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襄阳治疗非淋男性医院飞管家权威医院宜城市人民医院检查妇科病多少钱

2018年12月12日 05:08:46
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Heres a gruesome hypothetical:If you and your family were rounded up, and you were forced to watch as older relatives were killed, how would it affect you?设想这样一个可怕的场景:你和家人遭受围捕,你被迫目睹长辈被杀,这会对你产生怎样的影响?Needless to say, youd be horrified.毫无疑问,你吓坏了。Youd probably also be deeply disturbed for a long time afterwards. Maybe forever.你可能会在之后的很长一段时间内都深感不安,或许这种感觉会持续一生。For some non human species, that grisly scenario is all too common.对于除人以外的一些生物而言,这种可怕的场景是十分常见的。For instance, up until a fewdecades ago elephant populations were regularly culled.比如几十年前,大象会经常遭受屠杀,借此控制它们的种群数量。That is, family groups were herded into atight space so that hunters could shoot and kill the older individuals.捕猎者会将整个大象家族赶入一个狭小的空间,并杀其中一些年老的大象。The practice was actually meant to help elephants, because park officials worried theyd grow too numerous and overrun the area.因为公园管理员担心大象数量的增多会超出园区的负载限度,所以这种猎杀大象的行为实际上是在帮助它们。But research has shown that the surviving elephants are often deeply disturbed.但是调查表明,那些在猎杀中幸存下来的大象常常会深感不安。One study foundthat elephants from a culled group had serious problems with social and other behaviors.一项研究显示,这些幸存的大象在社交和其他行为方面会出现严重的问题。For example, a group of orphaned male elephants killed more than one-hundred rhinoceroses over adecade-behavior thats highly abnormal.例如,一群失去亲人的雄性大象在近十年中杀死了一百多头犀牛。这是极端反常的行为。Another study found that culling survivors responded chaotically to elephant calls broadcast byscientists in a nearby jeep.失去长辈即失去经验,另一项研究显示,当科学家在那些幸存下来大象附近的一辆吉普车中播放大象的叫声时,它们的回应十分混乱。The animals seemed at a loss-sometimes taking defensive measures,but not necessarily in response to calls from alien or more socially dominant females, as they normally would.它们显得茫然无措,有时还会采取防御措施。这并不像它们在正常情况下回应外来客或是族群中地位更高的母象所表现出的那样。Scientists speculate thats because elephants typically learn these important behaviors from their elders.科学家推测这是因为大象通常会从长辈身上学到这些重要的行为。And when those elders are culled or poached, the younger elephants may not learn how to respond to potential threats.当长辈遭受屠杀或偷猎后,年幼的小象在面临潜在威胁时会显得不知所措。Elephants that dont know how to defend themselves have less chance of surviving and reproducing.不知道怎样保护自己的大象,其幸存机率便会降低,繁殖能力也会减弱。Although culling is no longer practiced, poaching is. And it may have similar effects.尽管如今屠杀大象的行为已经消失,但非法狩猎仍会产生类似的效果。 201406/306099襄阳市中心医院北区官网The search for alien life寻找外星生物Twinkle, twinkle, little planet闪烁吧,小行星An undervalued optical trick may help to find life in other solar systems一个不被人重视的光学方法可能能帮助寻找其他太阳系的生命MOST astronomical telescopes employ reflection to focus starlight.大部分天文望远镜都是运用的焦点星光的反射原理。A concave mirror creates an image from this light using a design pioneered in the 17th century, by Sir Isaac Newton.早在17世纪,艾萨克·牛顿就开创性的利用这个光,让凹透镜产生了一个图像。Those telescopes that do not employ reflection use refraction.那些不利用反射的望远镜利用的是折射。They have a system of lenses,他们有透镜系统。an idea first used to look at the stars by Galileo.利用透镜系统的想法最早是伽利略用来观测星星的。But there is a third way to focus light.但还存在第三种聚焦光源的方法。A century and a half after Newton, and more than two after Galileo, a Frenchman called Augustin-Jean Fresnel worked out that you can do it using diffraction.在牛顿利用星光的150年后,伽利略的透镜系统的两百多年后,一个名叫奥古斯丁·让·菲涅尔的法国人想到也可以利用衍射来达到目的。A set of concentric rings, alternately transparent and opaque, will scatter and sp light waves in a manner that causes them to reinforce each other some distance away, and thus form an image. The rings are known as a zone plate.一组兼有透明和不透明的同轴环可以分散和传播光波,并且在稍远的地方可以再使他们重新聚焦,由此形成一个图像。And Fresnels countryman, Laurent Koechlin, of the Midi-Pyrénées observatory, thinks zone plates are the way to find out if there is life on other planets.这些环被称作波带片。法国南比利牛斯天文台劳伦.凯什兰认为波带片可以用来寻找其他星球上是否存在生命。Seeing oxygen in another planets atmosphere would be a giveaway of biological activity because the gas is so reactive that it needs to be continuously renewed.在其他星球的大气层发现氧气则表明这个星球上有生物活动,因为氧气是一种非常活跃的气体,所以他需要不停的更新。That would almost certainly mean something akin to photosynthesis was going on,而这也就基本上意味着星球上进行着某些类似于光合作用的活动,for no known non-biological process can produce oxygen from common materials in sufficient quantity.因为在我们已知的非生物学过程中,没有一种过程可以在普通材料供应充足的情况下产生氧气。Looking at such an atmosphere, though, is tricky. Stars are so much brighter than the planets which orbit them that their light overwhelms the small amount reflected from a planets surface.然而,观测到这样的大气层也是非常难的。恒星比以他们为轨道运行的行星亮得多。他们的光盖过了从行星表面上反射过来的少量光。And this is where Fresnel comes in.而这也就是菲涅尔的突破口。Fresnel telescopes have not been developed in the past because the image formed by one that was large enough to rival a useful-sized reflecting telescope would be several kilometres from the zone plate.过去,菲涅尔设计的望远镜还制造不出来,因为要想使衍射望远镜的大小和正常使用的反射望远镜大小相同,它所产生的图像就会距离波带片数千米远。But Dr Koechlin does not worry about that, because his Fresnel telescope will be in space.然而,凯什兰士并不为此担心,因为他的菲涅尔望远镜将会在太空中。Free of the confounding effects of the Earths own atmosphere, it will be able to isolate images of alien planets, make spectra of the light from their air, and examine those spectra for the characteristic dark lines that are caused by part of the light being absorbed by particular gases—oxygen among them.脱离了地球大气层的混淆效应,望远镜将能够分离外星生物的图像,在他们的大气中制作出来光谱,并且为这些有特点的暗线检查光谱。这些暗线部分是由特殊气体—大气中的氧气—所吸收的光产生的。Plate tectonics行星构造地质学Space telescopes are nothing new, of course, and several more are in the works.当然,太空望远镜并不是什么新事物,并且已经有几个已经在使用中了。But existing plans to photograph extrasolar planets in this way involve orbiting arrays of reflecting telescopes all pointing in exactly the same direction.但是在现在的计划中,利用这种方法给太阳系以外的行星拍照就需要让多组的反射望远镜在轨道运行的时候全部精准的朝向同一个方向。An array is needed because a single mirror big enough to do the job of separating star from planet would be too large to launch.由于一个体积足够大到能够将恒星与行星分开的单一镜面将会由于体积太庞大而无法发射,因此一组反射望远镜就是必须的。The problem is the word exactly”.而问题就出在精准”上。It means just that.它就如字面意思一样,The formation would have to fly with a precision of a few billionths of a metre.要精准到十亿分之一米。Using a zone plate instead of a mirror gets around this.用波带片代替镜面在轨道运行。Because the plate is flat, it can be made of plastic and folded up for launch.因为波带片表面是平的,他可以用塑料制作而成,然后折叠起来发射。Size thus ceases to be an issue.而尺寸大小就不再是问题。And although a second satellite containing the eyepiece”must fly at the focus,the accuracy required is only hundredths of a metre, not billionths.并且,尽管还必须有一个含有目镜”的卫星在焦点上运行,所需要的精准度也只是百分之一米。That, Dr Koechlin reckons, gives Fresnel optics a big advantage over Newtonian ones.凯什兰士认为,这将是菲涅尔视觉超越牛顿的设计的一大优点。To test the idea, he and an international consortium of his colleagues have built a ground-based prototype.为了检测这一想法,他和他各国的同事建立了一个陆基的雏形。This is a piece of copper foil 20cm square that has 696 rings, a portion of which is reproduced above.这是一片20平方厘米的铜箔,它有696个环。Because it is this small, its focal length is only 18 metres.铜箔的一部分是再生的。因为它体积偏小,所以它的聚焦只有18米。In order that the foil does not fall apart, each transparent ring is actually a series of curved slots in the copper rather than a continuous gap.为了不让铜箔散开,每一个透明的环实际上都是铜箔里的一系列的曲线轮槽,而不是连续的空隙。This, though, does not affect the systems optical properties and it can, indeed, see small, faint objects that are near large, bright ones.尽管如此,这并不影响整个系统的视觉特性,并且,它也确实能够看见巨大且明亮的恒星旁边那些小型且微弱的物体。When Dr Koechlin and his team pointed it at Mars they could distinguish that planets two tiny moons—a task which would require a Newtonian telescope with a mirror at least 30cm across.当凯什兰士和他的团队观测火星时,他们可以分辨火星的两个微小卫星—这样的任务如果是利用牛顿的望远镜则需要一个直径最少长达30厘米的镜面。And when they aimed at Sirius they could see the dim white-dwarf which orbits what is the brightest star in the night sky.并且,当他们观测天王星时,他们能够看见暗淡的白矮星。Extrapolating from these results, they think that an orbiting zone plate measuring somewhere between 15 metres and 40 metres across will be enough to distinguish the spectrum of an Earthlike planet at a distance of 30 light-years.它围绕着夜空中最亮的那颗星运行。从这些结果推测,他们认为,一个直径在15到40米、并且在轨道上运行的波带片足够在30光年以外的距离分辨一个与地球相似的行星的光谱。With that, they should be able to find out if mankind really does have any next-door neighbours, and Fresnel will have come into his own at last.如此一来,他们就应该能够找到人类是否还有其他邻居,而菲涅尔也最终能实现自己的想法。 /201307/249706枣阳妇幼保健院割包皮手术多少钱Free exchange自由交易The great trailblazer伟大的开拓者Economists everywhere should mourn the passing of Gary Becker世界各地的经济学家都该对加里·贝克尔的离世表示哀悼IF THERE is one person to blame for economists habit of opining on everything, it is Gary Becker, who died on May 3rd. Not content with studying the worlds economies, he was the first prominent economist to apply economic tools to all aspects of life. His revelation was the sort that seems obvious only in hindsight: that people are often purposeful and rational in their decisions, whether they are changing jobs, taking drugs or divorcing their spouses. This insight, and the work that followed from it, earned him a Nobel prize in 1992. No less an eminence than Milton Friedman declared in 2001 that Mr Becker was “the greatest social scientist who has lived and worked in the last half-century”.经济学家们习惯于对一切事情都发表意见,若要将这嗜好归功于一人,这个人便是已于2014年5月3日辞世的加里·贝克尔。不满足于仅仅研究世界经济,贝克尔是第一个将经济学方法应用到生活各个方面的著名经济学家。他揭示了那些事后似乎才一目了然的事:无论是换工作,嗑药或与配偶离婚,人们往往是有目的、理性地做出决定。正是由于此种见解以及其后一系列围绕它的研究,贝克尔赢得了1992年的诺贝尔经济学奖。声名卓著的米尔顿·弗里德曼在2001年称贝克尔是“过去的半个世纪以来最伟大的社会科学家”,他完全担得起这个评价。At the heart of Mr Beckers work was the view that “individuals maximise welfare as they conceive it.” Welfare need not mean income; it could derive from the pleasure of altruism or the thrill of deviancy. But critically, this thesis implied that people respond to incentives—a realisation that opened the door to insights across the whole range of human activity.贝克尔研究的核心是认为“个体总是最大化他们自己所认为的个人福利”。福利不一定意味着收入,它可能源自利他主义的满足感或越轨的快感。但关键的是,这个论题暗指人们会对激励做出回应—这个认知为全方位地洞悉人类活动打开了一扇门。Mr Becker first used this approach in his doctoral study of discrimination, a raw issue in 1950s America. At the time economists models assumed that employers cared only about productivity, whatever the colour of the worker. Shunting this view aside, Mr Becker instead assumed that many individuals had a “taste for discrimination”, and perceived themselves to be worse off when forced to work alongside people of other races. He then explored how this preference affected labour markets.贝克尔在其士生涯研究歧视问题时第一次使用这种方法,歧视问题在20世纪50年代的美国还未受到重视。当时经济学家的模型假定雇主只关心生产率,而不管工人的肤色如何。抛开这一观点,贝克尔代之以假设许多人有“歧视偏好”,被迫与其他种族的人一起工作人们会感觉很糟糕。然后他探讨了这种偏好如何影响劳动力市场。In America, where the black population was roughly one-tenth of the total, discrimination against blacks led to relatively small reductions in white incomes but far more substantial ones for black workers. In South Africa, with a far higher proportion of blacks, discrimination brought much larger reductions in incomes across the economy. Mr Becker pointed out that although competition from more rational firms might gradually eliminate corporate discrimination, market forces alone would rarely erode discrimination rooted in the tastes of workers or consumers. His book on the subject, “The Economics of Discrimination”, became the foundation for subsequent research.在美国,黑人数量占其总人口约十分之一,对黑人的歧视导致白人工人收入相对削减较小而黑人工人的工资却较大幅度下降。在南非,黑人占比较高,歧视使整个经济体的收入更大幅度的下挫。贝克尔指出,虽然那些来自更理性的公司的竞争可能逐步消除企业歧视,但仅仅依靠市场力量很难削弱根植于工人或消费者偏好中的歧视。他探讨这一问题的书籍《歧视经济学》为后续研究奠定了基础。Mr Beckers restless mind then focused on crime. He became intrigued after weighing the odds and cost of getting a parking ticket, and deciding to risk it. He looked sceptically on the view, common at the time, that crime was simply deviant behaviour—a form of mental illness. At least some of it, he reckoned, sprang from a rational consideration of perceived costs and benefits. Moral norms might inhibit some individuals from breaking the law, but others would overcome their qualms when the return to criminal activity was high, or the likely punishment mild. Such calculations would apply, he argued, across a wide variety of crimes, from parking scofflaws to corporate fraudsters.思维活跃的贝克尔紧接着专注于犯罪领域。在比较了停车罚单的收益和成本并决定冒险违章停车后,这个问题引起了他的兴趣。按照当时流行的观点,犯罪只是简单的越轨行为,贝克尔对此表示怀疑。他认为,至少部分犯罪是源自权衡成本和收益后的理性考量。道德准则可能会约束某些人不要去违法乱纪,但若犯罪活动回报颇高,或潜在处罚轻微时,其他人还是会将诸般疑虑抛诸脑后的。他认为这种方式也适用于衡量各种不同的犯罪,从违章停车到企业诈骗。Mr Becker puzzled over why crime was economically costly. Part of the answer, he realised, was that it represents rent-seeking: fighting over the spoils of productive activity rather than creation of new wealth. Resources invested in commission of crimes might otherwise have gone towards growth-boosting activity. His work contributed to new crime-fighting methods. He reckoned there is an optimal amount of crime in society, since it makes little sense to pay huge sums to wipe out illegal activity carrying low social costs. Where enforcement is patchy, governments might still deter misbehaviour by increasing the severity of the punishment—by raising fines, say.贝克尔对犯罪为何在经济上代价高昂感到困惑。他意识到部分原因在于犯罪是一种“寻租”行为:争食生产活动的战利品,而非创造新的财富。否则,实施犯罪(或阻止犯罪)投入的资源本可用来促进生产活动。他的研究成果为新的打击犯罪的方式做出了贡献。贝克尔认为,由于付巨额资金以杜绝低社会成本的非法活动意义不大,社会上的犯罪有着最优量。凡执法存在漏洞的地方,政府仍可能通过加大惩罚力度以震慑不端行为—比如增加罚金。Mr Becker was again a pioneer, alongside his Columbia University colleague Jacob Mincer, in developing the concept of “human capital”, the investments individuals make in their own education. Mr Becker ventured that spending on education and training should be thought of as an economic choice, made in anticipation of perceived future gains, rather than a high-minded search for cultural enrichment. His view gave insight into labour-market oddities. By taking into account the difference between general knowledge and “firm-specific” skills, Mr Becker could explain why skilled workers are less likely to change firms, or why firms are more likely to promote from within. Human capital also shed light on gaps in pay across demographic groups—between men and women, for example. That, in turn, shaped Mr Beckers groundbreaking study on the economics of the family.贝克尔与其哥伦比亚大学的同事雅各布·明赛尔一起发展了“人力资本”的概念,即个体为自身教育做出的投资。他在这方面再次成为先驱。贝克尔大胆假设,用于教育和培训的开销应当被看作是一种在预期未来收益的情况下做出的经济选择,而非为了寻求提升高尚的文化修养。这一观点给劳动力市场怪象提供了视角。考虑到通识知识(比如数学)和“企业特有”技能(如内部软件知识)之间的差别,贝克尔可以解释为什么技术工人不太可能跳槽,或者企业为什么更青睐从内部提拔人才。人力资本也揭示出人口群体——比如男性和女性间的薪酬差异,这反过来形成贝克尔对家庭经济的开创性研究。Family values家庭价值观Mr Becker brought his characteristic analysis to the question, assuming that people are guided in family choices by a desire to improve their own welfare. That included marriage and divorce: his analysis implied, for instance, that those in wealthy families would divorce at lower rates, a prediction borne out by data. His work also helped explain falling fertility in rich countries. As wages rise, the opportunity cost of raising children increases, and large families become less attractive. What is more, as the link between education and economic success grows stronger, parents invest ever more in their children.分析这个问题,贝克尔引入了他的特性分析,假设人是出于提高自身福利的愿望来指导家庭选择的,包括结婚和离婚在内。举个例子,他的分析暗示那些富裕家庭往往离婚率较低,数据也实了这一预测。他的工作也有助于解释富裕国家出生率下降的问题。随着工资的上升,抚养子女的机会成本增加,拥有一个大家庭变得不那么有吸引力。更重要的是,教育与经济成功之间的联系变得更加强大,父母在子女身上的投资越来越多。Mr Beckers trailblazing earned plenty of criticism. The interdisciplinary adventurism it embodied peeved other social scientists, who doubted that cool-headed analysis played much part in matters of love or larceny. But his work yielded unexpected insights and forced social scientists to rethink their assumptions and sharpen their analyses, the better to learn why people behave as they do and how policy can best help. Whole branches of microeconomics owe their existence to him. It is hard to imagine a more welfare-improving contribution.贝克尔的开创性理论遭到了很多批评。它体现出的跨学科冒险性使许多社会科学家非常气恼,他们怀疑冷静分析在爱情或盗窃问题起到的作用会更大。但贝克尔的研究成果提供了出人意料的思路,迫使社会科学家重新考虑他们的假设,完善他们的分析,以更好地了解人们的行为:人们为何那么做,政策怎样提供最好的帮助。微观经济学的整个分的存在都归功于贝克尔,没有谁在提升福利方面作出的贡献比他更大了。 201405/298764襄阳看皮炎医院

枣阳市第一人民医院网站襄阳襄阳男科医院Business商业报道Restructuring European aerospace欧洲航天重组Enders justifying means恩德斯的正当手段The effort to run EADS like an ordinary company努力像经营一个普通公司一样经营欧洲航空防务及航天公司ARNAUD MONTEBOURG must look back on September 16th with a certain wry amusement.阿诺·蒙特堡先生回顾9月16日时一定会哭笑不得。That was the day the French industry minister visited Elancourt, west ofParis, where the defence arm of European Aeronautic Defence amp; Space conducts research on cyber-security.这一天,法国工业部长参观巴黎西部的埃朗库尔酒店,那里是欧洲航空防务和航天公司进行网络安全的研究的防御区。The government had just publicly identified the sector as one that could propel Franceto a new industrial future, and Mr Montebourg waxed lyrical on site.政府刚刚公布确定这个部门作为一个可以推动法国新的产业未来的部门,蒙特堡先生。Then on December 9th EADS announced that it was cutting 5,800 jobs acrossEuropeas part of a reorganisation of its defence and space activities.12月9日EADS就宣布,它正在削减欧洲的5,800职位作为国防和空间活动的重组计划的一部分。In the past such an announcement would have set off a barrage of accusations, and not only from the firms workforce.在过去,这样的声明会掀起大批的指责,不仅仅是公司的员工。Relations among the companys main government shareholders—FranceandGermany—have long been strained.该公司的主要股东的政权,法国和德国,长期以来一直关系紧张。Those between Tom Enders, the chief executive of EADS, and Angela Merkel,Germanys chancellor, are no better.欧洲宇航防务集团的首席执行官托马斯·恩德斯和德国总理安格拉·默克尔之间的关系,也一直未见好转。It was Mrs Merkel who stopped a proposed merger last year between EADS and BAE Systems, a British defence firm.是默克尔终止了EADS和英国防务公司BAE系统公司在去年提出的合并计划。Mr Enders saw the deal as a way to win EADS a seat at the top table in the defence business.恩德斯先生将这一交易看做是EADS赢得国防业务顶尖席位的一条途径。Mrs Merkel thought it would reduce German influence over EADS and shift jobs out ofGermany.默克尔却认为这将减少德国对ESDS的影响力,EADS的许多工作将会被转移出德国。The merger was abandoned amid bitter recriminations, leaving Mr Enders determined to transform EADS into a normal commercial company focused on the profitability of its businesses rather than the nationality of its workers.这次放弃合使得双方都相互指责,恩德斯先生不得不下决心将EADS改造成为一个正常的商业公司,专注于各项业务的盈利能力,而非其工人的国籍。That the mudslinging this time has been relatively restrained is a sign of how far EADS has travelled down that road.这次较为克制的诽谤已经成为欧洲宇航防务集团在这条道路上走过多远的标志。The German economics ministry asked that the cuts do not bear down disproportionately on its country, where most of the defence operations are based.德国经济部指出这次削减难以承担德国经济不成比例的下跌,因为那里是大部分防卫作战的基础。Mr Montebourg thought it unacceptable that a profitable company with a bulging order book and state support had to cut jobs.蒙特堡先生认为一个拥有鼓鼓订单和政府持的盈利公司不得不裁员的理由是难以接受的。Neither government looks likely to intervene.Francenow owns just 12% of the company,Germanyless than 11% and neither now has a veto over management decisions.不过无论如何政府很可能要干预此事。法国目前只拥有公司的12%,德国也只有不到11%,两国都没有一票否决权的管理决策。Both can see that, however successful EADS is these days in commercial aviation, it is too small, too cost-heavy and too Eurocentric to compete globally for defence and space business, especially at a time when developed countries are cutting their budgets.从两方面都可以看出,虽然欧洲宇航防务集团最近在航空商业中是成功的,但对于以欧洲为中心在全球范围内为国防和空间业务构成竞争来说规模太小,花费太大了,尤其是当发达国家正在削减他们的预算的时候。The job losses are part of a bigger reorganisation to reflect this reality.工作损失是一个反映现实的更大的重组。Next year EADSs four operating units will come down to three, as its existing defence and space outfits—Cassidian, Astrium and Airbus Military—are merged into Airbus DS.明年欧洲宇航防务集团的四大经营单位将回落到三个,作为其现有的国防和航天装备,卡西迪安,奥斯特里姆公司和空中客车军用将合并成空中客车公司的DS 。EADS itself will take its name from its best-known brand, becoming Airbus Group.EADS公司将放弃其最知名的品牌名字,成为空中客车集团。No longer will the role of chief executive alternate between French and German bosses: Mr Enders will keep the job as long as the board wants him to remain.他们将不会再扮演法国行政总裁候补和德国老板之间的角色:What of the research into cyber-security that Mr Montebourg ventured out to see one September morning?只要董事会希望他留下来,恩德斯先生将继续这项工作。That, the company says, is here to stay.也就是说,该公司表示,是到停下来的时候了。 /201312/269450襄樊铁路中心医院治疗妇科疾病多少钱As Robert Palmer sang in the mid 80s,You might as well faceit, youre addicted to love.80年代中期的罗伯特帕尔默曾经唱道:承认吧,你已坠入爱河。While that may or may not be true depending on who you are, its nosecret that addiction is a common phenomenon.虽然,这句歌词的意思因人而异,但我们都知道,沉迷某事物或某人是个普遍现象。Apart from serious addictions to drugs and alcohol, how many times have you heard someoneclaim that theyre absolutely addicted to chocolate? Or diet Coke.除了严重的毒瘾和酒瘾意外,你有多少次曾听到有人说他们对巧克力十分上瘾?Or broccoli? Well, maybe notbroccoli, but you get the point.或者说无糖可乐,或是花椰菜?也许不是花椰菜,但你知道我想说的是什么。But is it really possible to be a chocolate addict in the same waythat someone might be addicted to drugs?对巧克力上瘾真的会跟毒瘾一样吗?To answer that question we need to know what addiction is.要解答这个问题,我们需要知道什么是上瘾。Although the precise science ofaddiction is unclear, we do know that it involves the brain; addictive substances alter brainchemistry in such a way as to make the body crave more.虽然对上瘾还没有确切的定义,但我们都知道它跟大脑有关;上瘾的东西会以某种方式改变脑化学,从而使人体产生对该物的渴望。But what about chocolate?但怎么解释巧克力呢?Several studies indicate that chocolate addiction is for real.一些研究表明,对巧克力上瘾确实是存在的。Chocolatecontains a number of addictive substances, including caffeine and cannabinoids, chemicals similarto the ones that make marijuana a potent drug.巧克力包含很多容易上瘾的物质,如咖啡因、大麻类物质。Further studies found not only that chocolatefats trigger the release of pleasure-causing substances in the brain, but that chocolate contains achemical similar to amphetamine, a highly addictive drug.进一步研究发现,不仅巧克力脂肪能够促使大脑释放出使人体愉悦的物质,巧克力还含有一种和苯内胺很相似的化学物质。Does this mean that anyone who eats enough chocolate will become addicted?难道说任何吃过多巧克力的人都会上瘾吗?No. Some peoplecan eat all the chocolate they want and never get hooked.不是的。有些人可以想吃多少巧克力就吃多少而不上瘾。But chocolate does cause chemicalchanges in the brain that can result in a powerful craving.但巧克力确实会引起大脑的化学变化,从而产生一种强烈的渴望。Chocolate addiction is nowhere near aspotent or harmful as alcohol and drug addiction, of course.对巧克力上瘾可不是像毒瘾和酒瘾那样对人体有害。But if you find yourself unable to gothrough the day without at least one Hersheys Kiss, its not just in your mind.但如果你发现自己一天不吃上一块好时巧克力就不自在的话,不止是你脑中会这样想,Youre hooked.而是你确实是染上巧克力瘾了。 201403/279416襄阳中医院是公立医院还是私立医院

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