orphir and the archaeological remains of Earl’s Bu. According to the medieval Orkneyinga saga, the nearly 1,000-year-old site was home not only to a round church built by Magnus’s murderous cousin Hakon, but also to a grand drinking hall, or bu. Like most Viking drinking halls, it was the scene of quite a lot of violence (proximity to a church came in handy; the brawlers could slip next door to repent of their drunken behavior, and, consciences cleansed, get back to guzzling mead). Maybe it was the film in the modest visitor center that recounted how one drunken slight had unleashed a massacre at the hall, or perhaps we had watched too much of “Game of Thrones,” but as David and I walked about the lonely ruins of the stone church (a third of its curved walls still standing), I suddenly found myself charging him with an imaginary battle ax. After a brief but virtual bloody fight, we collapsed on the grass in giggles.鲜活的,但同时也是死的。离开柯克沃尔,我们驶过呼啸的山间和泥泞的田野,来到奥弗尔以及“伯爵酒廊”(Earl#39;s Bu)考古遗址。据中世纪的《奥克尼伯爵萨迦》(Orkneyinga saga)记载,这个有将近一千年历史的遗址,不仅包括马格努斯的那个残暴的堂兄弟哈孔(Hakon)所建的一座圆形教堂,还有一座宏伟的酒廊,也就是bu。和大多数维京酒廊一样,这里发生过不少暴力事件(离教堂这么近还是有好处的;斗殴者可以溜到隔壁去忏悔他们的酒后行为,涤净灵魂后,回去继续痛饮蜂蜜酒)。可能是因为我们在简朴的游客中心看了一部电影,讲到一句酒后的恶语导致一场酒廊大屠杀的事,或者就是我们看了太多的《权力的游戏》,总之当戴维和我来到一片萧瑟的石头教堂废墟(它的弧形墙壁尚存三分之一)时,我突然提起一把空想的战斧朝他冲了过去。经过一场短暂但按设想应该相当血腥的打斗,我们咯咯笑着瘫倒在草地上。All that Viking history will do that to you. There are similar archaeological sites all over Orkney, so we had plenty of opportunities to perfect our re-enactment skills. At Maeshowe, a grass-covered mound that encases a Neolithic tomb marked up with 12th-century Norse Runes, the sheep that stood between us and the burial chamber fell to our raiding swords. At the Brough of Birsay, accessible only by foot during the few hours when the tides recede, we sweated in the chamber marked the Viking sauna. But there was no fantasy involved at the nearby Barony Mill, where Brian Johnston, the miller, grinds bere, a landrace barley, with a flavor more pronounced than wheat. “Many people think the Vikings brought it here,” Mr. Johnston said as he showed us around the 19th-century mill, which is powered by a water wheel. “And the only other place it grows is in Norway.”这么多的维京历史是会有这种影响的。奥克尼到处都是类似的考古遗址,所以我们有的是机会完善我们的历史重现演技。在绿草遍野的梅肖韦(Maeshowe)地下有一座用12世纪的卢恩文字标出的新石器时代古墓,夹在我们和墓穴之间的那只羊,成为我们两个劫匪的刀下鬼。在只有趁着每天退潮那几个小时步行前往的赛镇(Brough of Birsay),我们在一个标着维京桑拿浴场的洞穴里出了点汗。然而附近的男爵磨坊(Barony Mill)是个没什么幻想的地方,磨坊主布莱恩·约翰斯顿(Brian Johnston)在那里磨bere,一种味道比小麦还要鲜明的地方品种大麦。“很多人认为它是维京人带来的,”带我们参观这座19世纪水车磨坊的约翰斯顿说。“除了这里之外,只有挪威能种这种麦子。”There would be more culinary connections on the Shetland Islands. We landed early in the morning on the main island after an overnight ferry. Waiting for a cafe to open, we prowled the industrial-looking buildings and still-closed sweater shops in Lerwick, the capital and Shetland’s only real town. Once suitably caffeinated, we returned to Jurgen and headed south. Shetland is almost entirely treeless, with a terrain that veers mainly between the barren and the bleak, but is adorably dotted with the tiny ponies that take their name from the place. Rocky soil and near constant wind explain why the local diet is almost entirely lacking in fresh fruit and vegetables. But even that lack can only partly explain the peculiar dish known as reestit mutton.烹饪上的联系,在设得兰群岛上体现得更为明显。经过彻夜的轮渡,我们一大早在主岛登陆。在设得兰的首府、也是唯一的正经城镇勒维克,我们趁着等待一家小餐馆开门的当口,在工业味十足的建筑和还没开门的毛衣店之间闲逛了一会。在摄入适量咖啡因后,我们立刻跟于尔根会合,向南进发。设得兰是个几乎没有树的地方,整个地貌不是贫瘠就是荒凉,但期间点缀着几匹可爱的小马,那是当地特有的设得兰矮种马。多石的土壤和几乎永远不停的风解释了当地的饮食特征——基本上不存在新鲜水果和蔬菜。但即使这种匮乏也不足以完全解释为什么会有“房椽羊肉”(reestit)这么奇怪的菜。“No, you wouldn’t expect to find this in a restaurant,” said Marian Armitage, the author of “Shetland Food and Cooking,” as she sawed off a few rocklike chunks of a fossilized slab of meat in her kitchen, where we had come to learn about the local cuisine. “Unless they were trying to do something quirky.” Through the windows of her enclosed porch, I could just make out the ruined walls of Jarlshof, another Norse settlement, in the distance. Ms. Armitage fried a bit of the mutton in a pan, and explained the process for making it: Raw meat was salted in brine, then hung from the rafters of the house, preferably over a peat fire, so that the smoke seasoned the meat. I put a bite in my mouth: Quirky was definitely one word for it. The mutton was fatty, salty and tasted, well, rotten. “Just what you want,” David said, “after a long day at sea.”“这东西在餐馆里吃不到的,”《设得兰食物与烹饪》(Shetland Food and Cooking)作者玛丽安·阿尔米塔奇(Marian Armitage)一边跟我说,一边在一块化石般的肉上切下几个硬梆梆的肉块,我们到她的厨房来是要学做当地的美食。“除非他们是有了什么离奇的想法。”从她家的包窗门廊往外看,隐约能看到远处的一些断壁残垣,那是雅尔邵夫(Jarlshof),另一座诺尔斯殖民地。阿尔米塔奇把一些羊肉放到锅里煎,并跟我们介绍这种肉的制作工艺:生肉放在海水里腌一下,然后挂在屋内的木椽上,最好下面用泥煤烧火,这样可以给肉加入烟熏味。我吃了一口:说离奇绝对是合适的。肉味肥肥的,很咸,像是……呃……腐烂的味道。“嗯,在海上辛苦了一整天,”戴维说。“回来当然就想吃这个。”Still, I was thrilled to eat it. A couple of years earlier, I had tried something similar in the Faroe Islands, an archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, where they make raest, which is raw mutton hung to air-dry in open huts for months, without the benefit of smoke or salt. Surely, I asked Armitage, raest and reestit were versions of the same dish, and evidence of a Nordic connection? “Ah no,” she said. “For that you’d be wanting vivda.” It turns out that Shetlanders once ate the exact same preparation — and called it by the Norse word for leg meat— until salt became more widesp in the islands.然而我还是很激动的。几年前在法罗群岛——北大西洋上一个大约在挪威和冰岛中间的地方,我试过一种类似的东西,那里的人会做半干风肉(raest),就是把生羊肉挂在通风的小屋里,在没有烟熏或盐渍的情况下风干几个月。于是我就问阿尔米塔奇,半干肉和房椽肉肯定是同一道菜的两个版本,并且是一种北欧亲缘的据?“不对,”她说。“你说的这个应该是vivda。”原来设得兰人曾经也有完全相同的一种做法——只是用了诺尔斯语“腿肉”一词来称呼它——后来盐在岛上普及起来以后,就不这么吃了。After lunch, we turned around (“Snu rundt,” Jurgen said) and headed back north. We passed helpful signs that translated the islands’ Old Norse geographic names into English (“Tingwall, Field of the Parliament”) and stopped, incongruously enough, at a fjord-side food truck for pulled pork sandwiches. It required two more ferries, but we finally arrived in Unst, the northernmost of the Shetland Islands, and hence, the northernmost in Scotland.午饭后,我们调头(“Snu rundt,”于尔根说)向北行驶。一路上有一些很有帮助的路牌,把岛上那些古诺尔斯语地名翻译成了英语(“Tingwall,议会之地”),最后我们很不合时宜地在峡湾边的一辆小吃车前停了下来,吃了个手撕猪肉三明治。接着我们又乘了两趟轮渡,终于来到设得兰群岛最北端、也就是苏格兰最北端的安斯特岛(Unst)。Unst has a higher density of rural Viking sites than any place else in the world, including Scandinavia, with 60 longhouses on a 46-square-mile island. For our first stop, at Hamar, we skirted some curious sheep and a watchful bull to walk among the low, grass-carpeted walls of one (David was saved from another re-enacted vanquishing only because the preponderance of dung at our feet made things especially messy.) From what would have been the front door, I gazed down the length of the shimmering fjord, before I looked down to find the fragments of a broken beer bottle. The idea that local teenagers might use this ancient home as a hangout for drinking, flirting and communing with their Viking past pleased me.安斯特的维京乡村遗址是全世界——包括斯堪的纳维亚——最密集的,在这个46平方英里的岛上有60座长屋(longhouse)。上岛后的第一站是哈马尔(Hamar),我们绕过一群好奇的羊和一头警惕的公牛,沿着其中一座长屋留下的矮墙走了走,墙上长满了情操(这次戴维躲过了一场被敌人征的历史戏,因为脚下到处是粪便,打起来会很难看。)站在应该是房屋正门的地方,我俯瞰着波光粼粼的峡湾,然后低头,看到一堆啤酒瓶碎片。想到本地的孩子也许把这座古老的宅邸当成了饮酒聊天、调情、和自己的维京过去联络的场所,我感到很欣喜。But at the Skidbladner, a reconstructed Viking ship up the road, the volunteer who showed visitors around had a much more prosaic explanation for how past and present came together: economic necessity. Clad in a woolen dress fastened with brooches that approximated what a Viking woman would have worn once she was back on dry land, the volunteer divided her time between welcoming visitors to the site and doing a bit of nalebinding, a Nordic form of needlework that predates knitting. As she showed us around the Skidbladner, a full-size replica of a ship found in a Norwegian Viking burial mound in the 19th century, she told us about the Royal Air Force base that once formed the basis of Unst’s economy. “But they shut that down some years back, and that left a terrible hole,” she said. “Viking tourism is meant to fill it.”但是在斯基德普拉特尼(Skidbladner)——路边的一艘复刻版维京船,一位志愿导游对往昔与当下的交汇持有一个更乏味的解释:经济所需。志愿者身穿一件羊毛裙,上面扣着饰针,这大概就是回到陆地上的维京女人的打扮,她一边招呼着访客,一边手上还干着针织活,这种北欧式的单针环织是比棒针环织更古老的技艺。她带我们参观了斯基德普拉特尼,这是一艘19世纪在一座挪威维京墓穴中发现的船的全尺寸复制品,她说安斯特的经济基础曾经是皇家空军基地。“但是几年前他们关闭了基地,这就留下了一个可怕的窟窿,”她说。“维京旅游就是打算用来填补它的。”We were back to the same question, with little of Scottish territory left. Luckily, just as we neared Shetland’s northern edge, we spied Valhalla. It looked more like a warehouse than the Norse god Odin’s grand hall for fallen warriors, but that may have been because on Unst at least, Valhalla is a craft brewery. The name wasn’t the founder Sonny Priest’s idea. “The Viking thing has been done to death, so I was dead against it,” he said, but more prescient minds on the regional council prevailed. These days, Mr. Priest sells his Old Scatness (named after a Shetland Viking settlement) and Simmer Din (from the Shetland phrase for summer’s long twilight) ales as far as Glasgow and Oslo.眼看已经快到苏格兰国土的尽头,我们又回到了最初的问题上。幸运的是,就在我们即将到达设得兰北端时,我们发现了瓦尔哈拉(Valhalla)。它看上去更像个仓库,而不是诺尔斯神奥丁为阵亡将士准备的灵堂,不过那可能是因为,至少在安斯特,瓦尔哈拉是一家精酿酒厂。这个名字不是创始人桑尼·普利斯特(Sonny Priest)想出来的。“维京那一套已经被用滥了,所以我是很反对的,”他说,但他输给了地区委员会里的一些比他更有远见的人物。如今普利斯特的Old Scatness(因设得兰一处维京殖民地遗址而得名)和Simmer Din(设得兰人用这个短语形容漫长的夏日暮光)牌爱尔啤酒远销至格拉斯哥和奥斯陆。He wasn’t sure what to make of his ancestors’ past. “When I was a kid, the ties to the Norse felt stronger,” he said as he stopped to stick his nose in a bag of hops. “There were all these words we used, and the whalers would take our men because they knew our seafaring skills went back to them. Now sometimes I think it’s just for the tourists. But everybody in Shetland is still proud of their Viking heritage.”他不知道该如何看待自己祖先的历史。“在我小时候,跟诺尔斯文化感觉要更亲近一些,”他话说一半,低头闻了闻一袋啤酒花。“那时候我们在用很多这种词,捕鲸的会来雇我们的人,因为他们知道,我们的航海技巧是祖上传下来的。现在呢,有时候我觉得只是给游客看的。但是维京传统依然是让每一个设得兰人很自豪的东西。”In the end, neither its Viking past nor its imagined Nordic future would be strong enough to sever Scotland from England. But at our final stop, David and I could see why it came close. After hiking through the heather at Saxa Vord, we arrived at the northernmost cliff on Shetland’s most northerly inhabited island. To the east, some 200 miles in the distance, was Norway; to the north, past the rocky outcrop of Muckle Flugga, was the Arctic. We watched the sun set, then got back in the car. “Reisen slutt,” Jurgen said. It was, as he said, journey’s end.到头来,无论是那段维京岁月,还是想象中的北欧未来,都不足以让苏格兰跟英格兰一刀两断。但是在我们的最后一站,戴维和我终于看到,为什么分裂差一点就成功了。在设得兰群岛中最北的一个有人烟的岛上,我们徒步走过萨克撒-沃德(Saxa Vord)的石楠花丛,来到北边的海崖。往东200英里是挪威;往北越过马克尔-弗拉加(Muckle Flugga)就是北极。我们看了日落,回到车中。“Reisen slutt,”于尔根说。没错,这就是此行的尽头。 /201512/414129

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