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Business. 商业。 Sharp and Hon Hai. 夏普和鸿海。 Law of the jungle. 丛林法则。 A deal between a Chinese firm and a Japanese tech giant hits trouble. 一家中国企业和日本科技巨头的交易陷入困局。 ;AS HUMAN beings are also animals, to manage one million animals gives me a headache.; So declared Terry Guo, the chairman of Taiwans Hon Hai, earlier this year. His firms Foxconn division is Chinas biggest contract manufacturer and makes most of Apples whizzy devices. He has since apologised for his remarks and insisted they were taken out of context. Perhaps they were, but fresh signs emerged this week that he does indeed believe in the law of the jungle. ;富士康拥有超过1百万员工,人类也是动物,如何管理这100万动物让我很头疼;,这是今年年初鸿海集团主席郭台铭曾发表的言论。他旗下的子公司富士康是中国最大的合同制造商,并为苹果公司供应了最多的先进配件装置。后来他为此番;员工动物论;出面道歉同时坚称媒体的报道是断章取义。或许关于此事的报道是有失偏颇,但从这周的最新迹象可以看出的是,他确实信奉;丛林法则; 。 Mr Guo made a splash in March when he announced an unusual deal with Sharp, an ailing Japanese technology giant. Hon Hai and Foxconn Technology, an affiliate, said they would invest over .6 billion in Sharp in return for around a tenth of the company. Sharp, hit badly by the downturn in the market for flat-screen devices, needed the cash. Hon Hai was keen to get the inside track to advanced glass technology (used in iPhone displays, for example) much valued by Apple, its main customer. Both sides trumpeted this as a done deal. 今年3月郭台铭宣布了和困境中的日本科技巨头夏普公司的合作而一石惊起千层浪 。他的鸿海集团及旗下的富士康科技集团宣称他们会耗资超过16亿美元收购夏普约 10%的股份。因液晶平板设备行业衰落而遭遇重创的夏普现在急需现金流。而鸿海又急切希望能在有利平台上改进镜面板工艺技术(如在Iphone手机上的显示应用),这是它最大客户苹果公司最看中的价值。当时双方都表示这样的合作会是板上钉钉的事. Alas, a deal is not always a deal in the corporate jungle. The Japanese firms share price has fallen by some two-thirds since March, when the two firms shook hands. Sharps investors believed that Hon Hai had thrown the firm a reliable lifeline. But Mr Guos investors were rather less pleased. The ill-timed deal would, by one estimate, mean Hon Hai having to write down the value of its investment by NT billion (0m) this year. 可惜,在企业竞争中风云变幻,;交易;往往并不容;易;成;交;。自今年三月两家公司握手言欢以来,夏普公司的股价已经下跌了三分之二。夏普的投资者庆幸鸿海当初扔出了一根结实的救命稻草,但郭台铭公司的投资者并不那么高兴。据估计,这桩时机不好的交易会让鸿海今年损失120亿新台币约合4亿美元。 The bombshell hit on August 3rd, a day when Sharps shares fell by 28% on news of an anticipated loss of .2 billion in the second quarter. Hon Hai said the two firms had agreed that ;due to the current price volatility of Sharp shares, Foxconn will not be required to fulfil its subscription obligations.; Alas, that news seemed to surprise Sharp, which put out a terse note saying no revision had been agreed. 8月3日,因夏普第二季度预计亏损12亿美元的新闻公布,夏普股价应声暴跌了28%。鸿海方面表示由于夏普股价大跌,双方已经达成共识,富士康可以不用按之前商议的价格履行认购义务。但是,鸿海的这个说法显然让夏普有些意外,后者随后简要表示双方并没有要重新议价。 What is going on? Kirk Yang of Barclays Capital, a bank, reckons it unlikely that Sharp will force Hon Hai to honour its original deal. He thinks the likely outcome is for Hon Hai to take a 9.9% stake in Sharp but at a price closer to ¥200-300 (.50-3.80) rather than ¥550, where the shares stood when the deal was agreed in March. Others speculate that a reworked deal may give his firm a bigger stake in Sharp. 到底发生了什么?巴克莱资本投行的分析师杨应超(Kirk Yang)认为夏普不太可能逼迫鸿海按初期(股价大跌前)约定的价格履行交易。他认为比较可能的结果是鸿海按每股近200-300日元(2.5-3.8美元)收购夏普9.9%的股份,而不是按3月和夏普谈定交易时每股500日元的价格。其他机构揣测这桩要重新商谈的交易也有可能会夏普在总收购价不变的前提下多送一些股份给鸿海。 That might seem like good news for Hon Hai. If Mr Guo does not pour all the cash he has promised into Sharp, his investors would be relieved. The contradictory statements this week may simply be a result of Sharps internal bureaucracy moving more slowly than the dynamic Mr Guo, in which case the Japanese company may well confirm a revised deal shortly. 对于鸿海来说这看上去是个好消息。如果郭台铭可以不按之前承诺给夏普的价格去兑现入股,他的投资者会着实松一口气。双方在本周截然不同的表态也可能仅仅是因为内部官僚作风的夏普没有灵敏的郭先生对市场的反应快罢了,随后夏普可能就会很快确认重议交易。 Still, there is reason to think this might prove a Pyrrhic victory for Hon Hai. After all, it would still be saddled with a stake in a debt-laden firm with diminishing prospects. By withdrawing a much-needed lifeline, it might well be propelling Sharp towards eventual bankruptcy. Mr Guo surely knows that in the jungle, mistakes can prove fatal. 不过,虽然如此,鸿海集团这样的胜利也可能只是皮洛士式的惨胜。毕竟它将要背负起的是一个负债累累前景又更凄风冷雨的公司。如果撤出这救命稻草一般的注资,它可能会加剧夏普走向破产。郭台铭很清楚在弱肉强食竞争激烈的丛林中,任何一点失误都会是致命的。 /201208/195885。

But by then, the idyllic image of an easygoing, romantic Brazil had been shuttered by a military coup.但是到那时,田园诗般景象温和,浪漫的巴西被一场军事政变所污染。The soldiers would remain in power for the next 21 years.士兵们在接下来的21年中一直掌权。And in a country where music had come to represent the national identity, samba and bossa would be transformed and a new generation of musicians would fight against the harassment and censorship that was to come.而在这个音乐来代表国际身份的国家,桑巴和巴萨诺瓦将会交由新一代的音乐家们手中为即将到来的烦乱和审查机构斗争而进行改变。 注:听力文本来源于普特 201301/221304。

Science and Technology Combating addiction科技 打击吸毒Can a vaccine stop drug abuse?是否有种疫苗能对付毒品滥用?It may be possible to vaccinate people against addictive drugs向吸毒者接种疫苗防止毒瘾将成为可能THE idea of vaccinating drug addicts against their affliction is an intriguing one.如何消除吸毒者的毒瘾折磨,是个有挑战性的命题。In principle, it should not be too hard.从理论上来讲,这并不难。The immune system works, in part, by making antibodies that are specific to particular sorts of hostile molecule.只要让免疫系统,产生某种针对这种恶性分子的抗体便可。Such antibodies recognise and attach themselves to these molecules, rendering them harmless.这种抗体能识别并紧紧附在毒品分子上,尽可能消灭它们。Vaccines work by presenting the immune system with novel targets, so that it can learn to react to them if it comes across them again.疫苗让免疫系统有了明确的对付目标,系统便能在下次遇到该种病毒时有所反应,将其及时消灭The problem is that the molecules antibodies recognise and react to are the big ones, such as proteins, that are characteristic of bacteria, viruses and other infectious agents.问题是,抗体能够识别出较大的分子,比如以蛋白质形式表现出来的,像细菌,病毒,或者别的感染物质。Small molecules, such as drugs, go unnoticed.较小的分子,比如毒品,却不能识别出来。But not for much longer, if Kim Janda of the Scripps Research Institute in San Diego has his way.不久后这一情况会有所改变,圣地亚哥克里斯普研究所的Kim Janda谈到。In a paper just published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, Dr Janda and his colleagues suggest how a vaccine against methamphetamine, a popular street drug, might be made.近期出版的美国化学学会杂志中,一篇文章提到,Janda士及他的同事们发现,一种对抗常见毒品甲基苯丙胺的疫苗有望实现。If their method works, it would open the possibility of vaccinating people against other drugs, too.以此类推,对抗其他毒品的疫苗也将可能到来。The idea of a methamphetamine vaccine is not new.研制对抗甲基苯丙胺的疫苗设想已不是新话题了。The problem is getting the immune system to pay attention to a molecule that is such a small target.关键在于免疫系统能“发现”这样小的目标。The way that has been tried in the past is to build the vaccine from several components.过去的日子里很多方法都已试验,并从不同角度研发疫苗。First, there is a large carrier protein that forms a platform for the target.首先,需要一个蛋白质载体作为平台,让免疫系统能发现毒品分子。Then there is the target itself, a set of smaller molecules called haptens that are attached to the carrier. These may either be the drug in question or some analogue of it that, for one reason or another, is to have a better chance of training the immune system.有了目标后,将会有一系列被称作半抗原的分子将会聚集在这些病毒载体上,这些病毒或者类似的分子,无论怎样,有助于提高免疫系统的识别能力。Finally, there is a chemical cocktail called an adjuvant that helps get the immune system to pay attention to the carrier protein and the haptens.最后,一种叫佐剂的化学物质,推动免疫系统识别蛋白质载体和半抗原Dr Janda noticed that past experiments on methamphetamine vaccines had all revolved around tweaking either the carrier protein or the adjuvant, rather than tinkering with the haptens.Janda士根据过去针对甲基苯丙胺疫苗的实验发现,该疫苗更多时候是反复出现于蛋白质载体或者佐剂附近,却并非是半抗原的补充作用。He thought he might be able to change that, on the basis of work he had carried out previously, trying to design a vaccine against nicotine. In particular, nicotine is a highly flexible molecule.他认为他可以设法改变这一现状。就目前的研发成果的基础上,他正在研发某种对抗尼古丁的疫苗。That makes it hard for the immune system to recognise.尤其是,尼古丁是一种较灵活的分子,使免疫系统更加难以识别。To overcome this, his team on the nicotine project had to work out how to fix their haptens to the carrier protein in a way that rendered them less capable of twisting and turning, and thus made them easier for the immune system to identify.为克这一困难, Janda士的团队已经研究出如何令半抗原附在蛋白质载体上,并让其活动稳定一些。如此,免疫系统便能更好的识别出病毒。In the new study, Dr Janda and his colleagues report that they have performed a similar trick with methamphetamine haptens.Janda士和他的同事们最新研究表示,他们已成功应对甲基苯丙胺半抗原,They used computer models to visualise the haptens in three dimensions and thus work out how the molecules could be rearranged such that they could not spring, twist or turn when being examined by the immune system.他们利用电脑模拟视图显示三种形式的半抗原,并明免疫系统检查人体时,分子可被重新排列并不在复发。In light of this information they designed six new methamphetamine-like haptens.据此,他们设计了六种全新的似甲基苯丙胺半抗原。Once built, they attached the new hapten molecules to carrier proteins, mixed them with adjuvant, injected the results into mice and waited.之后,他们把这些新的半抗原分子和着佐剂附在蛋白质载体上,并试验于白鼠。After several weeks they tested the mice to see if the animals blood contained antibodies to methamphetamine.几周后,他们测试了这些白鼠,看它们血液内是否含有对抗甲基苯丙胺的抗体。Of the six new haptens, three successfully provoked the mice to make such antibodies.在这六种半抗原中,有三种成功:小白鼠体内有了抗体。As a bonus, one of those three also stimulated the production of antibodies against another widely used drug, amphetamine.在三只中白鼠的一只,其抗体将会被广泛运用,生产对抗另一种药物安非他明的抗体。That is still a long way from providing a working vaccine, but it is an important step forward.尽管前路漫漫,但此举终是重要一步。And if human immune systems react in the same way to the new vaccines as murine ones do, the day when a drug addict might be offered vaccination rather than opprobrium will have come a little closer.若是人体免疫系统能像小老鼠那样接受疫苗的话,用疫苗解决毒瘾将指日可待。 /201212/213874。

People didnt believe atoms in those days but atoms makes small dust particles move and he calculated the size of the atom在那个时代人们不相信原子,但原子的确存在,像小尘埃颗粒那样运动,而他计算出了原子的大小。These papers would have been remarkable for any physicist but Einstein is far from finished.这些文件对任何物理学家都已经是杰作,但对爱因斯坦而言就是废纸,他还远远没有完成。He yet write another series of paper with the famous equation Emc^2.他还写了另一个著名的方程式Emc^2。At the simplest level this means energy can become matter and matter can become energy. 从最简单的层面来说,这意味着能量可以转换成物质,而物质可以转换成能量。The tinist pack of matter holds potentially huge amounts energy . 最小的物质拥有最大的能量。Unleshing it requires a nuclear reaction.释放它需要核反应。The thought going on constantly in the night sky. 这种想法一直在夜空中回荡。Ever since people began to look up the heaven, they would say what makes the star shine.自从人们开始仰望天空,他们总是会问星星为什么发光。But it took Albert Einstein to anwser the question.但是爱因斯坦解答了这个问题。Mass M turns into E energy , that is the engine that lights up the stars.物质转化成能量,那是引擎,照亮了星星。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/175018。

For most of the 20th century Turkish authorities were happy to lend their treasures for foreign exhibitions and ignored the provenance of most pieces in Western collections. Today, however, the government argues that any object without the correct permissions or with gaps in its provenance has been stolen and so belongs to Turkey.二十世纪的大部分时间里土耳其当局乐意把他们的文物借到国外展出,他们并没有关注西方物馆大部分藏品的出处。但是今天的土耳其政府主张任何没有得到正规许可或来源可疑的文物,都是被从土耳其偷走的,所以这些文物理应属于土耳其。Growing economic power and stalled talks over EU membership make many Turks feel that it is time to turn their backs on the West. Amid the turmoil of the Arab spring Turkey believes it can become the leader of the region. “A new Middle East is about to be born,” Ahmet Davutoglu, the foreign minister, told parliament last month. “We will be the owner, pioneer and the servant of this new Middle East.”由于经济实力不断增张而且加入欧盟的会谈陷入了僵局,因此很多土耳其人感到放弃西方的时候到了。看到阿拉伯之春的动荡土耳其认为自己可以成为这一地区的领导者。外长艾哈迈德·达武特奥卢在议会发表讲话指出:“一个崭新的中东即将诞生,我们将成为新中东的主人,我们要引领新中东,我们要为新中东务。”Turkey has been inspired by the success of Italy and Greece in confronting the illicit trade in classical antiquities. Officials also cite the tough stance taken by Zahi Hawass, a colourful former Egyptian minister, against museums with dodgy holdings. “We will make life miserable for museums that refuse to repatriate,” he pronounced at an international 2010 conference in Cairo about looted artefacts.意大利和希腊在古董在非法交易的诉讼案件中获胜鼓舞了土耳其。官员引用个性鲜明的前埃及部长札西·哈瓦斯采取过的强硬立场来反对那些收藏来源不正的文物的物馆。“那些拒绝归还文物的物馆,我们会让他们活的很惨”这是2010年他在开罗一个关于被掠夺文物的国际会议上的发言。Turkey has been emboldened by two important successes. Last September the Boston Museum of Fine Arts bowed to public pressure and returned the top half of an 1,800-year-old statue called “Weary Herakles”, which came from southern Turkey. Left to the museum by an American couple, its documented provenance went back no more than 30 years, which suggests it was looted, probably in the late 1970s. Mr Erdogan himself brought this trophy back to Turkey, reuniting the head and torso with the statue’s bottom half.两个重要的胜利让土耳其咄咄逼人。去年九月波士顿美术馆迫于公众压力归还了一座叫“疲倦的赫拉克勒斯”的雕像(有一千八百年历史)的上半截,这座雕像来自土耳其南部,人们认为上世纪七十年代后期它被从土耳其盗走。埃尔多安亲自护送这个战利品返回土耳其,这个雕像的头部躯干和下半部重新被合为一体。Mr Gunay also forced the German government to return a massive sphinx (pictured) that had been removed in 1917 from Hattusa, the Bronze-Age capital of the Hittite empire. The sphinx is one of a pair. The first was sent back to Turkey in 1924. Its twin had long been part of the permanent display at the Pergamon museum in Berlin. Germany maintained it had obtained the sphinx legally, whereas Turkish authorities argued that it had merely been sent to Germany for repair. Documentation about the sphinxes was destroyed in bombing raids on Berlin in the second world war.居纳伊也督促德国政府归还1917年他们从青铜时代的赫梯帝国之都哈图沙拿走的一个巨型狮身人面像(见文章附图)。狮身人面像原来是一对。第一个已经在1924年还给土耳其。因为其中一个被柏林佩加蒙物馆永久展览,这对宝物长年千里遥望。德国坚持说这个狮身人面像是他们合法获取的,然而土耳其当局辩称当时把这尊文物运到德国只是做修复。这对狮身人面像的文件在二战期间毁于袭击柏林的炸弹。Early last year Turkey stepped up the pressure, indicating that it would not renew the licences of the German archaeology institute, the biggest foreign group working in Turkey, unless the sphinx was sent home. In May 2011 German and Turkish culture officials signed an agreement to return the sphinx as part of a wider accord on training curators, exchanging research and enabling loans of Turkish objects. But German curators now complain that as soon as the sphinx went back to Turkey the rest of the agreement was quietly shelved.去年年初土耳其增大了压力,明确指出除非归还狮身人面像,否则就不会更新德国考古研究所(土耳其最大的外国工作团)的执照。2011年5月德国和土耳其的文化官员签署了归还狮身人面像的协议,这个协议是馆长培训计划的延伸,也是考古研究和土耳其出借文物的交换条件。但是德国物馆馆长抱怨说一旦狮身人面像归还土耳其,协议的其他部分很快就会被束之高阁。The Turkish authorities then turned their attention to the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In September 2011 a delegation led by Murat Suslu, the director-general for cultural heritage and museums, flew to New York to discuss loans for a 2014 exhibition. Mr Suslu, who has a reputation as a table-thumper, opened the meeting with a declaration of intent. Before any further loans could be discussed, he wanted information about 18 works in the Met’s collection. “It certainly came as a surprise to us,” says the Met’s director, Thomas Campbell, “especially in light of the collaborative spirit we have always enjoyed with our peer institutions in Turkey.”接着土耳其当局将注意力转移到纽约大都会艺术物馆。2011年9月文化遗产和物馆主管穆拉特·叙斯吕率领的代表团飞赴纽约商讨2014年展览文物的出借事宜。很多人都知道开会的时候叙斯吕喜欢敲桌子,喜欢发表宣言。在进一步谈论出借事项之前,他想得到大都会艺术物馆18件藏品的信息,这让我们非常震惊,大都会艺术物馆的馆长托马斯·坎贝尔说,“出于协作精神,我们一直乐意和土耳其同仁分享信息。”Within weeks, the focus was on the BM. The Topkapi Museum had agreed to an important loan for an exhibition about the Haj that the BM was planning for January 2012. The 35 pieces under discussion had been removed from Mecca by the Ottoman authorities in the 19th century. At the last moment, Mr Suslu and Mr Gunay refused to allow the loan to go ahead on the grounds that the BM had a stone tablet dating from the first century , known as the Samsat Stele, that originally came from Turkey. The stele had been in the BM’s collection for almost 90 years (and had been exhibited, without complaint, at a Tokyo exhibition in 2005 alongside loans from the Topkapi).几周之后,焦点对准大英物馆。托普卡匹物馆先前同意向2012年1月大英物馆的哈吉展览借出一件重要文物。这次讨论的35件文物是19世纪被奥斯曼帝国当局从麦加搬走的。最后一刻叙斯吕和居纳伊拒绝以后出借文物,因为大英物馆收藏的一个公元前1世纪的石桌,就是萨姆萨特石碑原来出自土耳其。大英物馆收藏这方石碑将近90年(已经被展出过,没有人提出质疑,2005年东京的展览活动中它就被放在土耳其出借文物的旁边)。201206/185210。

Business The revival of independent film Scripts, not effects商业 独立电影的复兴 剧本是关键,资金不成问题Independent films are at last recovering from the slump最终,独立电影在走出低谷THE Toronto film festival, which ends this week, marks the start of the serious-film season. Out—at least until Thanksgiving, in late November—go the superhero spectaculars. In come the foreign films and the dining-room dramas. The autumn crop is far more prone to failure than the summer one. But highbrow films now come with higher hopes.本周结束的多伦多电影节,标志着严肃题材电影季节拉开了帷幕。依靠超级英雄来取票房的电影至少要持续播映到十一月末的感恩节。外国电影和文艺影片将走向舞台。可以预计的是秋季票房收入比夏季还要惨淡。但高格调电影迎来了更高的期许。For the past few years the independent film business has resembled a low-budget horror movie. Outside financing was brutally killed in 2008, as banks stopped lending. Three of the six major studios axed subsidiaries that had specialised in buying independent films. Consumers struck another blow by switching from buying DVDs to renting them.过去几年间,独立电影产业的遭遇堪于一部低成本恐怖电影并论。随着停止给提供贷款,在2008年,外界融资渠道也中断了。六大电影工作室中的三个停止了之前专门购买独立电影的子公司。消费者接着又补上一记重拳,他们开始租赁光碟而不再购买DVD了。Yet sales at film festivals this year have been brisk. New buyers such as CBS Films and Open Road Films have emerged to replace the departed studios. The larger independent outfits have steadied. The Weinstein Company, which almost collapsed two years ago, is basking in the success of ;The Kings Speech; (pictured). Lionsgate has shaken off an activist investor, Carl Icahn, who had argued it should get out of film production. Summit Entertainment, maker of the popular ;Twilight; films, closed a large financing deal in March.然而,今年各个电影节的影片销售却一路高歌猛进。新的买家如CBS和Open Road Films公司开始取代离开此领域的工作室。更大规模的独立摄制组运作也趋于平稳。两年前处于破产边缘的韦恩斯坦公司,依靠着《国王的演讲》,咸鱼翻身。狮门公司摆脱了它那位激进的投资商卡尔?伊坎,他曾主张狮门公司应该关闭其电影业务。《暮色》系列电影的制造商,顶峰公司在三月拒绝了一笔数额巨大的收购提议,决定不出售公司。It helps that films have become cheaper to make. Actors salaries remain depressed, and indies have become expert at exploiting competition between states and countries, which lavish subsidies on them. Most important, says Morris Ruskin, the head of Shoreline Entertainment, a glut of films commissioned in the era of loose credit has at last worked its way through the pipeline. ;Weve gone from a market that was saturated with films to a market that is hungry for them,; he says.电影制作成本的下降对独立电影业的发展有着推波助澜的效果。演员们的薪水依然不高,各独立电影制作公司精于利用州与州,国与国之间的竞争关系,从中获取慷慨的补助。海岸的老板 莫里斯.若斯金表示,最重要的是,信贷宽松时期充斥着被委托制作的电影,如今终于熬出头了。他谈到:;那个供应饱和的市场已经远去,现在市场对电影变得趋之若鹜。;The post-financial-crisis independent film business is both more independent and more focused on film than before. The three major studios that got out of indie films—Disney, Paramount and Warner Bros—have not returned and are concentrating on a few expensive blockbusters. And the collapse of DVD sales means it is more important to drive people to cinemas. Richard Abramowitz, who is distributing the racing film ;Senna; in America, says the sp of Blu-ray cinema projectors has cut costs dramatically.后金融危机的独立电影业较之以往,即更为独立,也更注重电影本身。退出独立电影行列的三大电影工作室——迪斯尼、派拉蒙和华纳兄弟——并没有重返独立电影业,而是将重心放在了花费高昂的大成本影片当中。光盘销售业的凋零使得把观众请到电影院变得尤为重要。正在负责赛车题材电影《塞纳》营销工作的理查德?阿布拉莫威茨谈到,蓝光播放器的普及使得其制造成本大大降低了。The business is more international, too. Roman Polanskis latest film, ;Carnage;, was financed by Europeans, with American distribution added almost as an after-thought. Total sales of cinema tickets fell slightly in America last year. But they were up in Europe, and soared in Russia. Talky dramas are harder to export than cartoons or action flicks, which is partly why the major studios now concentrate on such things. But independent horror films sometimes travel well.独立电影业也更趋于国际化。罗曼波兰斯基的最新力作《杀戮》由欧洲电影公司投资。美国的发行商随后也加入进来,虽然有马后炮的嫌疑。去年,美国电影的总票房收入略有下降。但在欧洲电影票房喜人,在俄罗斯则称的上是一路飙升。对话比重多的电影比卡通片和动作片出口要困难,这部分说明了为何现在大的电影巨头把后两者视为重心。但独立电影业出品的恐怖电影有时在海外票房堪佳。It is still a harsh business. No fewer than 3,812 full-length movies were submitted to the 2011 Sundance film festival. Yet only 550 films open in American cinemas each year, and most lose money. The business runs on hope. But there is, finally, enough money to keep the projectors running.电影业的竞争依旧激励。多达3812部长篇电影提交参审2011年的圣丹斯电影节。然而美国影院每年放映影片的数量却只有550部,大部分电影的投资打了水漂。独立电影业前景看好,发展显著。但说到底,是足够的资金持着拍摄项目的运作。 /201301/219741。