楼主:飞度咨询黑龙江新闻 时间:2018年11月22日 18:28:29 点击:0 回复:0
A new study suggests individuals choose a partner based upon their perception of a potential mate’s attributes and upside or downside potential.新研究表明,个人在选择伴侣时往往基于潜在另一半的个人特征及其上升潜力或下行空间。Researchers determined men and women often use a framing process evaluating suitors from both positive and negative perspectives.研究人员称,男性和女性通常运用框架思维,从积极和消极两个方面去评估追求者。Still, as described in the journal Evolution and Human Behavior, decision-making varies as each gender uses different criteria and viewpoints to make their choice.尽管如此,正如杂志《进化与人类行为》所讲,不同性别做决定时的标准与观点有所不同。For example, researchers from Concordia University discovered men responded more strongly to the “framing effect” when physical attractiveness was described.例如,来自肯高迪亚大学的研究者发现,当外表吸引力被发现时,男性对于“框架效应”往往会做出更强烈的反应。Also, it may come as a surprise to learn that when we choose a partner, the framing effect is even stronger in women than it is for men.并且,我们惊讶地发现,当我们选择伴侣时,框架效应在女性身上的体现甚至比男性更强烈。“When it comes to mate selection, women are more attuned to negatively framed information due to an evolutionary phenomenon called ‘parental investment theory, ’” said Gad Saad, Ph.D.“当我们选择伴侣时,女性更倾向于选择消极的框架信息,这应该归因于一个被称为‘亲本投资理论’的进化现象,”萨德-加德士说。“Choosing someone who might be a poor provider or an unloving father would have serious consequences for a woman and for her offspring. So we hypothesized that women would naturally be more leery of negatively framed information when evaluating a prospective mate.”“选择那些贫穷的养家者或者缺乏爱心的父亲将会给一个女人和她的后代带来严重的影响。因此我们推测女性在衡量未来的另一半时,对消极信息更加敏感。”To prove this, Saad and fellow researcher Tripat Gill, Ph.D., called on hundreds of young men and women to take part in their study.为了明这个理论,萨德及其同事崔帕德·吉尔士,邀请了上百个年轻的男性和女性参与调查。Participants were given positively and negatively framed descriptions of potential partners. For example, “Seven out of 10 people who know this person think that this person is kind” (positive frame) versus “Three out of 10 people who know this person think that this person is not kind” (negative frame).参与者都被给予潜在伴侣的积极和消极的框架说明。例如,“认识这个人的10人中有7人认为这个人是好人”(积极的框架)以及“认识这个人的10人中有3人认为他不友善”(消极的框架)。The researchers tested the framing effect using six key attributes, two of which are more important to men and women respectively, and two that are considered as necessities by both sexes:研究者用6个关键性控制程序测试框架效应,其中的两个分别对男性和女性更重要一些,并且这两个被看做是两性必需品:attractive body (more important to men);有吸引力的身体(对男性来说更重要)attractive face (more important to men);有吸引力的面孔(对男性来说更重要)earning potential (more important to women);收入潜力(对女性来说更重要)ambition (more important to women);雄心壮志(对女性来说更重要)kindness (equally important to both);仁慈善良(对两性都很重要)intelligence (equally important to both).聪明智慧(对两性都很重要)Participants evaluated both high-quality (e.g. seven out of 10 people think this person is kind) and low-quality (e.g. three out of 10 people think this person is kind) prospective mates for these attributes, in the context of a short-term fling or a long-term relationship.参与者通过这些特征,在一个短期恋情或者长期关系的情境下来衡量高品质的(10人中的7人认为他是好人)和低品质的(10人中的三人认为他是好人)未来伴侣。More often than not, women said they were far less likely to date the potential mates described in the negatively framed descriptions —even though in each instance, they were being presented with exactly the same information as in the positively framed descriptions.通常,女性称她们不太可能与消极框架下的潜在伴侣约会,尽管在每个例子中,她们被提供的信息和积极框架下的信息几乎完全相同。Women also proved more susceptible to framing effects in attributes like ambition and earning potential, while men responded more strongly to framing when physical attractiveness was described.同时,研究也明女性会对框架效应更加敏感,尤其像抱负、收入潜力等特征,而男性则更看重外表。 /201405/295160An Iranian mathematician is the first woman ever to receive a Fields Medal, often considered to be mathematics#39; equivalent of the Nobel Prize.一名伊朗数学家成了首位荣获菲尔茨奖(Fields Medal)的女性;该奖项被认为是数学界的诺贝尔奖(Nobel Prize)。The recipient, Maryam Mirzakhani, a professor at Stanford, was one of four scheduled to be honored on Wednesday at the International Congress of Mathematicians in Seoul, South Korea.这位获奖者是斯坦福大学(Stanford)教授玛丽亚姆·米尔札哈尼(Maryam Mirzakhani),本周三在韩国首尔举行的国际数学家大会(International Congress of Mathematicians)会为她和另外三位数学家颁奖。The Fields Medal is given every four years, and several can be awarded at once. The other recipients this year are Artur Avila of the National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics in Brazil and the National Center for Scientific Research in France; Manjul Bhargava of Princeton University; and Martin Hairer of the University of Warwick in England.菲尔兹奖每四年颁发一次,每次可以同时授予数人。今年的另外三位获奖者是巴西国立纯数学和应用数学研究所(National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics)和法国国家科学院(National Center for Scientific Research)的阿图尔·阿维拉(Artur Avila)、普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的曼朱·巴尔加瓦(Manjul Bhargava),以及英国华威大学(University of Warwick)的马丁·海瑞尔(Martin Hairer)。The 52 medalists from previous years were all men.以前的52名菲尔兹奖得主都是男性。;This is a great honor. I will be happy if it encourages young female scientists and mathematicians,; Dr. Mirzakhani was ed as saying in a Stanford news release on Tuesday. ;I am sure there will be many more women winning this kind of award in coming years.;“这是极大的殊荣。如果这对年轻的女性科学家和数学家有所鼓励,我会感到荣幸,”米尔札哈尼士在本周二斯坦福大学的一份新闻稿里说。“我相信未来会有更多女性获得这类奖项。”Ingrid Daubechies, a professor of mathematics at Duke and president of the International Mathematical Union, called the news ;a great joy; in an email.杜克大学(Duke)数学教授英格丽·多贝西(Ingrid Daubechies)是国际数学联盟(International Mathematical Union)主席,她在电子邮件中称这个消息是“一大喜讯”。;All researchers in mathematics will tell you that there is no difference between the math done by a woman or a man, and of course the decision of the Fields Medal committee is based only on the results of each candidate,; she wrote. ;That said, I bet the vast majority of the mathematicians in the world will be happy that it will no longer be possible to say that ‘the Fields Medal has always been awarded only to men.#39; ;“数学界的所有研究人员都会告诉你,女性和男性所做的数学研究没有差别,而且菲尔兹奖委员会当然只会根据每个候选人的成就来甄选获奖者,”她写道。“话虽如此,我敢打赌,世界上的绝大多数数学家都会感到高兴,因为以后不可能再有人说‘菲尔兹奖一向只授予男性#39;了。”Much of the research by Dr. Mirzakhani, who was born in Tehran in 1977, has involved the behavior of dynamical systems. There are no exact mathematical solutions for many dynamical systems, even simple ones.米尔札哈尼士1977年出生于德黑兰,她的许多研究都涉及到动力系统的行为。很多动力系统都没有精确的数学解决方案,就连一些很简单的系统也是如此。;What Maryam discovered is that in another regime, the dynamical orbits are tightly constrained to follow algebraic laws,; said Curtis T. McMullen, a professor at Harvard who was Dr. Mirzakhani#39;s doctoral adviser. ;These dynamical systems describe surfaces with many handles, like pretzels, whose shape is evolving over time by twisting and stretching in a precise way. They are related to billiards on tables that are not rectangular but still polygonal, like the regular octagon.;“玛丽亚姆的发现是:在另一个层面,动力学轨道严格遵循代数法则,”哈佛大学(Harvard)教授柯蒂斯·T·麦克马伦(Curtis T. McMullen),他是米尔札哈尼读时的导师。“这些动力系统通过很多元素来描述表面,就像麻花一样,其形状通过扭曲和拉伸,以一种精确的方式随着时间推移而不断变化。它们有些像桌子上的撞球,桌子不是长方形的,但仍然是多边形,比如说正八边形。“Dr. Avila, 35, investigated a different area of dynamical systems, including an understanding of fractals. Dr. Bhargava, 40, was recognized for new methods in the geometry of numbers, especially prime numbers, and Dr. Hairer, 38, made advances in the study of the effect of random noise on partial differential equations, capturing the effect of turbulence on ocean currents or the flow of air around airplane wings.35岁的阿维拉士研究的是动力系统的另一个领域,包括对分形的一种理解。40岁的巴尔加瓦士在几何数论、尤其是质数上找到了一些新方法,而38岁的海瑞尔士在研究随机噪声对偏微分方程的影响时取得了进展,捕捉到了湍流对洋流或飞机机翼周围空气流动的影响。While women have reached parity in many academic fields, mathematics is still dominated by men, who earn about 70 percent of the doctoral degrees. The disparity is even more striking at the highest echelons. Since 2003, the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters has awarded the Abel Prize, recognizing outstanding mathematicians with a monetary award of about million; all 14 recipients so far are men. No woman has won the Wolf Prize in Mathematics, another prestigious award.虽然女性已经在很多学科领域赶上了男性,但数学界仍然以男性为主,70%的数学士都是男性。在最顶尖的层次,这种差距更是惊人。挪威科学与文学院自2003年开始颁发阿贝尔奖(Abel Prize),用100万美元(约合人民币600万元)表彰优秀的数学家,到目前为止,该奖项的14个得主全都是男性。另一个著名的奖项沃尔夫数学奖(Wolf Prize in Mathematics),至今也没有女性得主。The Fields Medal was conceived by John Charles Fields, a Canadian mathematician, ;in recognition of work aly done; and as ;an encouragement for further achievement.; Judges have interpreted the terms of the Fields trust to mean that the award should usually be limited to mathematicians age 40 or younger.菲尔兹奖是由加拿大数学家约翰·查尔斯·菲尔兹(John Charles Fields)设立的,“用以表彰已经完成的工作”,并“鼓励得主获取进一步的成就”。根据评委对菲尔兹信托条款的解释,该奖项通常只应该颁发给年龄在40岁或以下的数学家。Dr. McMullen, himself a Fields medalist, did not speculate on why it had taken so long for a woman to be recognized. ;I would prefer to look forward and celebrate this occasion,; he said, ;and see it as a sign of positive trends in society and in science.;麦克马伦士自己也是菲尔兹奖得主,对于为什么迟至今日才有女性获奖这个问题,他没有加以揣测,而是说:“我更愿意向前看,更愿意庆贺这件事,把它看成是社会以及科学界中的一个积极趋势。” /201409/330087

A brave 5-year-old Indiana boy who lost his fight with brain cancer this month received a hero#39;s funeral. A superhero#39;s funeral, that is.美国印第安纳州有个勇敢的5岁小男孩,患有脑癌的他这个月去世了,但他得到了一个英雄般的葬礼。对的没错,就是超级英雄葬礼。The six pallbearers for Brayden Denton#39;s funeral last week in Kentland dressed as Spider-Man, Thor, the Hulk, Superman, Iron Man and Batman.上周在肯特兰为布雷登· 丹顿举行的葬礼上,6名护柩者分别打扮成蜘蛛侠、雷神托尔、绿巨人、超人、钢铁侠和蝙蝠侠。;The whole time I saw them carrying Brayden. This is so cool,#39;; mom Staci Denton told the Daily News on Monday. ;That was his world. That#39;s what he would have wanted.;“整个葬礼过程中,我看着他们抬着布雷登的棺木。这很酷。” 他的妈妈斯塔奇·丹顿周一告诉《纽约每日新闻》记者,“这就是他的世界,这是他一直想要的。”Brayden had been battling an aggressive form of brain cancer known as DIPG since April of last year. He endured 30 rounds of radiation treatment, his mother said.布雷登自从去年4月开始,就一直与一种叫神经胶质瘤的脑癌做斗争。据他妈妈说,小男孩接受了30多次放疗。Throughout the ordeal, young Brayden maintained his love for superheroes — especially Spider-Man.在疾病的痛苦中,小布雷登始终保持着对超级英雄们的热爱——尤其是蜘蛛侠。For his third and fourth birthdays, he got a Spidey cake. For his 5th birthday three months ago, the family celebrated with a massive superhero cake.在他三岁和四岁生日的时候,他得到了一个蜘蛛侠蛋糕。三个月前五岁生日时,他的一家人做了一个大大的超人蛋糕来帮他庆生。And with the help of the Make-A-Wish Foundation, Brayden got a chance to meet the web-slinger at Universal Studios during a trip to Florida last year.在许愿基金的帮助下,布雷登在去年还曾前往佛罗里达的环球影城,得到了与荧屏英雄见面的机会。Even though he was very weak, Brayden went to the new ;Spider-Man; movie this spring. While he was only able to see the beginning and the end, he gave a thumbs up for the movie.尽管身体很虚弱,但布雷登今年春天还是去看了新《蜘蛛侠》电影。虽然他只能看到电影的开头和结尾,但他还是为这部电影竖起了大拇指。;That was one of our battles that we wanted to make sure he got to see that movie,; his mom said.他妈妈说,“我们能确保他去看那部电影其实很艰难,而类似的艰难的事情还有很多。”It was Denton who thought of the ;super; idea for the funeral after Brayden passed away May 8.布雷登在5月8号去世,是他的妈妈丹顿夫人想出这个葬礼创意的。;He could care less about people being in a suits, ties and dresses,; said his mom, who wore a Spidey T-shirt to the service. ;He was a 5-year-old boy. That#39;s not what he thought was neat. He loved looking at superhero T-shirts.;“他可能并不在乎是否有人穿西装、打领带、穿礼,” 妈妈丹顿夫人在葬礼中穿了一件蜘蛛侠T恤衫,她说:“他只是个五岁的孩子,西装领带并不是他喜欢的,反而是蜘蛛侠T恤衫更能让他开心。”The family is trying raise awareness for DIPG, which is terminal for 100 percent of the patients. ;This cancer does not have a survival rate. Even leukemia is survivable. This one is not.;丹顿一家人想引起更多人对神经胶质瘤的重视,这种病一旦患上对病人来说就意味着死亡:“这种癌症存活率很低,连白血病都有存活的可能,而这种病却不行。” /201405/302130

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