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In a world that seems busier by the day,Productivity is on the minds of many,But instead of downloading the latest time management app,Or forcing yourself to stay at work for hours on end.How can we use science to crack open the potential of our minds? Is their a secret to being productive?在当今这个繁忙的世界中,许多人都在想如何提高生产率,可除了下载最新版本的时间管理应用,或者迫使自己不停歇的投入工作,我们有什么科学的办法来激发自己的内在潜能呢?提高产能有什么秘密么?The first thing to come to terms with is that your willpower is simply not enough,In fact some studies suggest that Willpower is an exhaustable source that can be entirely used up,This is a concept known as the ago depletion,So instead of convincing yourself to simply try harder.A more methodical approach is suggested.关于这点我们首先得明白其实人的意志力是有限的,事实上一些研究认为,意志力是一项非再生能源而且可能会被彻底用光,这个概念也称自我损耗,所以与其每天告诉自己要努力,不如尝试一个更系统性的方法。The first step:Get started It may seem obvious but studies have shown,Starting a project to be the biggest barrier to productivity.Before starting our brain visualizes the hardest parts to come.And instead tries to simulate real work by focusing on small mindless tasks.第一步:立即行动,这看似很明显,可研究认为,开始着手一件事是提高产能最大的障碍,在我们开始之前,大脑会可视化其中最艰难的部分,然后让我们去做一些轻松的事而不是试图模拟真实的工作。Luckily there#39;s construct of the mind known as the zeigarnik effect,Which compels humans to finish a task that they#39;ve aly started.The zeigarnik effect shows that when we don#39;t finish a task,We experience discomfort and intrusive thoughts about it So get started.幸运的是我们大脑有一个被称为蔡格尼克效应的构造,它会迫使人们去完成已经开始了的工作,蔡格尼克效应表明当我们没有完成任务时,我们就会经历不适合的入侵性的想法,所以赶紧行动。Now What about time management? Shockingly when we look at some of the most of the elite musicians in the world,We find that they aren#39;t necessarily practicing more,But instead more deliberately,This is because they spend more time focused on the hardest task,And focus their energy in packets,Instead of diluting their effort over the entire day.But how can you develop the discipline to follow this routine?就现在,那时间管理科可行么?的我们观察了那些世界级的音乐家时,就会惊讶的发现他们不一定都是多做练习,而是做刻意练习,这是因为他们把更多的时间用在了艰难的任务上,把精力集中到了一起,他们没有把精力分散在一整天当中。They have periods of intense work followed by breaks,Not relying on willpower they rely on a habit and disciplined scheduling,Studies have found that the most elite violinists in the world,Generally follow a 90 minute work regime with a 15 to 20 minute break afterwards,Instead of trying to maintain energy throughout the entire day,Breaking it down into sessions with planned relaxation is most effective.而是进行短时间高强度的训练并适当休息,不依赖意志力,他们靠的是习惯和严谨的安排,研究发现世界上最优秀小提琴家,是按照每练习90分钟休息15到20分钟的机制来训练的,与其想要全天保持精力充沛,如不把它们分散成块并配合休息更有效率,但你如何才能严格遵守这个机制呢?One key component is giving yourself a deadline,Write it down,mark it in your calendar,And you#39;ll be much more likely to complete your task,On top of this,Create something called an accountability chart to document your progress,In one column write the time span,And in the other the activities you accomplished during this time,Similar to those on a diet who document their food intake.重要的一点就是给自己设立期限,把它写下来,记在日历上,这样你完成任务的可能性就更大,在此之上,你要建立一个问责制图表来记录你的进度,栏写上时间跨度,另一栏写上在短时间内所完成的项目。有点像正在节食的人记录他们的食物摄入量。Writing down your progress allows you to realistically evaluate your work,As opposed to inaccurately assuming what you#39;ve done,Furthermore tracking your progress helps to avoid small mindless work.写下你的进度可以实事求是的评估自己的工作,从而不会骄傲的认为自己已经完成了任务,此外跟踪呢的工作进度还能使你避开一些分心的事情。And finally,stop multitasking,Well it may feel like you#39;re accomplishing more,Studies show that multitaskers are much less productive,Instead try and make a list at night of what you want to accomplish tomorrow,This way you hit the ground running with your action plan,And avoid trying to complete multiple activities at once.While you#39;re at it split up your large tasks into smaller bite sized ones.最后一步,停止多任务处理。感觉上好像你完成的更多。研究认为多任务运行时效率反而更低,还不如在晚上列一张明天所要做的事的清单,这样更容易贯彻你的行动计划,避免试图以此完成所有任务,当处理高难度任务时,你可将它分成一个个小任务。Your brain will find these less daunting,And it will make the starting process easier,With a clear goal and action plan in mind.Your productivity levels can soar to new heights.你的大脑就会觉得这些不那么困难了,再着手行动就会轻松许多,有了一个清晰的目标和行动计划,呢的生产率就能达到新的高度。 Article/201503/363307。

TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想 Article/201510/400105。

栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201510/399263。

Vsauce I#39;m Jake and being able to go from one point in 3 dimensional space to another is an incredibly cool concept and a major mechanic in the game Portal where you use wormholes as a means of physically connecting two different locations,but unfortunately that it isn#39;t yet possible.这里是Vsauce频道,我是Jake,从3维空间的一个点穿越到另一个点,这是系列游戏《传送门》的主要玩法,也很酷,传送门是一种连接两处现实世界的捷径,但是很可惜,这种技术目前还不可能实现。A wormhole is a hypothetical shortcut through spacetime and one that requires negative energy to create,however we would first have to figure out how to create negative energy...which is also hypothetical.But that shouldn#39;t stop us from thinking with Portals,so let#39;s start with what a Portal is.虫洞是人们假想的一种能够穿越时空的捷径,要创造虫洞需要反能量,但是我们首先要搞懂如何才能创造反能量...而反能量也只是一种假想。但是这不应该阻止我们去思考传送门,我们先来看看什么是传送门。A Portal is defined as an entrance or doorway.They are gateways into different places,into new experiences and new worlds.When you were a kid on the playground if someone said the ground was lava,the ground was lava.You had entered the Magic Circle.Extra Credits has a great all about it but imagine you#39;re on a soccer field,in a classroom or in a court,in those places different rules apply than in normal life and we accept them.按照定义,传送门可以看做入口或者门是去住不同地方、融入新体验、进入新世界的通路,小时候在操场上玩耍,如果有人说地面是岩浆,我们真的会以为,此时的你已经踏进了魔法阵中,关于这个理念,Extra Credits出过一个阐述得很好的视频。想象一下,如果你现在身处足球绿茵场、或是教室、法庭,在这些地方,我们遵守着与日常生活不同的规则。The same goes for books,movies and games.While playing Metal Gear Solid there was a moment when a character died that actually made me tear up.It was the first time I had cared that deeply about a character in a game-a mesh of polygons.And that got me thinking about how we connect to fictional characters.In Frank Rose great book,The Art of Immersion he mentions an experiment by former game designer-Demis Hassabis in which he took patients suffering from a disease that affects memory and had them imagine laying on a beach.书籍、电影和游戏也是如此,我在玩《合金装备》时,曾经为某个角色的死亡落泪。这是我第一次深深地为一个游戏中的角色担忧——其实就是——这让我思考我们与虚拟人物的关系。在《The Art of Immersion》一书中,作者Frank Rose提到了前游戏设计师Demis Hassabis做过的一项实验,在实验中他让疾病导致受损的病人想象自己正躺在沙滩上。One of the subjects could see the color blue,hear birds,the sound of the ocean and some ship horns.That was as much as he could imagine.A control subject,someone with the full capability of their memory was asked the same thing and they described the sun,the sand,the heat,the color,of the sea,and saw palm trees running along the beach.其中一名病人说自己看到了蓝色、听到了鸟叫、海浪声和船只的这名病人所能想象的就是这些景象。在对照组中,也就是记忆完全没有受损的人,他们对同样问题的回答中描述了太阳、海沙、炽热的感觉、大海的颜色还有沿着海岸栽种的棕榈树。What Hassabis discovered was that our memories are what help us form our imagination,they#39;re what allow us to integrate naturally with imaged settings.His over all goal was to form a model of human brain function enabling game designers to make characters with emotions,memories and thoughts.To create an intelligent artificial intelligence.It is the reason why a game like The Sims was so revolutionary.It felt like the characters,the sims,had virtual free will.Hassabis 发现记忆可以帮助我们进行想象,正是有了记忆,我们才能自然而然地与影像进行互动。他的目的是构建出一个具有人脑功能的模型可以让游戏设计都设计出带有情感、记忆和思想的角色。制作出一个能理解人的人工智能。这也是为什么《模拟人生》这类游戏能够带来如此巨大变革的原因。我们好像觉得《模拟人生》里面的角色真的有自由意志一样。We#39;d place them in a world that we helped shape but we never knew the exact outcome.The game would act as a portal into an alternate version of our own reality -one that we felt we have more control of,When you enter a virtual world,an important aspect that keeps you engaged is the illusiion of choice,that decisions you make will affect the outcome of the game.even though the reality it#39;s aly been pre-programmed,even it has multiple endings.他们生活在我们搭建的世界,但是我们永远不知道确切结局。游戏的作用就像通往另一个现实世界的传送门——一个我们认为能够操控的世界,当你踏入虚拟世界,让你能够一直投入其中的重要因素,就是“你能做出选择”这个假象,玩家做出的选择会影响游戏的结局,但是现实是,游戏的结局再多都是预定程序。The Stanley Parble does a great job of making the illusion of choice a center piece in the game and then mocking it.Stanley took the first open door and then he left,Stanley was so bad in following the directions,it#39;s incredible he wasn#39;t fired years ago.One of the reasons multiplay games like Counter-Strike and World of Warcraft are still so active is because the characters you are playing against are people,completely unpredictable people.游戏《史丹利的寓言》很成功地将选择假象作为游戏的核心内容。游戏旁白:史丹利来到第一扇打开的门前,又离开了,史丹利如此不从命令,几年前就该被开除了,《反恐精英》和《魔兽世界》这种多玩家游戏至今依然如此盛行,是因为和你对抗的是真人玩家,是完全无法预测的人类玩家。There has always been that instinctive urge,that desire to live inside the fictional worlds of the books we#39;ve ,movies we#39;ve watched or the virtual ones of games we#39;ve played.And faster than ever before,technology is getting us there.he Oculus Rift allows us to explore the boiler room from Spirited Away,be teleported to the bustling streets of Tokyo or maneuver your way through City 17 in Half Life 2-all without leaving your home.我们天生就渴望生活在书本、电影和游戏的虚拟世界中,今天的技术正以前所未有的速度实现我们的梦想。有了Oculus Rift,我们可以探寻《千与千寻》中的锅炉房,也可以传送到熙熙攘攘的东京街头,还能漫步《半条命2》中的一切无需离开你家就能实现。Even when we#39;re being passive and watching content on television,the experience is becoming more immersive.Samsung was the first to create curved ultra high definition televisions,displaying images 4 times that of HD.The first time I watched a movie on one it felt like looking through a window.And right now you are starting at the biggest portal imaginable...the Internet.就连看电视这种被动体验也变得更有浸入感。三星是第一个推出曲面高清电视的厂家,这种电视的分辨率可以,我第一次在观看这台电视播放的电影还以为自己看的是一扇窗户。此时此刻,你也在盯着我们能够想象的最大的一扇传送门....互联网。You can start on the wikipedia page for Jelly Doughnut and,4 link clicks later,end up on the Meaning of Life.You can go on reddit and explore fictional worlds other people have made in the World Building sub reddit.You can go to college,watch pretty much any movie, any book and if there is a story you wish existed there is probably a fanfiction of it or at least an epic rap battle.你可以先从维基上观看果冻甜甜圈的页面,经过四次链接跳转后,你就来到了“生命的意义”这个页面。在Reddit-World Building子版块中,你可以探索由其它网友构建出的众多虚拟世界。你可以在互联网上读大学、看电影、读书....这里有同人小说或者一场Rap大战。And with this incredible portal that we have now,we are spending more and more time in virtual reality.We interact virtually,we shop virtually,we live virtually...at least part of us does and we also consume a lot more information than ever before.There are people that say that we spend too much time playing games or on computers,but there were also people in the 19th century who had the same fears about ing too many novels.如今这些神奇的传送门让我们耗在虚拟现实上的时间越来越多。我们的互动、购物、生活方式都已经虚拟化....至少我们之中的一部分人是如此,我们消耗的信息也比从前大得多。有人说现在的人们花在游戏或者计算机上的时间过多,但是想想19世纪,那时候人们还对看太多小说表示过担忧呢?In America in the 1940s people would gather and burn comic books.Even in 1605 the character Don Quixote;filled his imagination to bursting with everything he in books that it became the literal truth;which led to him thinking he was a knight and jousting windmills.So what is the next progression for immersion?It may be Brain Computer Interfacing.Jan Scheuerman is a quadriplegic who had electrodes injected into the parts of her brain that activated when she thought of moving her arm and shoulder.20世纪40年代的美国,人们曾经将漫画书集中焚毁,甚至早在1605年,文学作品中的堂.吉诃德就“将所有书中讲到的东西想象成现实”他以为自己是一名骑士,还和风车进行决斗。那么下一步浸入会怎么发展呢?可能就是脑机接口,四肢瘫痪的Jan Scheuerman在脑内植入了电极只要她想到移动胳膊或肩膀,电极就会被激活。Those signals were sent directly to a robotic arm,allowing her to control it.Once we can tap directly into our minds and have our sensory inputs feeding into a computer you could visit Mars without needing a spaceship.When you#39;d open your eyes,you#39;d be seeing the Red Planet.When you wanted to walk,you#39;d just think it and your character#39;s legs move.这些信号被直接传入机械手臂,这样她能可以进行控制了。一旦我们能够将思想和感觉输入信号直接输入电脑,你就可以在不借助太空飞船的前提下参观火星。只要你睁开双眼,就可以看见这颗红色行星上的景象。想走路的话,就在脑子里想一下,你操控的角色的腿就会动。The same goes for exploring virtual worlds.And as we spend more time in these worlds,they start to bleed into our own.If I asked you right now to write a paper from memory about the history,of Batman and a paper on the history of Einstein which do you think would be longer? Which would have more detail?If I were to tell you that Batman#39;s name was Jim Wayne,his parent#39;s died in a car accident and his bat cave was in a Taco Bell ,you would tell me I#39;m wrong.在虚拟世界浏览也是这个道理。我们花越来越多时间在虚拟世界的同时,虚拟世界也在渐渐渗入。现在我让你马上凭记忆各写一篇蝙蝠侠记和爱因斯坦记,你觉得哪篇文章会长一些?哪篇文章的细节更多?如果我说蝙蝠侠叫吉姆.维恩,父母在一次车祸中丧生,他的蝙蝠洞在一家Taco Bell快餐店里,你能分辨出其实我说错了。Because these are things you know about Batman,things that are truths.Just like I#39;d be wrong if I told you that Einstein had long black hair and had lived in an RV.If we can argue about a fictional character#39;s history or traits,does that make them,in a sense,real?I#39;ve surprisingly,never met Abraham Lincoln but I can about him in books,see him portrayed in movies.因为关于蝙蝠侠的这些信息你是知道的,因为这些是事实。就像我告诉你爱因斯坦有一头乌黑的长发,住在露营车里一样。如果我们可以争论虚拟角色的历史或物质,这能说明这些虚拟角色?我从来没见过林肯,但是我读过关于他的书,在电影中见过别人。I#39;ve also never met Luke Skywalker but he is in movies and in books as well.In fact the Star Wars wiki for him has 42,000 more words than the wikipedia entry for Abraham Lincoln.But we know that Abraham Lincoln existed...so then I#39;d say how do we know that Luke Skywalker never existed? Sure nobody has met Skywalker but there is nobody alive that has met Lincoln.同样的,我也没见过卢克.天行者,但是他也在电影和书籍出现。实际上维基百科上《星球大战》页面要比亚伯拉罕.林肯的页面42,000英文单词。而我们知道,亚伯拉罕林肯是真实存在的...所以我要说....我们如何知道卢克.天行者从未存在过?当然,没人遇见过天行者,也没有任何活着的人遇见林肯。All we have of them are stories.And on that point... how do you know that I exist?What you#39;re watching right now is a bunch of code that is being interpreted by a machine to display an image.If some of the code gets deleted,I become corrupted.Sure you can follow me on twitter and instagram,but you can also follow Betty Draper,a character from Mad Men on twitter.Have you ever met me?Have you seen me in real life with your own eyes?我们知道的只有他们的故事,所以...你怎么确定我是真实存在的?你现在看到的不过是一大堆由机器解读后显示成图像的代码群,只要删除其中一些代码,我的图像就会崩。你可以在Twitter和instagram上关注我,但是你也能关注《广告狂人》中的虚拟角色Betty Draper,你见过我么?你在现实生活中亲眼见过我么?You fill in who I am by waht you know of me,by what you see of me and by your own experiences and memories to create a full picture.You have gone through a portal and entered my world and in this world we have a magic circle that you accept as true.But it isn#39;t until we pull back that you actually get the full picture that this whole time I have just been a recording on a television screen.And as always,thanks for watching.你只是通过你了解到的、看到的、亲自体会到的关于我的信息和记忆来构建我这个人,此时你已经穿越某道传送门,进入了我的世界在这个世界你以为是真实的东西,只是我的魔法阵。直到我拉伸镜头你才能看到完整的真相,刚刚你看到的不过是电视屏幕上播放的录像。还是那句老话,谢谢观看。 Article/201504/367541。

栏目简介:《趣味青春英语视频》是外语网络电台的精品节目,通过大讲堂的网络课堂形式,能够帮助英语学习者积累一些英语背景知识,并通过互动的教学形式,帮助有效记忆英语知识。本栏目是学习趣味青春英语的好材料。 Article/201510/399263。

栏目简介:;Shanghai Live; focuses on big events in the city and major issues around the world, and presents them in a practical and audience-friendly manner to meet the ever-evolving needs of Shanghai#39;s English-speaking viewers,both local and expatriate.《直播上海英语电台》集中报道城市大事件以及全球热点话题,并以观众喜闻乐见的方式呈现给大家,从而满足上海本地以及上海海外人士的英语需求。 Article/201506/381590。

Asia and the Asia Pacific region badly needs better infrastructure.亚太地区要加强基础设施的建设合作。It is one of the key talking points during the APEC meetings with many economists saying strong economic growth can only be supported by infrastructure investment, especially against a backdrop of a slowing world economy.这是APEC会议期间很多经济学家们所讨论的其中一个关键点,他们称经济的强势增长只能由基础设施投资持,尤其是当前全球经济放缓的大背景下。That is exactly why China is pushing forward with a plan to establish the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, or AIIB.这就是我国正在大力推行建设AIIB,即亚洲基础设施投资的原因。Chinese President Xi Jinping met his Bangladesh counterpart Abdul Hamid in Beijing Saturday.中国国家主席习近平周六在京会见了孟加拉国总统阿卜杜勒·哈米德。He said Bangladesh is welcome to join the bank as a founding member.他表示对孟加拉国作为创始成员国加入AIIB表示欢迎。Meanwhile, Indonesia is widely expected to announce during the APEC meetings that it will join the AIIB.与此同时,印度尼西亚也被普遍期待在APEC会议期间能宣布加入AIIB。 Article/201411/341633。

Under here we can actually see the imprint of quite a large creature,在这下方我们能亲自看到 某种相当大生物的痕迹at least the size of your hand.至少有你手那么大This is Dickinsonia and it has got the finer segments that you can actually believe.这是迪克逊水母 您可以看见他更小的细节。Once you get the right angle,一旦调好角度you can actually see the details of its body segments.就会看见它身体各个部分的细节there are about 3 there.There is another one there.那儿还有3只 那儿另外还有1只It was like it was impress there yesterday.彷佛是昨天才印上的Every little detail was preserved.所有微小细节都完好It#39;s beautiful.很漂亮Dickinsonia can grow to over a meter long. 它能够长到超过一米长it is thought that they lived on the sea floor人们认为他们生活在海底soaking up nutrients through their skin.用皮肤吸收养分Here for the first time we#39;re seeing life that#39;s becomes multi-celled large.在这里我们首次见了多细胞生物These are the creatures that gave rise to life that we know today.今日的生物 正是从他们发展演化而来For two billion years,在20亿年的时间里our planet had been dominated by stromatolites我们的世界被微生物统治Now complex, multi-celled life exploded into many new shapes and sizes。复杂的多细胞生命爆发出许多新的生物 他们有不同的体型和尺寸 Article/201508/396099。