If I Rest, I Rust 如果我休息，我就会生锈The significant inscription found on an old key;;If I rest, I rust;---would be an excellent motto those who are afflicted with the slightest bit of idleness. Even the most industrious person might adopt it with advantage to serve as a reminder that, if one allows his faculties to rest, like the iron in the unused key, they will soon show signs of rust and, ultimately, cannot do the work required of them.在一把旧钥匙上发现了一则意义深远的铭文;;如果我休息，我就会生锈对于那些懒散而烦恼的人来说，这将是至理名言甚至最为勤勉的人也以此作为警示：如果一个人有才能而不用，就像废弃钥匙上的铁一样，这些才能就会很快生锈，并最终无法完成安排给自己的工作Those who would attain the heights reached and kept by great men must keep their faculties polished by constant use, so that they may unlock the doors of knowledge, the gate that guard the entrances to the professions, to science, art, literature, agriculture---every department of human endeavor.有些人想取得伟人所获得并保持的成就，他们就必须不断运用自身才能，以便开启知识的大门，即那些通往人类努力探求的各个领域的大门，这些领域包括各种职业：科学，艺术，文学，农业等Industry keeps bright the key that opens the treasury of achievement. If Hugh Miller, after toiling all day in a quarry, had devoted his evenings to rest and recreation, he would never have become a famous geologist. The celebrated mathematician, Edmund Stone, would never have published a mathematical dictionary, never have found the key to science of mathematics, if he had given his spare moments to idleness, had the little Scotch lad, Ferguson, allowed the busy brain to go to sleep while he tended sheep on the hillside instead of calculating the position of the stars by a string of beads, he would never have become a famous astronomer.勤奋使开启成功宝库的钥匙保持光亮如果休bull;米勒在采石场劳作一天后，晚上的时光用来休息消遣的话，他就不会成为名垂青史的地质学家著名数学家爱德蒙bull;斯通如果闲暇时无所事事，就不会出版数学词典，也不会发现开启数学之门的钥匙如果苏格兰青年弗格森在山坡上放羊时，让他那思维活跃的大脑处于休息状态，而不是借助一串珠子计算星星的位置，他就不会成为著名的天文学家Labor vanquishes all---not inconstant, spasmodic, or ill-directed labor; but faithful, unremitting, daily eft toward a well-directed purpose. Just as truly as eternal vigilance is the price of liberty, so is eternal industry the price of noble and enduring success.劳动征一切这里所指的劳动不是断断续续的，间歇性的或方向偏差的劳动，而是坚定的，不懈的，方向正确的每日劳动正如要想拥有自由就要时刻保持警惕一样，要想取得伟大的，持久的成功，就必须坚持不懈地努力inscription n. 题字; 碑铭polish vt. 磨光calculate v. 计算inconstant adj. 变化无常的spasmodical adj. 痉挛的 3861
On Motes and BeamsIt is curious that our own offenses should seem so much less heinous than the offenses of others. I suppose the reason is that we know all the circumstances that have occasioned them and so manage to excuse in ourselves what we cannot excuse in others. We turn our attention away from our own defects, and when we are ced by untoward events to consider them, find it easy to condone them. all I know we are right to do this; they are part of us and we must accept the good and bad in ourselves together. But when we come to judge others, it is not by ourselves as we really are that we judge them, but by an image that we have med of ourselves fro which we have left out everything that offends our vanity or would discredit us in the eyes of the world. To take a trivial instance how scornful we are when we catch someone out telling a lie; but who can say that he has never told not one, but a hundred? There is not much to choose between men. They are all a hotchpotch of greatness and littleness, of virtue and vice, of nobility and baseness. Some have more strength of character, or more opporty, and so in one direction or another give their instincts freer play, but potentially they are the same. my part, I do not think I am any better or any worse than most people, but I know that if I set down every action in my life and every thought that has crossed my mind, the world would consider me a monster of depravity. The knowledge that these reveries are common to all men should inspire one with tolerance to oneself as well as to others. It is well also if they enable us to look upon our fellows, even the most eminent and respectable, with humor, and if they lead us to take ourselves not too seriously.微尘与栋梁让人奇怪的是，和别人的过错比起来，我们自身的过错往往不是那样的可恶我想，其原因应该是我们知晓一切导致自己犯错的情况，能够设法谅解自己的错误，而别人的错误却不能谅解我们对自己的缺点不甚关注，即便是深陷困境而不得不正视它们的时候，我们也会很容易就宽恕自己据我所知，我们这样做是正确的缺点是我们自身的一部分，我们必须接纳自己的好和坏但是当我们评判别人的时候，情况就不同了我们不是通过真实的自我来评判别人，而是用一种自我形象来评判，这种自我形象完全摒弃了在任何世人眼中会伤害到自己的虚荣或者体面的东西举一个小例子来说：当觉察到别人说谎时，我们是多么地蔑视他啊！但是，谁能够说自从未说过谎？可能还不止一百次呢人和人之间没什么大的差别他们皆是伟大与渺小，善良与邪恶，高尚与低俗的混合体有的人性格比较坚毅，机会也比较多，因而达个或那个方面，能够更自由地发挥自己的禀赋，但是人类的潜能却都是相同的至于我自己，我认为自己并不比大多数人更好或者更差，但是我知道，假如我记下我生命中每一次举动和每一个掠过我脑海的想法的话，世界就会将我视为一个邪恶的怪物每个人都会有这样的怪念头，这样的认识应当能够启发我们宽容自己，也宽容他人同时，假如我们得以用幽默的态度看待他人，即使是天下最优秀最令人尊敬的人，而且假如我们也不把自己看得过于重要，那是很有裨益的 383he was clearly a beginner at dairy work．从他挤一头牛花费的时间来看,对牛奶场的活儿,他显然是一个新手第二、语段精讲1. He ．短语注释：walking brothers：徒步旅行的兄弟 stop one’s walk：驻足，停住脚步文法：who had stopped their walk to admire the May－Day dance in Marlott a few years bee是限定性定语从句，修饰表示“人”且在从句中做“主语”的先行词“brother”. He had danced with some of the other girls but not with her．文法：这个句子是有表示转折的并列连词but连接的个并列分词在第二个分句中省略了同样成分且同样意思的词语：had danced（谓语成分）语言要点：go on one’s way：继续前行，继续上路e.g. Annie goes on his way, driving car and turning on the radio. 安妮驾车继续上路，并且她打开收音机He thanked him profusely and then go on his way. 一再地向他道谢，然后继续上路3. 语言要点：not at all：丝毫不......，一点儿也不......I m not at all satisfied with the present situation. 我对现状一点也不满足He was not at all nervous, he knew what to expect. 他心里有底, 一点不慌. 描写手法：这句话中采用了肖像描写的手法“his face had grown more thoughtful（他的脸变得更为深沉）”揭露出当时社会底层人们艰辛的生活5. he was clearly a beginner at dairy work．语言要点：spend some time doing：花费时间做.......e.g. He spend all the morning playing games online. 他一个早上在网上玩游戏语言要点：a beginner in something：在......是个新手，对......还不熟练e.g. You can see John is a beginner in computer. 你可以看得出约翰在电脑操作上还是个新手文法：he had spent milking one cow是限定性定语从句，修饰表示时间的且在从句中做时间状语的先行词time这个引导从句的关系副词是可以省略的 531常用英语口语之赞美表扬篇 --7 :53: 来源： 常用英语口语之赞美表扬篇1.You have good taste.你有很好的鉴赏力.You have an eye beauty.你很有审美眼光3.He's a walking dictionary.他就是本活字典.It's very nice hairstyle you're wearing.你的发型很美5.He is reallya heartbreaker.他真是个叫人着迷的酷哥.6.I appreciate your compliment.我很感激您的表扬7.You always know the right thing to say.你总是说话得体8.You certainly made the boss very happy.你确实使老板非常高兴9.You're the fastest runner I've ever seen.你是我所见过的跑得最快的人.You're the kindest person I've ever met.你是我所遇见的最亲切的人.I've always admired your work very much.我一向很钦佩你的工作.Your knowledge of English is really surprising!你的英语知识太让人惊讶了!.You did a good job on that. We're so proud of you.你干得非常好，我十分为你骄傲.I really must express my admiration you competence.我的确对您的能力表示钦佩 常用英语口语
【英语达人分享】如何快速提高英语口语 -- :00:37 来源： 英语学习，无非就是听、说、读、写四项能力听力、阅读和写作国人都很擅长，但唯独口语成为大多数人的噩梦究其原因，一方面是国人学习英语多作应试之用，应试注重听力、阅读和写作，唯独口语不做考试，中国学生的口语表达能力都非常有限二是因为英语母语环境的缺失没有口语练习的对象和机会，口语能力自然无法提高 随着我国经济发展，我国和西方的交流也随之扩大，用英语交流成为大学生和职场人士一项不可或缺的技能但如上所说，口语已成为国人对外交流的一大阻碍那么，如何才能在短时间内提高自己的英语口语呢? 其实，英语口语无非就是三个问题：怎么说，说什么，和谁说怎么说是英语发音问题，说什么就是你所说的内容，和谁说是你与谁交流英语首先明确这三个步骤，然后一步一步扎实去做，那么你的英语口语定会有一个系统的提升 一、怎么说;;英语发音 第1周-第3周 很多人在刚开始学习英语的时候，由于没有系统的学习音标，或是受到老师的影响，发音就有问题在真正的系统练习口语前，我们首先应当纠正我们的发音 1)首先认真学习音标元音、辅音、清辅音等概念最好弄清楚，同时，在学习音标的过程中，要注意每个音标发音时舌头、嘴唇的形状、声带震动以及鼻腔用音等细节大一口语课的时候，我的老师会让我们对着镜子练习发音通过镜子观察自己的嘴型及舌头位置，在不断的纠正中，发音才能更为准确在音标教辅材料选择方面，最好的选择是B Learning English，里面有针对英语发音的详尽教程 )学习完音标之后，就进入了练习阶段了除去每个单词的发音外，我们还要知道单词轻重音、句子节奏、句子轻重音等在这个阶段，最重要的是模仿跟读，除过B Learning English之外，还推荐Englishpod，这两个节目都是正常语速且有讲解，比较适合初学者，若是前期学习时间充分，可每天听一个小时左右，半个小时认真听，另半小时跟读 3)有了前面的基础之后，可再花一个星期提高自己的发音及语感在此阶段，可以选择《American Accent Training作为教材模仿跟读，同时也可选择英美剧进行跟读，在选择影视剧跟读之前，最好打印出一份文本，扫清所有的生词后再听更有效果 )另外如果有条件的话，可以找个外教来练一练，可能大家不知道，现在网上很多资源可以用，推荐一个阿卡索外教网，有免费提供的外教一对一的课程http:www.acadsoc.com.cnrwlp6，还有姚明代言的那个VIPA，都可以试试这部分先粗略的说说，后面会再细说 二、说什么;;第周-第8周 三周时间解决发音问题之后，就进入到说什么阶段，这也是英语口语最为重要，也是最难攻克的一个阶段在说明提高方法之前，我们首先需要明确这样一个概念：所有的语言学习都是一个从输入到输出的阶段听力和阅读属于输入，口语和写作则属于输出若是没有输入，输出自然也就是无水之源很多人平时不做听力及阅读练习，在说的时候，自然无法输出有效的内容那么，应该如何提高英语输入的效率呢? 1)单词如果说英语学习是一座金字塔，那单词就是堆成金字塔的砖石大学公共英语六级考试要求掌握的单词数量大致为5500个，GRE需要掌握核心单词数量大致为000个，在日常生活中，我们应当至少掌握7000个单词，才能与英语母语者做到基本的无障碍沟通我推荐通过阅读来记忆单词，遇到不懂的单词，用英英词典去查，然后记到单词本上通过语境的单词记忆，远比背单词书更有效率阅读的材料可以是《Economist等杂志，一些英文原版书，如《The Little Prince，《Charlottelsquo;s web也都不错如果时间紧，想要立竿见影，那可选择《天搞定GRE单词、《新口语词汇小伴侣这两本书选择搭配背诵 记忆单词的生词本最好是比较厚而且体积较小的本子，这样可以利用碎片化时间随时拿出来进行记忆 )英美剧这个方法很多人都用，但大多数人没有好好利用这个方法首先在选择英美剧的时候，一定要选择贴近英美生活，同时语言可以直接使用的那种，在这里比较推荐《Modern Family或者《Friends这两部剧的对白简单而地道，适合入门级的人多加学习 在选择好剧目之后，下面就是如何看的问题了，我在看英美剧的时候，基本有以下几个步骤： i. 首先选择好几集英美剧，然后将台词都记录起来，做成一个属于自己的剧本(如果想偷懒，可以直接在网上下剧本)在看的时候可以多看几遍字幕，务必先把剧情台词都熟悉起来 ii. 熟悉之后，就可以看剧本了遇到不懂的语句或单词，直接用英英字典查清，然后做好记录觉得生活中常用的，十分地道的语句也可以记录下来把记录下来的语句时时多看，做到烂熟于心 iii. 在熟悉了剧情和剧本之后，再回头去看，看的时候将字幕遮挡住如果还是遇到没听懂的地方，可以查看字幕，然后再做一遍记忆到这一步的时候，你对其中的对话都非常熟悉了，基本可以达到学以致用的效果 iv. 以上几步做完之后，可以再继续做跟读训练跟读不仅可以加深记忆，对于语境的理解及发音都有很大的帮助 3)英语思维在我们讲英语口语的时候，我们的思维逻辑为：英文;;中文;;中文;;英文在英文的交流中，中文充当了一个桥梁的作用对于初级英语学习者而言，中文是必经之路，但对于一个高阶的口语者而言，中文反而会成为一个阻碍在经过单词以及英美剧的训练之后，就应及时转入英语思维 英语思维并非一蹴而就，而是一个从量变到质变的内化过程在词汇、语法、逻辑、英美文化有了足够多的积累之后，我们的大脑才不用经过中文翻译，而是直接下意识的说出英文在这个时候，你的英语才能够真正进入到fluent的阶段 三、和谁说;;第9周-第周 做好了英文输入，下面就到了真正输出的阶段了很多人的发音和知识积累已经非常丰富了，但是苦于没有对话的人以及环境，所以开口的机会非常少但互联网的发展，给了我们和国外友人交流的机会，像上面提到的阿卡索外教网就是个例子，想学好口语的，一定要去免费体验下：http:www.acadsoc.com.cnrwlp6，大家在跟外教对话时候，切记不要害羞，尽可能的多说，说错了也没关系，外教老师会帮你纠正的 除这种线上形式外，线下也有很多机会例如每个大学都会有英语角，若是有时间，可以每周过去和英语角的学生交流另外，外国语大学相比一般的大学，都会有数量更多的留学生这些留学生为了学习汉语或是宣传宗教，也会主动找我们聊天，去外国语大学找留学生，你练习口语的机会也会更多一些 如果实在找不到外国人练习口语，那么也可以找一个英语好的国人作为替代，几个人坚持用英语作为母语，并进行日常对话只要持之以恒，也会有很不错的效果 在练习口语的时候，一是不要害羞，要大胆的讲出来二是如果真的不熟练可以先用单词或者短句代替，待略微熟练之后，再强化语句部分只有真正的学以致用，同时在情境中练习，英语口语才能完成最后的收割阶段 以上就是我三个月的口语练习计划，在照上述计划行动之后，我基本可以做到和外国人无障碍沟通当然，每个人的英语基础有所不同，也不必严格照以上步骤去实施，例如有的人发音标准，那么就可以减少音标的学习，直接进入第二、第三阶段 英语口语学习是一个持之以恒的过程，虽然方法很多，但最重要的还是找准合适自己的，然后去认真执行三个月或许还无法让你像native speaker那样流利的说口语，但足以应付一般的工作或是聊天当你能够真正与外国人谈笑风生的时候，你收获的不仅是他人艳羡的眼光，更有你对英语学习的重新思考与认知，这将使你的英语学习之路，走的比别人更快，也更长 英语口语 快速提高A Tribute to the Dog 写给忠诚的The best friend a man has in the world may turn against him and become his enemy. His son or daughter that he has reared with loving care may prove ungrateful. Those who are nearest and dearest to us, those whom we trust with our happiness and our good name may become traitors to their faith.一个人在世上最好的朋友会和他反目，成为他的敌人他悉心养育的儿女会不忠不孝那些和我们最亲近的人，那些我们以幸福和美名信赖的人会背信弃义The money that a man has, he may lose. It flies away from him, perhaps when he needs it most. A man reputation may be sacrificed in a moment of ill-considered action. The people who are prone to fall on their knees to do us honor when success is with us, may be the first to throw the stone of malice when failure settles its cloud upon our heads.一个人拥有的金钱会失去，也许就在他最需要的时候一个人的名誉会因瞬间的不当之举而丧失贻尽那些当我们功成名就时跪拜向我们致敬的人也许是第一个在失败的阴云笼罩我们时对我们投石下井The one absolutely unselfish friend that man can have in this selfish world, the one that never deserts him, the one that never proves ungrateful or treacherous is his dog. A man dog stands by him in prosperity and in poverty, in health and in sickness. He will sleep on the cold ground, where the wintry winds blow and the snow drives fiercely, if only he may be near his master side. He will kiss the hand that has no food to offer.在这个自私的世界里，一个人能有的最无私的，从不抛弃他，从不知恩不报，从不背信弃义的朋友是他的无论富有或贫穷，无论健康或是患病，一个人的总佇立在主人身旁如果能和主人在一起，它愿意睡在冰冷的地上，任凭寒风凛冽，朔雪飘零它愿意亲吻没有食物奉送的手He will lick the wounds and sores that come in encounters with the roughness of the world. He guards the sleep of his pauper master as if he were a prince. When all other friends desert, he remains. When riches take wings, and reputation falls to pieces, he is as constant in his love as the sun in its journey through the heavens. If tune drives the master th, an outcast in the world, friendless and homeless, the faithful dog asks no higher privilege than that of accompanying him, to guard him against danger, to fight against his enemies.它愿意舔抚艰难人世带来的创痕它守卫着穷主人安睡如同守卫王子当所有的朋友离去，它留驻当财富不翼而飞，当名誉毁之贻尽，它仍然热爱着主人，如日当空，亘古不变如果在命运驱使下，主人被世人抛弃，众叛亲离，无家可归，忠诚的仅仅要求能陪伴主人，守卫他免遭危险，去和他的敌人搏斗And when the last scene of all comes, and death takes his master in its embrace and his body is laid away in the cold ground, no matter if all other friends pursue their way, there by the graveside will the noble dog be found, his head between his paws, his eyes sad, but open in alert watchfulness, faithful and true even in death.当最后的时刻来临，死神拥抱着主人，他的驱体掩埋在冰冷的黄土之下，任凭所有的朋友风流云散，就在墓地旁，你可以看见那高尚的，它的头伏在两爪之间，双眼神情悲伤，却警觉注视着，忠诚至死 53信念始于内心对机缘深信不疑信念是心底深信善良能战胜邪恶，太阳会在暴风雨中升起当你看不清方向时请心怀信念；并乐于在黑暗中前行；坚信只要你努力奋斗，前进的路上总会有收获这一切其实就是成功Faith begins by believing in your heart that what is right has a chance. Faith is knowing in your heart that good can overcome evil, that the sun can shine in a rainstorm.Faith is peaceful and comting, because it comes from within where no one can invade your private dreams. Faith is not something you can demand or command; it is a result of commitment to belief.Faith is believing in something you can't see or hear, something deep inside that only you understand and only you control.Faith is trusting in yourself enough to know that no matter how things turn out, you will make the best of them. You're listening to Faith Radio Online-Simply to Relax, I'm Faith. To have faith where you cannot see; to be willing to work on in the dark; to be conscious of the fact that so long as you strive the best, there are better things on the way, this in itself is success.
Tess discovered that only two or three of the dairymaids slept in the house, besides herself．苔丝发现除了她之外,还有两三个挤奶女工和她睡在一间房子里They all shared a big bedroom near the cheese room．她们共有的这间大卧室挨着奶酪室That night one of the girls insisted on telling Tess about all the people at the dairy．那天晚上,她们中有个姑娘坚持要给苔丝讲牛奶场里所有人的情况To Tess,half asleep, the whispers seemed to be floating in the air．丝半睡半醒地听着,这些耳语就像漂浮在空中一样;Mr Angel Clare—he the one who learning milking— he a parson son and thinks a lot and doesnt notice girls．“安吉尔·克莱尔先生——就是那个学挤牛奶的人——是一位牧师的儿子,爱思考问题,但对女孩子从不留意His father is parson at Emminster,some way from here．她父亲是爱敏斯特的牧师,离这儿有些距离His sons,except Mr Clare,are going to be parsons too．;他的儿子们,除了克莱尔先生,也都打算当牧师”Tess gradually fell asleep． 苔丝渐渐地睡着了第二、语段精讲1. That night one of the girls insisted on telling Tess about all the people at the dairy．语言要点1：insist on doing something：坚持做某事e. g. Well insist on discussing this issue. 我们将抓住这个问题不放e. g. Since they insist on going, well simply push the boat with the current and let them go with us. 既然他们坚持要去， 干脆我们就顺水推舟，让他们一同去吧语言要点：tell sb about sth：告诉（某人）有关…的情况，谈及； 讲述e. g. He tried to tell me a lie about losing his wallet. 他试图使我相信他丢失了钱夹的谎言e. g. Imes, just let your hair down and tell me all about it. 艾姆斯，把全部内容都坦率地说出来吧. To Tess,half asleep, the whispers seemed to be floating in the air．语言要点1：half asleep：半睡的，半醒半着的，睡意朦胧中的e. g. While he was half asleep, he seemed to hear a knock on the door. 矇胧中他仿佛听到有人敲门e. g. Half asleep, he felt the horse nose push against his face. 睡意朦胧中，他觉得马的鼻子挨在他的脸上推动语言要点：seem to sb对于......来说似乎是......e. g. It seems to me that either of these methods is perfectly legitimate. 在我看来这些方法的任一种都是完全合理的e. g. It seems a most marvelous book to me . 这本书我觉得奥妙之至3. Mr Angel Clare—he the one who learning milking— he a parson son and thinks a lot and doesnt notice girls．文法1：half asleep是形容词短语作伴随状况状语奶厂的女工告诉苔丝奶厂故事的时候，伴随着一种情况，即：苔丝睡意朦胧文法：seem to be floating in the air这个带有动词不定式的短语中，动词不定式中使用了一般现在进行时，表示奶厂的女工的话似乎正在飘荡. His father is parson at Emminster, some way from here．语言要点：some way from：距离......有一小段路程e. g. When Roosevelt dies in 195, the explosion at Hiroshima has not yet taken place; mankind is still some way from the Atomic Age. 当罗斯福在195年死去的时候，广岛的原子弹爆炸还没有发生；人类距离原子时代还有一小段路程5. Tess gradually fell asleep．语言要点：fall asleep：睡着e. g. Torn between anger and self-reproach, he could hardly fall asleep. 他又是气愤，又埋怨自己，简直没法睡着e. g. With one thing and another , I could hardly fall asleep. 我思绪纷繁，辗转不能成眠发泄不满：damn，heck -01-7 00::7 来源： 遇到不顺心的事情，难免会有不满的情绪，总憋在心里也不是办法，适时发泄一下反而有助于健康下面是两个发泄情绪时常用的词，不妨来看一看，也许看了你就能开心一点了呢1. Just buy the damn boots.你就把那双该死的靴子给买下来吧Damn 这个词听来有点不雅，但我每次看电视时却几乎都会听到一两次，所以我觉得这个词应该没有 f__k 和 s__t 那么糟糕 (这两个字在美国的电视上是会被消音的)也在日常生活中使用 damn 应该还能被接受才对，当然真的要讲 damn 时还可以用 darn 来代替，就像是许多人用 shoot 来代替 s__t 一样Damn 这个词除了用来咒骂之外 (Damn it!)，最常见的用法就是拿来强调一种"不耐烦或是不满意的感觉"例如你跟别人一起去买靴子，别人看了好半天就是没法作决定，这时失去耐心的你就可以说："Just buy the boots." 但是如果实在是看不下去了，则可以用更强烈的语气说："Just buy the damn boots." 再举一例，你正在吵架，结果还一直有人问你到底发生了什么事， 你就可以回他一句："Mind your own business." 或是更凶一点："Mind your own damn business. (管你自己的事吧)" Damn 在必须承认自己的错误但又想逞口舌之能时也很有用，可以表达出一种"心不甘情不愿的态度"例如你跟别人辩论一件事情，结果到最后你发现对的人是他，错的人是你，你该怎么说呢? "Ok. You are damn right. (好吧，算你对)" 如果你们正在讨论一个女孩子，但最后你不得不承认别人对她的了解远胜于你，则你可以输地说："You know her damn well. (你真是太了解她了)" . This one is a heck lot worse.这个东西烂多了跟 damn 很类似，也同样常被拿来加强语气、发泄不满的还有一个词，就是 heck.Heck 这个词原来是"地狱 hell"的意思，但是说 hell 太难听了，所以老美就发明了 heck 这个词 Hell 和 heck 这类词基本上是用于"抱怨，不耐烦，发脾气"等负面用法的在日常生活中的老美常用 hell 或 heck 来加强负面的语气，例如单讲 "This one is a lot worse." 不够， 还要再用 heck 强调一下就变成了："This one is a heck lot worse." 十分常见的用法还有："What the heck is that? (那是什么鬼东西? ps. 通常是看到什么令你十分惊讶的东西)" "What the heck are you standing here?" (你站在这里作什么?) 或者是请人家滚出去："Get the heck out of here." 需要注意的是，日常生活中讲的英文和写的英文绝对不能混在一起，像我们今天讲的这些都是口语常用词，但是你可不要把它用在写作中，否则被人骂后果自负（改编自：小笨霖英语笔记本 英语点津 Annabel 编辑）我要学习更多口语表达 不满 heck damn 可以If you could take an immense group snapshot of everyone in the ed States today, it would contain six million more females than males. In this country, women outlast men by about seven years. Throughout the modern world, cultures are different, diets are different, ways of life and causes of death are different, but one thing is the same -- women outlive men.It starts bee birth. At conception, male fetuses outnumber female by about 1 to 0; at birth the ratio has aly fallen to about 1 boys to every 0 girls. By age 30, there are only enough men left to match the number of women. Then women start building a lead. Beyond age 80, there are nearly twice as many women as men."If you lookat the top ten or causes of death," says Deborah Wingard, an epidemiologist at the University of Calinia at San Diego, "every single one kills more men." She rattles off one melancholy fate after another - heart disease, lung cancer, homicide, cirrhosis of the liver and pneumonia. Each kills men at roughly twice the rate it does women.A century ago American men outnumbered and outlived the women. But in the th century,women began living longer, primarily because pregnancy and children had become less dangerous. The gap grew steadily. In 196, the first time ever in the ed States, females outnumbered males.Part of the reason are self-inflicted. Men smoke more than women, drink more and take more life-threatening chances. Men are murdered (usually by other men) three times as often as women are.They commit suicide at a higher rate and have more than twice as many fatal car accidents as women do. Men are likely to be involved in alcohol-related fatalities. Men drivers!But behavior doesn't explain away the longevity gap. Nor is stress the answer. In the 1950s, as heart disease claimed more and more male victims, pressure in the corporate boardroom was blamed. Let women venture out of the home and into the line of fire, doctors said, and they would begin duingat the same rate as men. But a funny thing happened on the way to the funeral. Between 1950 and 1985, the percentage of employed women in the ed Stated nearly doubled. Those working women, several studies have found, are as healthy as women a home.Today, some scientists studying the gender gap believe that the data point to one conclusion Mother Nature may be partial to women.Every living thing is assembled according to instructions on its chromosomes, and humans have 3 pair of them. But in males, one of these is a vulnerable non- matching pair, denoted by "xy".The corresponding pair in females is "xx", and its genetic "backup" power is sometimes cited as a clue to woman's superior resilience. If the male's single "x" chromosome is defective, it is possible a serious genetic disorder to appear. Hemophilia and certain types of muscular dystrophy, instance, are diseases caused by a defect in a single gene on the "x" chromosome,They are far more common in males than females.The single "x"theory has problems, though. There just aren't enough cases of the most feared genetic diseases to more than a tiny bit of the longevity gap between men and women. And some researchers pin the blame directly on the male "y" chromosome.The answer may rather be hormones. Bee age 0, when virtually all women are still producing estrogen, heart disease kills three men every woman. But from that point onward, the odds in favor of women drop steadily. both sexes, heart disease is the leading cause of death. But women have an extra decade bee their mortality rate heart disease approaches that of men.If estrogen is the heroine of story, testosterone, the male sex hormone, may be the villain. Until puberty, boys and girls have the same cholesterol levels. But when boys and girls have the same cholesterol levels. But when boys hit adolescence and testosterone kicks in, their level of HDL cholesterol, "good cholesterol,"plunges. In girls, HDL levels hold steady. In both sexes, LDL, "bad cholesterol" levels rise in late adolescence. But the increase is somewhat steeper in men.Not every difference between the sexes favors women. On average, men are taller than women and have heavier bones and bigger muscles. Men will die sooner, but we'll have hit more home runs by the time we go.While women turn out to be less vulnerable than men to life-threatening diseases, they are more vulnerable to everyday sicknesses and pain. In 76 one diarist noted, "I have heard physicians say they have two women patients to one man." Women still make more visit to the doctor than men do, take more prescription and non-prescription drugs and spend more days in bed. They are plagued by arthritis, bunions, bladder, infections, corns, hemorrhoids, menstrual woes, migraines and varicose veins.In the meantime, men get heart attacks and strokes. Women are sick, but men are dead.Mental health? Depression is more common in women than in men. But schizophrenia, perhaps the most devastating mental illness, often affects men more severely.After a spouse dies, men seem to fare worse than women. They are more depressed, more likely to fall ill and more likely to die. As a result, nearly 80 per cent of the population over 65 years old and living along are women. Men fare poorly, it seems, because in many cases their wives were their sole confidantes. Without a spouse, new widowers fall and sink. Women who lose a husband, in contrast, often have a circle of close friends to confide in and count on.But behavior changes, so the health gap between men and women isn't a fixed feature of the landscape. In recent decades, the gap between men and woman's life-spans has narrowed from 7.6 years in 1970 to an estimated 6.8 years in 1990. The explanation is not that women's health is deterioration. Women's health is improving, but men's is improving faster.Men are smoking less, drinking less and eating better. "The gap isn't shrinking because women are acting like men," says epidemiologist Wingard. "It's shrinking because men are behaving more like women." 019388