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重庆做人工流产那家医院好飞度技术好专家重庆无痛人流手术一共需要多少钱

2018年05月22日 22:10:37    日报  参与评论()人

重庆爱德华收费好不好重庆妇幼保健医院打胎一般要花多少钱Two stem-cell researchers have won this year#39;s Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their groundbreaking work in cellular reprogramming, a technique that unleashed a wave of advances in biology, from cloning to the possible treatment of diseases using a patient#39;s own cells.两位干细胞研究者因其在细胞重新编程方面的开创型工作,获得了今年诺贝尔生理或医学奖。细胞重新编程技术引发了一轮生物学进步浪潮,其中包括克隆以及有可能使用病人自身细胞来治愈疾病。Experiments by John B. Gurdon of the ed Kingdom and Shinya Yamanaka of Japan showed that mature cells taken from the body could be changed to an embryonic-like state in a laboratory dish, a head-spinning discovery that is the biological equivalent of turning back time.英国人格登(John B. Gurdon)和日本人山中伸弥(Shinya Yamanaka)的试验表明,取自人体的成熟细胞可在实验室培养皿中转变为类似胚胎状态的细胞。这是一项令人震惊的发现,在生物学上相当于将时光倒转。Their work #39;has changed the accepted dogma#39; that mature cells are condemned to exist in a specialized state, said Martin Evans, a British stem-cell pioneer who shared the 2007 Nobel Prize for medicine, in an interview.英国干细胞研究先驱、曾于2007年分享诺贝尔医学奖的埃文斯(Martin Evans)在接受采访时说,他们的工作改变了人们认为的成熟细胞只能存活于特定状态下的固有看法。Cellular reprogramming triggered the rewriting of biology textbooks and spawned thousands of new experiments in labs around the world. It led to the first cloned animal-a frog-and to the first cloned mammal, Dolly the sheep. It also paved the way for deriving embryonic-like stem cells without destroying human embryos, sidestepping an ethically contentious approach.细胞重新编程引发了生物教科书的改写,在世界各地的试验室里催生了成千上万项新试验。这项技术带来了世界上首只克隆动物──青蛙,进而又出现了首只克隆哺乳动物──绵羊多莉。此外,该技术还为在不破坏人类胚胎的情况下获取类胚胎干细胞铺平了道路,从而避免采用具有伦理争议的干细胞提取方法。Once cellular reprogramming is used to turn mature cells into embryonic-like ones, those cells can be further manipulated and turned into heart, nerve, muscle and virtually all other tissues types. This freshly made tissue-from an Alzheimer#39;s patient, for example-could be inexpensively grown and studied in a lab dish.一旦细胞重新编程被用于将成熟细胞转变为类胚胎细胞,这些细胞就可以被进一步培养成心脏、神经、肌肉等几乎一切组织细胞。例如,从患阿尔茨海默病的人身上新获取的组织可在试验室经培养和研究,且花费不多。Drug firms have aly started to test drugs on human tissue made through reprogramming. Next year, fresh retinal cells derived in this way will be transplanted into people for the first time, in a Japanese trial for patients with an eye disease known as macular degeneration.制药企业已开始对通过重新编程获得的人体组织进行药物试验。明年,用这种方法获得的新生视网膜细胞将首次被移入人体,在日本对患有黄斑病变眼疾的病人进行临床试验治疗。Scientists used to believe the fate of our cells was a one-way trip. We start as a fertilized egg; become an embryo consisting of immature, undifferentiated cells; then gradually develop into a body of specialist cells, including blood, bone, muscle and skin.科学家过去认为,细胞的生长是不可逆的。我们始于一个受精卵,然后成为由不成熟、未分化的细胞组成的胚胎,再逐渐发育为由专门细胞构成的个体,包括血液、骨骼、肌肉和皮肤。In 1962, Dr. Gurdon, while trying to understand how simple, undifferentiated cells became all the other cells in the body, performed an audacious experiment. He removed the DNA from a frog egg and replaced it with the DNA of a mature cell taken from a tadpole. The egg developed into a healthy, cloned tadpole. (The same approach would be used to create Dolly the sheep in 1996.)1962年,格登还在努力了解未分化的简单细胞是如何变成人体内所有其它细胞的,那时他就做了一项大胆的试验。格登从一枚青蛙卵子中移除DNA,再将从蝌蚪身上提取的成熟细胞的DNA放入这枚卵子内,后来该卵子发育成一只健康的克隆蝌蚪。(1996年克隆羊多莉的诞生也是用的这种方法。)The frog experiment was an effort to answer #39;a pure scientific question about how we came to be formed. There was no foreseeable therapeutic benefit,#39; said Dr. Gurdon in an interview. Now 79, Dr. Gurdon is a professor at the Gurdon Institute, part of Cambridge University.格登接受采访时说,那个青蛙试验其实是在努力回答有关我们是如何形成的纯科学问题,当时并没有可预见的治疗益处。如今,79岁的格登是英国剑桥大学(Cambridge University)格登学院(Gurdon Institute)的一名教授。Dr. Yamanaka, 50, was born in the year Dr. Gurdon did his frog experiment. Dr. Yamanaka would eventually ponder a related question: Could the Gurdon reprogramming trick be done without using eggs-which, in human cases, can be hard to come by?山中伸弥今年50岁,他出生的那年格登正在做青蛙试验,而他也终将思考一个相关问题:格登的重新编程技术能否在不用卵子的情况下完成?具体到人类试验上,这一点很难做到。Dr. Yamanaka had the answer a few years later. He demonstrated that by adding just four genes to a mature cell, he could turn it into an embryonic-like state. He first achieved this with mouse cells, and in 2007 he reported the same result for human cells. He transformed those cells, in turn, into heart, nerve and other human tissue in a lab.山中伸弥在几年后得到了。他向世人明,只需将四个基因引入一个成熟细胞,就可将该细胞转变为类胚胎状态。他首先用老鼠细胞成功做到这一点,然后在2007年又宣布用人类细胞成功完成了这一转变。他将那些细胞在试验室里依次培养为了心脏、神经和其它人类组织细胞。#39;Without [Dr. Gurdon#39;s] work we would never have started this risky project 12 years ago,#39; said Dr. Yamanaka, who is a professor at Kyoto University and affiliated with the Gladstone Institutes in San Francisco, in an interview.山中伸弥在接受采访时说,没有格登的工作,我们永远不会在12年前着手这项有风险的项目。山中伸弥是日本京都大学(Kyoto University)教授兼美国旧金山格莱斯顿研究院(Gladstone Institutes)高级研究员。 /201210/203212重庆市爱德华医院不孕不育检查 北碚输卵管医院

输卵管伞端粘连黔江China#39;s largest Internet firms have had startling success elbowing their way onto the turf of the state-run banks, but now the country#39;s banks and regulators are pushing back.中国大型互联网企业不仅杀入了国有的地盘,并且取得了令人惊讶的成功,但中国业和监管机构现在开始反击了。The central bank said Monday it would set limits on the amount Chinese can spend using smartphone payment services. In an interview with the official Xinhua News Agency posted to its website, the People#39;s Bank of China said the proposed caps were designed to limit business risks, but it didn#39;t specify what the risks are.中国央行周一说,将对智能手机付务的付款额度设限。中国央行接受官方媒体新华社采访时说,拟此上限的初衷是限制商业风险,但未明说是哪些风险。新华社网站上公布了这一采访稿。The central bank said it hadn#39;t yet determined the size of the limits on mobile spending. It said it had drafted new rules but would weigh input from consumers and Internet firms before finalizing them.中国央行说,尚未确定对移动付额度进行多大规模的限制。该行说已起草了新规定,但在定稿前会考虑消费者和互联网企业的意见。A move to curtail the amounts transferred over mobile-payment services potentially cuts off a multibillion-dollar business for companies such as Alibaba Group Holding, an e-commerce titan, and rival Tencent Holdings Ltd., which have been rushing to release products helping smartphone users shop with their phones. The regulatory blowback comes at a tough time for Alibaba, which is preparing for a listing in the U.S. that could raise as much as billion.限制移动付务转账金额的举措可能会切断电子商务巨头阿里巴巴集团(Alibaba Group Holding)及其对手腾讯控股有限公司(Tencent Holdings Ltd.)等企业规模达数十亿美元的业务。这些企业近来纷纷发布产品,帮助智能手机用户通过手机购物消费。中国监管部门出台此举时,阿里巴巴正面临准备赴美上市的严峻时刻,其上市筹资额最多可能达到150亿美元。Last week, responding to Chinese media reports that the central bank had proposed a cap on mobile payments of 10,000 yuan (roughly ,600) a month, Alibaba Chairman Jack Ma said at a Beijing conference: #39;Sometimes you#39;re not defeated by technology; sometimes it#39;s a document.#39;中文媒体报道称,中国央行提出了每月人民币1万元的移动付限额,上周回应相关报道时,阿里巴巴董事局主席马云(Jack Ma)在北京的一场会议上说,有时候,打败你的不是技术,可能只是一份文件。The big state banks aly have moved to cap the amounts depositors can transfer into online products, actions that drew an exasperated response Sunday from Alibaba#39;s Mr. Ma.中国国有大已经采取行动,限制储户对在线产品的转账金额。此举周日引发马云不满。#39;What determines success in the market shouldn#39;t be the monopolies and those with power, but the consumers,#39; Mr. Ma wrote in a post shared on Alibaba#39;s mobile-messaging application.马云在阿里巴巴旗下的移动短讯应用软件上发帖称:“决定市场胜负的不应该是垄断和权力,而是用户。”Although China#39;s central bank has said repeatedly it supports financial innovation, how it tries to regulate the Internet firms is being watched as an indicator of Beijing#39;s commitment to overhauling state-run enterprises. Economists say subjecting protected state-controlled sectors to more direct competition will be key to spurring consumption and putting China#39;s economy on a healthier footing.虽然中国央行反复表示持金融创新,但外界正在密切关注央行对互联网企业金融业务的监管举措,并以此检验中国政府作出的改革国有企业的承诺。经济学家表示,为国有企业控制的行业引入更多竞争,是刺激消费和促进中国经济健康发展的关键所在。Over the past year, Alibaba and Tencent have attracted tens of billions of dollars by marketing online investment products that feature higher returns than those on savings accounts offered by state banks.过去一年,因为提供比国有存款账户更高的收益率,阿里巴巴和腾讯推出的互联网理财产品吸引了数百亿美元的资金。The success has sent ripples through China#39;s state-dominated and heavily regulated financial industry, as many younger Chinese have transferred their savings from the banks into the online products.许多年轻人用存款账户资金购买了互联网理财产品,这些产品获得的成功在中国国有企业主导、受到严格监管的金融行业引发了震动。On Saturday, China Construction Bank Corp. became the latest of the major banks to impose limits on transfers to mobile products. It issued a cap of 5,000 yuan, or about 0, per transaction -- and a total of 50,000 yuan a month -- for deposits to Alibaba#39;s Yu#39;E Bao fund, meaning #39;Leftover Treasure,#39; according to the bank#39;s customer-service department.上周六,中国建设(China Construction Bank Corp.)也对向互联网理财产品转账设定了额度,成为最近一家采取此类措施的大型。据该行部门称,该行设定了储户向阿里巴巴“余额宝”进行快捷付的额度,单笔最高为人民币5,000元(约为800美元),每月不超过5万元。For Tencent#39;s online product, the limit is 10,000 yuan per transfer and 50,000 yuan a month, the department said.该部门称,对腾讯互联网理财产品的额度为每笔人民币1万元,每月不超过5万元。#39;No one knows who gave the banks the power to hurt depositors#39; rights to distribute their capital,#39; Alibaba#39;s Mr. Ma said in his Sunday post, which was viewed by The Wall Street Journal before it was taken down. #39;No one knows who will regulate the legitimacy of the big state banks to join hands and force out#39; Yu#39;E Bao.阿里巴巴的马云在周日发布的文章中称:“也不知道谁给们权力,可以伤害储户配自己资金的权力。更不知道谁来监管四大‘国手’联合封杀的合法性?”这篇文章随后被删除,在它被删除前《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal)看到了这篇文章。In the past two weeks, the central bank has also temporarily suspended online payments using QR codes -- which enable fast recognition of transactions -- and virtual credit cards.过去两周,中国央行还暂时禁止使用二维码进行网上付和虚拟信用卡业务。二维码可以加快网上交易确认。The bank also has suggested that online investment products could be forced to hold reserves on the funds that they attract -- much like banks must do on their deposits.另外,中国央行还暗示,可能要求互联网理财产品像存款那样留存准备金。 /201403/281823重庆阴道镜的检查多少钱 重庆市第一人民医院看妇科好不好

万州做通液要多少钱As Daniel Jones, author of Love Illuminated, explains: we spend our youth asking ;How do I find love?; and midlife asking ;How do I get it back?;《启蒙的爱》的作者丹尼尔·琼斯(Daniel Jones)说:“年轻的时候,我们总是在问‘我怎样才能找到真爱’?到了中年,我们又会问‘我怎样才能找回爱’?”Anyone in a relationship or who plans on being in one needs to know how to keep love alive over the long term. But how do you learn the secret to this? Everyone is happy to explain ;how they met; but few give the details on ;how they stayed together.;恋爱中或者准备恋爱的人需要了解怎样才能让爱长期保持鲜活。但你又怎么知道其中的奥妙呢?人人都乐于讲述“和爱人相遇的过程”,但却几乎没人会细致地描述“两人是怎样在一起”的。So let#39;s look at what science has to say.那么我们来看看科学的解释。;Happily ever after; ain#39;t easy“快乐厮守到老”并非易事Aside from being the epitome of lazy writing, ;happily ever after; is not simple.除非是随口说说,否则“快乐厮守到老”并不容易。Ty Tashiro explains that couples in their first year of mrriages score 86 percent for marriage satisfaction. By the seventh year, it#39;s under 50 percent.泰·田代(Ty Tashiro)解释说,夫妻在结婚的第一年对婚姻的满意度是86%。而到了第七年,满意度便不超过50%。Yes, about 50 percent of couples get divorced. Another 10-15 percent separate but do not file paperwork. And 7 more percent are chronically unhappy.的确如此,有半数的夫妻最终都以离婚收场。另有10%—15%的夫妻会采取分居的方式,但却不愿意签署离婚协议。而有7%的夫妻长期过着不幸福的生活。So the real stat is two-thirds of marriages do not live ;happily ever after.;因此,真实的情况是有三分之二的婚姻都不会“快乐到老”。The divorce rate often reported by the media is 50 percent, which is based on Census Bureau data. However, census data does not capture the 10 to 15 percent of couples who permanently separate but do not file formal paperwork for a legal divorce. This means that a conservative estimate of the divorce and permanent separation rate is 60 percent. Add the additional 7 percent of chronically unhappy couples who do not divorce or permanently separate but are consistently unhappy in their marriage, and this means that two-thirds of all married couples do not live happily ever after.根据人口统计局的数据,媒体经常报道的离婚率是50%。但事实上,统计局的数据并没有将分居而始终因未签署正式的协议而合法离婚的10%—15%计算在内。这就意味着,保守来讲,离婚及永久分居率是60%。而额外7%的夫妻既没有离婚,也没有长期分居,而是长期处于不幸福状态。也就是说,有三分之二的夫妻都没有快乐地生活到老。Why is marriage so hard over the long term?为什么想要长久地维持婚姻如此之难?One of the main reasons is what science calls it ;habituation.; Which is a fancy way of saying we get bored.原因之一就是科学家所谓的“习惯化”。也就是我们常说的“对彼此感到疲倦了”。Early on, when a couple can finish each other#39;s sentences it#39;s romantic. But over time ;predictable; is a huge negative.从前,如果一个人能够说出伴侣没说完的话,那便是一件浪漫的事。但随着时间的推移,这种“预测”变成了极大的否定。Chris Rock gets the point across humorously in this (NSFW):基思·洛克(Chris Rock)诙谐地在他的节目中解释了这一点。Robert Greene, author of The Art of Seduction, explains that surprise is key to romantic feelings:《诱惑的艺术》一书的作者罗伯特·格林(Robert Greene)说,惊喜是制造浪漫的关键。Seduction involves a degree of surprise, which is generally the first thing that disappears after you#39;ve been in a relationship, and why there#39;s no more seducing that goes on. Everything is familiar and you#39;re no longer surprised by the other person. [The Art of Seduction]诱惑也含有惊喜的味道,通常情况下,这是恋爱后第一个消失的东西,也是不会再有诱惑的感觉的原因。一切都变得如此熟悉,你也再不会从对方那里得到惊喜。So is there any way to bring those tingles back?那么是否有办法可以找回那些东西呢?Yes. Here#39;s how.是的,这样做。What you can learn from arranged marriages从包办婚姻中学到的东西;Arranged marriage! H! Weird!;“包办婚姻!真是不可理喻!”Hold on a sec. We can learn something here. What do researchers find when they compare at 50 arranged marriages and 50 ;love; marriages?等一下。我们可以从中学到些什么。研究人员对比了50对包办婚姻的夫妻和50对自由恋爱的夫妻,那么他们有什么发现呢?Love marriages start out happier — but that declines quickly.自由恋爱的婚姻在开始的时候都是快乐的——但是这种快乐很快就会过去。Arranged marriages start out less happy, but after 10 years, they#39;re happier than love marriages. And stay that way.包办婚姻的夫妻开始的时候不是很幸福,但十年以后,他们会比自由恋爱的夫妻还要快乐,并会一直持续这种状态。The couples who had married for love and been together less than a year averaged a score of 70 points out of a possible 91 on the love scale, but these numbers steadily fell over time. The love couples who had been married ten years or longer had an average score of only 40 points. In contrast, the couples in arranged marriages were less in love at the outset, averaging 58 points, but their feelings increased over time to an average score of 68 at the ten or more years mark.因爱情结婚,在一起不到一年时间的夫妻平均得分是70分,但这些数据会逐年递减。那些以爱之名结婚,并在一起十年甚至更久的夫妻得到40分。相比之下,包办婚姻的比例在起初时间里较少,平均58分,但他们之间的感情随着时间逐渐变浓,十年或超过十年之时,平均得到68分。What#39;s the secret behind the long term success of arranged marriages?从长远看,包办婚姻之所以能够成功的秘诀又是什么呢?They have to work at it.他们需要经营婚姻。They don#39;t passively rely on ;magic; and intense emotion. They have to spend a lot of time thinking about how to make it work.他们不会被动地相信“奇迹”或者。他们需要花费很长时间思考怎么样让自己的婚姻持续下去。That process of discovery is ostensibly the fun of courtship, too, except that in arranged marriage the goal is to figure out how to be married, not whether to marry.发现其中奥妙的过程从表面上看也是一种求爱的过程。除了在包办婚姻中,主要的目的是弄清楚怎样经营婚姻,而不是要不要结婚。Research shows expecting a fairy tale relationship is a prescription for disappointment.研究显示对童话故事般恋爱的向往会导致失望。Elements of fairy tales such as Cinderella were present in 78 percent of people#39;s beliefs about romantic love. Those people were more likely to have experienced disillusionment, devastation, and angst in their relationships than were those who gave less credence to fairy tales.有78%的人在树立恋爱的信仰中都会出现像灰姑娘这样的童话故事元素。这些人比不相信童话故事的人更容易在恋爱中经历醒悟、荒废以及焦虑。Feeling like it#39;s all magic means it#39;s out of your control — and that without that initial magic, it#39;s hopeless.如果把爱情完全看成是奇迹,意味着它是不可控的——但如果起初就没有奇迹可言,那也就不抱希望了。The happiness of arranged marriages means a couple can make magic if they try.包办婚姻的幸福意味着夫妻二人可以努力去创造奇迹。So you need to actively keep the marriage happy. How do you do that?也就是说你需要积极地让婚姻保持鲜活。怎么做呢?Don#39;t fix the bad. Increase the good.别去纠正缺陷,去创造美好。Look at your spouse as something you purchased ;as-is.; Research shows trying to change themdoesn#39;t work:将你的伴侣视为“就是这样的人”。研究显示试着改变他们根本无济于事。When participants focused their relationship improvement attempts on changing the partner, individuals reported more negative improvement strategies, lower improvement success, and, in turn, more negative relationship evaluations. Results suggest that targeting the partner may do more harm than good despite that relationship evaluations pivot on whether the partner produces change.当参与者试着用改变对方的方法来增进感情时,每个人都表示这是种消极的方法,成功率很低。结果,这种消极的方法导致对方更容易做出伤害自己的事情,尽管评估报告是随着其中一方改变而改变的。John Gottman, researcher and author of The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work, says 69 percent of a couple#39;s problems are perpetual. These problems don#39;t go away yet many couples keep arguing about them year after year.《婚姻七定律》的作者及研究人员约翰·高特曼(John Gottman)称,夫妻间69%的问题都是永久性的。这些问题不会消失,所以很多夫妻都会不停地为其争论下去。Most marital arguments cannot be resolved. Couples spend year after year trying to change each other#39;s mind – but it can#39;t be done. This is because most of their disagreements are rooted in fundamental differences of lifestyle, personality, or values. By fighting over these differences, all they succeed in doing is wasting their time and harming their marriage. [The Seven Principles for Making Marriage Work]大多数夫妻间的争论都是没法解决。夫妻二人年复一年地试着改变对方的想法——但这是不可能的。这是因为大多数争论都植根于各自基本生活方式、人格或者价值观的不同。为这些不同之处争论不休,他们只能浪费各自的时间并伤害他们的婚姻。So if you can#39;t change them and they won#39;t change you, how can you reduce the bad stuff?如果你们不能彼此改变,又怎样减少争论呢?You can#39;t. But you don#39;t need to.是没法减少争论。因为你根本不需要这样做。The best relationships are more about increasing the good than reducing the bad.最棒的婚姻是多去创造美好的事,而不是试着解决争论。Divorce may have less to do with an increase in conflict and more to do with a decrease in positive feelings.离婚跟相互间争执的增多没太大关系,但却与减少积极的情感关系密切。Shelly Gable, professor of psychology at the University of California at Santa Barbara, has demonstrated that how you celebrate is more predictive of strong relations than how you fight.圣巴巴拉市加利福尼亚大学的心理学教授谢莉·盖布尔(Shelly Gable)对此发表了自己的看法:庆祝比吵架更有助于加强两人的感情。Okay, so you need to increase the good times. What#39;s the best way to do that?好了,你需要多去做些美好的事情。那么要怎样做才好呢?(This part is exciting. I mean, literally.)(这部分令人兴奋)Forget romance. Think excitement.别再想什么浪漫了,想象兴奋的事情。Think a pleasant date night is all it takes to keep love alive?一个美好的约会夜晚是否就能让爱保持鲜活呢?Researchers did a 10 week study comparing couples that engaged in ;pleasant; activities vs ;exciting; activities. Pleasant lost.研究人员进行了10周的研究以对比“美好的”约会和“兴奋的”约会,“美好”没能战胜“兴奋”。Those who had undertaken the ;exciting; date nights showed a significantly greater increase in marital satisfaction than the ;pleasant; date night group…相比之下,经历过“令人兴奋的”约会之夜的人对夫妻关系表现出了更大的满意度。Why would doing anything exciting have such a big effect on a relationship?为什么“保持兴奋”会对恋爱关系产生如此大的影响呢?Because we#39;re lousy about realizing where our feelings are coming from.因为我们并不善于寻找兴奋感的来源。Excitement from any source will be associated with the person you#39;re with, even if they#39;re not the cause of it.即使兴奋感并非由我们的伴侣引起,我们也会这样认为。As happiness researcher Sonja Lyubomirsky explains, excitement experienced mutually brings the tingles back.正如幸福感研究院索尼娅·柳波米尔斯基(Sonja Lyubomirsky)所说,共同感觉到的兴奋会让爱人们找回恋爱的感觉。Whether the couples were only dating or long-married, the ones who did the shared novel activity were more likely than the ones who did the shared neutral activity to agree to statements like ;I feel happy when I am doing something to make my partner happy; and ;I feel #39;tingling#39; and #39;an increased heartbeat#39; when I think of my partner; after the activity than before.不论是正在约会还是结婚多年的情侣,那些一起做新奇的事情的情侣比那些做平淡的事情的情侣更认同这样的说法:“当我做一些让对方快乐的事时,我也感到很快乐”以及“我想到对方时会感到‘悸动’,‘心跳加快’”。So no boring, lame date nights. Go do something exciting. Go dancing together or anything else you can both participate in as a couple.所以别让约会变得枯燥乏味。去做一些刺激的事情。一起跳舞或者任何你们可以作为情侣共同参与的事。Sum up总结Keeping love alive can be tricky. You need to actively work at it and it#39;s more important to increase the good then to reduce the bad.让爱保持新鲜也是需要花心思的。你需要积极地去应对,而且比起消除缺陷,创造美好更为重要。And the best way to do that is by increasing excitement.最好的方式就是增加兴奋感。So you#39;re hopping on roller coasters and going white water rafting — but what do you need to do when you#39;re there?所以你在想过山车或者去坐冰筏子——但你到了那之后需要做什么呢?Pretend you#39;re on your first date.假装自己正在进行第一次约会。Studies show pretending time with a romantic partner was a first date makes it more enjoyable for you and for your partner:研究显示,无论是对你还是你的伴侣来说,同一个浪漫的人共度时光都是一种享受。Across a series of studies, participants underestimated how good they would feel in situations that required them to put their best face forward… participants who were instructed to engage in self-presentation felt happier after interacting with their romantic partner than participants who were not given this instruction…一系列研究表明,参与者们低估了自我展示能给自己带来的快乐。展现自己最好的一面并与浪漫伴侣互动的参与者比缺少自我展示的参与者更快乐。Why? On first dates we make an effort to impress. And we#39;re full of hope.为什么?因为如果第一次约会就印象深刻,人们就会对此充满希望。Love means being a little delusional (Some researchers even think love might qualify as a mental illness.)爱需要一些妄想(一些研究人员甚至认为爱也许是一种精神疾病)。Thinking your partner is better than they really are makes for longer, better relationships.相信你的伴侣比实际上更好有助于让你们的关系更长久。更美好。Sandra Murray and her colleagues have been studying romantic relationships now for several decades, and have found that idealising one#39;s partner is a sure recipe for marital success; moreover, the higher one#39;s ideals are and the more one idealises one#39;s partner, the more satisfied one is with the relationship – and the longer it is likely to last.桑德拉·莫里(Sandra Murray)和他的同事已对婚姻问题研究了数年,发现将伴侣理想化的确是经营一个成功婚姻的良方。此外,一个人心目中的理想情人越完美,就越是会将伴侣理想化,对自己的感情也会感到越满意——持续的时间也就越长。Letting yourself be a little crazy — crazy for your partner — pays off.让自己疯狂一下——为你的另一半——会有回报的。 /201405/297881 At this year’s FIFA World Cup, the first kick was delivered by a man with paralyzed legs, Juliano Pinto. He was wearing an elaborate exoskeleton suit that enabled him to, remarkably, tap a soccer ball with his foot using only his mind—no buttons, no muscles, just brainwaves.在今年巴西世界杯揭幕战上,开球的是一个名叫朱利亚诺o平托,双腿瘫痪的残疾青年。凭借身上穿戴的一套“外骨骼装置”,他仅靠自己的意念就完成了开球动作——没错,既不靠按钮,也不靠肌肉,而是靠脑电波。The engineers behind the suit had developed a system that appears to the brain’s intentions courtesy of electroencephalographic, or EEG, sensors. It’s not that simple to someone’s mind, of course, so Pinto had to learn to think—ponder that one for a moment—in such a way that would give the suit orders it could understand.拜脑电图传感器(EEG)所赐,这套装置背后的工程师团队成功开发了一套似乎能够阅读大脑意图的系统。当然,要读懂一个人的心并不容易,所以朱利亚诺o平托必须要学会如何去“想”——他要把这个动作想上一会儿,才能让这套装置明白他的意图。Exoskeletons have long been a fixture of comic books and futuristic movies, but they aren’t science fiction any more. According to the market research firm WinterGreen Research, the market for rehabilitation robots, active prostheses, and exoskeletons is aly worth million and is projected to reach .8 billion by 2020. That many people will soon wear different kinds of machines to get more work done is, at this point, nearly a given.外骨骼系统一直是漫画书和未来风格电影中不可缺少的元素之一,但现在,它们已不再是一种科学幻想了。根据市场调研公司WinterGreen提供的数据,康复机器人、机械假肢和外骨骼系统的市场价值已经达到4,300万美元,到2020年预计将达到18亿美元。几乎可以肯定,要不了多久,我们就会看到许多人穿戴着各种各样的机械做越来越多的事情。That’s not to say that you will have motors and gears hidden inside your chalk-stripe suit. (Well, you might.) The type of machine to use will largely depend on the type of work to accomplish. For example, BMW announced in January the creation of a new glove that takes the stress off of a single action—inserting a rubber plug in a car’s frame to close drain holes for the paint coat—for workers in its factories. A modest start, sure, but the applications for such tools will only become more elaborate.这并不是说以后你的西装下面也会藏着一套“钢铁侠战衣”(当然你也可以选择这么做)。你需要穿戴哪种机器,很大程度上取决于你需要完成的工作。比如宝马公司(BMW)今年一月宣布,该公司研制了一种新型手套,其主要功能是,在工人往车身框架的排水孔上塞橡胶塞(为了方便喷漆)时,可以减轻手指的压力。虽然这似乎并不是多么惊人的功能,但此类工具的应用只会变得越来越精巧。Exoskeletons are arguably the most complex category of these tools. They don’t just promise to make it easier to complete a simple action; they promise to support or accomplish some of the most complicated maneuvers our bodies are capable of. With exoskeletons, people with disabilities can do and experience much more than they might have otherwise had reason to believe possible, such as walking. Exoskeletons also promise to allow able-bodied people, such as soldiers, run faster and carry more than the average human body otherwise would.外骨骼系统据称是这些工具中最复杂的类别。它们不仅可以让我们更轻易地完成一个简单的动作,而且还有可能帮助我们完成人体能够做到的最复杂的动作。在外骨骼系统的帮助下,残疾人也可以完成并体验之前几乎不可能做到的事,比如走路。另外,外骨骼系统还能帮助健康人(比如士兵)跑得更快、负载更多东西。Simple or complex, why are all of these robotic devices suddenly possible? Oddly enough, it’s because of the rise of the smartphone, says Dmitry Grishin, an entrepreneur and investor who serves as chief executive of Mail.ru Group and founded Grishin Robotics.不管是简单的还是复杂的,这些机器人设备为什么一夜之间离我们如此之近?说来也奇怪,这恰恰是由于智能手机的崛起,Mail.ru集团首席执行官,Grishin Robotics公司创始人,企业家,投资人德米特里o格里辛这样说道。“Right now, because of the revolution in technology and smartphones. a lot of components that weren’t designed for robots—cameras, sensors, batteries, processors, and all of that—have become really cheap,” he says. “And that has completely changed the whole industry.”他指出:“归功于科技革命和智能手机的兴起,很多并非为机器人设计的元件,比如摄像头、传感器、电池和处理器等等,都变得非常便宜了。这从根本上改变了整个行业的面貌。”There are three markets where exoskeletons and their less sophisticated siblings are most likely to first appear: the medical devices industry, heavy industry, and the military. Here’s a look at each.外骨骼装置以及其它一些没有那么复杂的可穿戴机械设备,很可能会率先在以下三个市场上出现。它们分别是:医疗设备行业、重工业和军事领域。Medical医疗The first medical device to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for home and community use by paraplegics is called the ReWalk, an Israeli-made exoskeleton that takes cues from upper body movements to take steps, stop, and sit down. Clinical rehabilitation is one of its major selling points.第一款通过美国食品及药品监督(FDA)认,供家庭和社区使用的外骨骼系统名叫ReWalk,顾名思义,它的用途是帮助半身不遂者重新站起来。这款由以色列公司生产的外骨骼装置,可以通过判断上半身的动作来完成走、停、坐、上下台阶等动作。临床康复是它的主要卖点之一。There are something like 240,000 people with spinal cord damage in the U.S., says Anne Spungen, associate director of the Spinal Cord Damage Research Center in New York. Spungen has investigated the uses of exoskeletal walking devices, including the ReWalk, at the Veterans Affairs facility in the Bronx where the center is located. The VA is the largest provider of services to people with spinal cord injury in the ed States, serving approximately 22,000 of the 42,000 veterans with the injuries.纽约脊椎损伤研究中心(Spinal Cord Damage Research Center)副主任安妮o斯庞根表示,美国约有24万人患有脊椎损伤。在该中心所在地,位于纽约布朗克斯区的退伍军人事务部(Veterans Affairs)里,斯庞根调查了各种外骨骼助步设备的使用情况,其中就包括ReWalk。退伍军人事务部是美国最大的脊椎损伤病人务机构,为大约22,000名脊椎损伤的退伍军人提供务(患有这种疾病的退伍军人共42,000名)。There are several other platforms for paraplegics besides the ReWalk, including the Ekso, Indego, and REX Bionics. “My motto is not to compare these devices to each other. They are all good in some way,” Spungen says. “We need the field to advance. We need them all to come forward.”除了ReWalk之外,也有一些其它平台可以为半身不遂者提供帮助,比如Ekso、Indego和 REX Bionics等公司的产品。斯庞根表示:“我的理念是,不拿这些设备进行相互比较,他们都挺好的,各有各的优势。我们需要这一领域不断向前发展,但愿这些制造商都能够更进一步。”The first patient took a ReWalk home in July. It’s not cheap. The price for one is ,500, and ReWalk CEO Larry Jasinski says he doesn’t expect that to change anytime soon. “We believe the system pricing is fair and that it is a net cost-saver to the insuring community,” he says. “Scale will help margins which will allow more focus or spending on Ramp;D for improvements and new applications.” (On Tuesday, ReWalk Robotics set the terms for a million IPO on Nasdaq, valuing the company at 8 million. In its filing, it revealed that it has sold 81 systems to date.)第一台ReWalk于今年七月被一名患者买回了家,69,500美元的价格可着实不便宜。ReWalk公司CEO拉里o亚辛斯基表示,他认为这种局面短期内可能不会改变。“我们认为这套系统的定价是合理的,而且还为保险业省了不少成本。”他还表示:“如果生产规模扩大,将有助于利润率的提高,从而有助于我们投入更多研发费用对它进行改进,或开发新的应用。”(本周二,ReWalk Robotics公司向纳斯达克提交了IPO招股书,拟上市融资5,000万美元,该公司的估值也将达到1.88亿美金。ReWalk在上市文件中批露,截至目前,该公司已经卖出了81套外骨骼系统。)Another device, Honda’s Walk Assist, is currently under trial at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. (The Japanese company has yet to disclose an expected retail price.) The device is built for fully ambulatory people who may need assistance for one reason or another, such as the elderly.与此同时,本田公司(Honda)生产的Walk Assist正在芝加哥康复研究院(Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago)接受测试。(本田公司尚未批露这款设备的零售价。)这款设备是为那些还没有完全失去自主行走能力,但因为某些原因需要辅助的人设计的——比如老年人。Despite the promising start, Grishin believes the regulated nature of the medical market makes it unlikely that breakthroughs will happen there. “Innovation happens when you can move very quickly,” he says. “I think the big innovation in this market will not come from medical.”尽管几家公司都拥有不错的发展前景,但格里辛认为,由于医疗行业历来是政府重点监管的对象,可穿戴机械设备的重大突破应该不会首先发生在这个领域。他表示:“创新一般发生在你可以快速行动的领域。我认为这个市场的‘大创新’不会发生在医疗行业。”Industrial工业A number of companies see opportunity in using robotics to ease strain on factory workers who, for example, need to squat repeatedly throughout the day or bear weight while walking. Honda is one of them, and introduced an experimental device for the purpose in 2008. “At the moment, the biggest engineering challenge is in ensuring that the device will work the same way for every body type that may need to use it,” says Jeffrey Smith, an assistant vice president at Honda of North America. “This is not just a device made for the elderly, but it was designed with all of society in mind.”有些公司已经发现,可穿戴机械设备可以用来给从事繁重劳动的工人减负。比如有些工人整天需要不停地蹲下再站起,或者要每天要扛很重的东西走来走去。本田就是这样一家公司。早在2008年,本田就推出了一款试验性设备。本田北美分公司助理副总裁杰弗里o史密斯表示:“当前最大的挑战是让这款设备能够适用于各种体型。它不光是为上年纪的人设计的,而是为所有人设计的。”Smith said that advances in materials and battery technology have been important in the development of Honda’s device—not just for extending its battery life but in providing consistent power levels and performance.史密斯表示,材料和电池工艺的进步,对本田开发这款设备起了很重要的作用——不仅因为它延长了电池寿命,同时也保障了它能提供持续一致的功率水平和性能表现。Another, experimental device is more of a wearable robot than an exoskeleton in that it gives its user additional limbs rather than increasing his or her strength. FredericoParietti, a mechanical engineer and doctoral candidate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is working on research commissioned by the aerospace company Boeing, which faces the problem of its highly-skilled factory workforce aging.此外,这款试验性设备更加符合“可穿戴机械设备”的称号,因为它为用户提供了额外的肢体,而不是像外骨骼系统那样只是强化现有肢体的力量。为了应对熟手工人老龄化的问题,航空业巨头波音公司(Boeing)委托麻省理工学院(MIT)机械工程师,士研究生弗雷德里科o帕里亚蒂从事这项研究。Parietti and other researchers at MIT’s d’Arbeloff Laboratory observed that many Boeing factory jobs were two-person jobs where one worker performed skilled work while another well-trained worker merely assisted, such as holding an object in place. The team began building a robot that could work as a set of extra limbs and perform the less-skilled tasks in a two-person job, freeing up the other skilled worker to do higher-level work. The team’s biggest challenge is software: the robot can’t take voice commands because the factory floor is too noisy, and so must learn to take the lead from the skilled worker.帕里亚蒂和MIT达贝洛夫实验室的其他研究人员发现,波音工厂的许多工作都需要两人合作完成,其中一名工人进行技术工作,另外一个熟手工人几乎只是在打下手,比如扶着某个零件。因此,该团队构建了一个能充当“第三只手”的机器人,它可以从事一些技术性不高的任务,让另一名熟练工人去做更高级的工作。这个团队面临的最大挑战就是软件:由于工厂车间噪音太大了,导致机器人无法接收语音指令,因此它必须学会如何接受熟练工人的指令。“We have so many sensors that are recording human motion,” Parietti says. “So how do you extract from those data what is the human’s intention?” The MIT-Boeing system is still in development and may be y for deployment in two years.帕里亚蒂表示:“我们有很多用来记录人体动作的传感器。那么如何从这些数据中判断这个人的意图?”目前这套MIT与波音合作的系统仍在研发中,可能两年后就可投入应用。Among the most complex assist devices for industrial use is the Body Extender, the work of the Perceptual Robotics Laboratory (better known as Percro) at the ScuolaSuperioreSant’Anna near Pisa, Italy. The exoskeleton, which resembles the futuristic machinery in comic books (Mobile Suit Gundam Wing comes to mind), is designed to greatly increase a person’s strength—up to 10 times, according to the company, which would benefit the handling of materials (e.g. aircraft fuselage panels) too heavy for a single human to carry or position.意大利比圣安娜高等学校的感知机器人实验室(Percro)推出的Body Extender,是工业应用辅助设备中最复杂的设备之一。这套外骨骼系统看起来有点像漫画书里的未来机甲【让人不由得想起《机动战士高达》(Mobile Suit Gundam Wing))。该公司称,它可以极大地提高一个人的力量,最高可以提高至10倍,很适合用来搬运一个人抬不动的材料(比如飞机的机身壁板)。Military军事Like industry, the military wants strength for its skilled workers. Information about these devices is tightly guarded, but it’s known that what is now Ekso Bionics developed the core technology that Lockheed Martin is using to build the HULC Robotic Exoskeleton (its name is pronounced like the incredible Marvel Comics superhero), a battery-powered, hydraulic system that helps a soldier squat, crawl, and lift while carrying pack loads of up to 200 lbs.像工业界一样,军队也希望提高士兵的力量。虽然美军对有关信息守口如瓶,但我们现在已经知道,洛克希德马丁公司(Lockheed Martin)正在利用Ekso Bionics公司开发的核心技术,打造一款名叫HULC Robotic的外骨骼系统。【它的发音听起来跟那位令人难以置信的《惊奇漫画》(Marvel Comics)超级英雄恰好是一样的。)这套外骨骼系统是液压系统,由电池提供动力,可以帮助士兵完成蹲下、匍匐等动作,以及负载重达200磅的装备。Similarly, Battelle, the science and technology development company, is working with the U.S. Special Operations Command to develop what it calls the Tactical Assault Light Operator Suit. Not much is known about the Talos suit, but the technology site Gizmodo got a good look at the helmet in July, confirming an intention to use technology to pack more gear on a soldier’s body and make it feel like he or she is carrying less than ever. (Will he ever fly? Probably not, but if he can run at length with fifty pounds of dead weight on his body, close enough.)科技开发公司Battelle也与美国特种作战司令部合作,开发了一款所谓的“战术突击轻甲”(Tactical Assault Light Operator Suit)。虽然我们还不大清楚这套盔甲的细节,但是科技网站Gizmodo今年七月有机会近距离接触了这套盔甲,确任了它能够让士兵在负载更多装备的同时,还觉得自己身轻如燕。(那么有了这套“钢铁侠战衣”,他能飞起来吗?或许不能,不过如果他背着50磅的负载还能健步如飞,那也和飞差不了多少了。)In Grishin’s view, the military will be too protective about what it develops for its advances to trickle into the private sector for use in other applications. But profits in military technology are a good source for Ramp;D funds for other applications that could reach consumers, he says, and for that reason Grishin is optimistic that gear-heads in certain areas—say, extreme sports—will demand exoskeletons of their own.在格里辛看来,军事行业对先进技术的保护过度,从而使这些技术很难流入私人部门用于其它用途。但是军工技术的利润会带来巨额的研发经费,从而有助于开发其他用于民用的应用。因此格里辛对军工技术转入某些领域感到很乐观——比如极限运动也可能需要专用的外骨骼系统。From simplified tools to fully developed exoskeletons, wearable robotics are in a sense the debut of a new technological platform. The devices promise to allow individuals—and by extension, the companies and organizations that manage them—to perform tasks with more strength, precision, and computational capacity. The Industrial Revolution and the Information Age each threatened to cut humans out of the picture in the name of efficiency. What if combining them puts us right back in the center?在某种意义上,从简单的工具到复杂的外骨骼系统,可穿戴机械设备意味着一种新的技术平台即将粉墨登场。这些设备将使人们——还包括管理他们的企业和机构——采用更大的力量、精确性和计算性能来从事高难度任务。工业革命和信息时代使人类在机器面前越来越被边缘化,那么让人穿上“机械战甲”,会不会让我们重回时代的舞台中央? /201409/326524江北检查不孕不育的哪个医院好重庆大坪医院腹腔镜手术

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