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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年12月13日 13:44:43
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MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. — Google, a leader in efforts to create driverless cars, has run into an odd safety conundrum: humans.加利福尼亚州山景城——作为无人驾驶汽车研发领域的领头羊,谷歌(Google)遇到了一个奇怪的安全难题:人类。Last month, as one of Google’s self-driving cars approached a crosswalk, it did what it was supposed to do when it slowed to allow a pedestrian to cross, prompting its “safety driver” to apply the brakes. The pedestrian was fine, but not so much Google’s car, which was hit from behind by a human-driven sedan.上月,当谷歌的一辆自动驾驶汽车来到人行横道前时,它像设想的那样放慢速度让一名行人先行,促使“安全驾驶员”启动刹车。那个行人没事,但谷歌那辆车却没那么幸运。它被后面的一辆由人驾驶的轿车追尾了。Google’s fleet of autonomous test cars is programmed to follow the letter of the law. But it can be tough to get around if you are a stickler for the rules. One Google car, in a test in 2009, couldn’t get through a four-way stop because its sensors kept waiting for other (human) drivers to stop completely and let it go. The human drivers kept inching forward, looking for the advantage — paralyzing Google’s robot.按照设计,谷歌的自动测试车会严格遵守法律条文。但如果拘泥于规则,上路可能都会变得困难。在2009年的一次测试中,谷歌的车没能通过一个十字路口,因为它的传感器一直在等着其他(人类)司机彻底停下来,让它过去。但其他司机一直在向前蹭,寻找有利时机。这种情况让谷歌的机器人陷入了瘫痪。It is not just a Google issue. Researchers in the fledgling field of autonomous vehicles say that one of the biggest challenges facing automated cars is blending them into a world in which humans don’t behave by the book. “The real problem is that the car is too safe,” said Donald Norman, director of the Design Lab at the University of California, San Diego, who studies autonomous vehicles.这不仅仅是谷歌面临的问题。自动化车辆这一新兴领域的研究人员称,自动车面临的最大挑战之一是让它们融入一个人类不照章行事的世界。“真正的问题是,这些车太追求安全了,”研究自动车辆的加州大学圣迭戈分校设计实验室(Design Lab at the University of California, San Diego)主任唐纳德·诺曼(Donald Norman)说。“They have to learn to be aggressive in the right amount, and the right amount depends on the culture.”“它们得学会适度强硬,而什么叫做适度则取决于不同的文化。”Traffic wrecks and deaths could well plummet in a world without any drivers, as some researchers predict. But wide use of self-driving cars is still many years away, and testers are still sorting out hypothetical risks — like hackers — and real world challenges, like what happens when an autonomous car breaks down on the highway.正如一些研究人员预言的那样,世界上如果没有驾驶员,交通事故造成的伤亡会大大减少。然而,广泛使用自动驾驶汽车仍是多年后的事,测试人员仍在应对像黑客这种假设的风险和现实世界里的挑战,比如自动驾驶车辆在公路上出故障了应该怎么办。For now, there is the nearer-term problem of blending robots and humans. Aly, cars from several automakers have technology that can warn or even take over for a driver, whether through advanced cruise control or brakes that apply themselves. Uber is working on the self-driving car technology, and Google expanded its tests in July to Austin, Tex.目前,让机器人和人类同时上路这个问题更紧迫。多家汽车生产商的车辆已经掌握了警告或是代替驾驶员的技术,不管是通过先进的巡航控制,还是可以自行启动的刹车。Uber正在研发自动驾驶汽车技术,谷歌也于今年7月把测试扩展到了德克萨斯州的奥斯汀。Google cars regularly take quick, evasive maneuvers or exercise caution in ways that are at once the most cautious approach, but also out of step with the other vehicles on the road.谷歌汽车通常会迅速采取回避操作,或是谨慎行事。后者立即会变成最谨慎的应对方式,但同时也将导致与路上其他车辆格格不入。“It’s always going to follow the rules, I mean, almost to a point where human drivers who get in the car and are like ‘Why is the car doing that?’” said Tom Supple, a Google safety driver during a recent test drive on the streets near Google’s Silicon Valley headquarters.“它永远都会遵守规则,我是说,几乎到了坐在车里的人类驾驶员会想‘这车干嘛那么做?’的地步,”汤姆·苏普莱(Tom Supple)说。最近,谷歌在其位于硅谷的总部附近的街道上进行了一次试驾,而苏普莱正是当时的安全驾驶员。Since 2009, Google cars have been in 16 crashes, mostly fender-benders, and in every single case, the company says, a human was at fault. This includes the rear-ender crash on Aug. 20, and reported this morning by Google. The Google car slowed for a pedestrian, then the Google employee manually applied the brakes. The car was hit from behind, sending the employee to the emergency room for mild whiplash.自2009年以来,谷歌汽车发生了16次撞车事故,大部分是轻微碰撞。谷歌称,每次碰撞都是人的错,包括公司今天上午通报的发生在8月20日的那起追尾。当时,谷歌的车因为行人放慢了速度,安全驾驶员随后手动刹车。接下来,车子被追尾,导致此人因颈椎轻微受伤而进了急诊室。Google’s report on the incident adds another twist: While the safety driver did the right thing by applying the brakes, if the autonomous car had been left alone, it might have braked less hard and traveled closer to the crosswalk, giving the car behind a little more room to stop. Would that have prevented the collision? Google says it’s impossible to say.谷歌有关这起事故的报告揭示了另一个问题:尽管安全驾驶员启动刹车的行为是正确的,但如果让自动汽车独自行驶,它的刹车力度可能不会那么强,因此会行驶到离人行横道更近的地方,给后车留出稍微多一点的刹车空间。这样能避免撞车吗?谷歌表示无从得知。There was a single case in which Google says the company was responsible for a crash. It happened in August 2011, when one of its Google cars collided with another moving vehicle. But, remarkably, the Google car was being piloted at the time by an employee. Another human at fault.谷歌称,只有一次撞车事故责任在自己身上。那是2011年8月,谷歌的一辆车与另一辆正在行驶中的车相撞。但需要注意的是,当时谷歌的车是由一名工作人员操控的。所以,错还是在人。On a recent outing with New York Times journalists, the Google driverless car took two evasive maneuvers that simultaneously displayed how the car errs on the cautious side, but also how jarring that experience can be. In one maneuver, it swerved sharply in a residential neighborhood to avoid a car that was poorly parked, so much so that the Google sensors couldn’t tell if it might pull into traffic.前不久载着《纽约时报》的记者出行时,谷歌的无人驾驶车采取的两次避让操作,既显示出了它因过于谨慎而出错的情形,也表明了那种经历会令人多么恼火。一个操作是,它为了避开一辆车而在一个住宅区急转弯。那辆车停得很糟糕,以致于谷歌的传感器无法识别它会不会开到车道上来。More jarring for human passengers was a maneuver that the Google car took as it approached a red light in moderate traffic. The laser system mounted on top of the driverless car sensed that a vehicle coming the other direction was approaching the red light at higher-than-safe speeds. The Google car immediately jerked to the right in case it had to avoid a collision. In the end, the oncoming car was just doing what human drivers so often do: not approach a red light cautiously enough, though the driver did stop well in time.对车里的乘客来说,车子行驶到一处红灯前时采取的操作更是令人气恼。当时,车流量属中等。安装在那辆无人驾驶车顶部的激光系统检测到,反方向的一辆车正在以高于安全水平的车速朝着红灯开来。于是,谷歌的车猛地右拐,以防撞车。但其实,那辆车的行为不过是人类驾驶员通常会做的:遇到红灯时不够小心,但司机还是很及时地停了下来。Courtney Hohne, a spokeswoman for the Google project, said current testing was devoted to “smoothing out” the relationship between the car’s software and humans. For instance, at four-way stops, the program lets the car inch forward, as the rest of us might, asserting its turn while looking for signs that it is being allowed to go.谷歌无人驾驶车项目的发言人考特妮·霍恩(Courtney Hohne)说,当前的测试是为了“理顺”车的软件和人之间的关系。比如,在十字路口,程序允许车像我们其他人可能会做的那样,慢慢向前蹭,在寻找其他车让自己过的迹象时果断转弯。The way humans often deal with these situations is that “they make eye contact. On the fly, they make agreements about who has the right of way,” said John Lee, a professor of industrial and systems engineering and expert in driver safety and automation at the University of Wisconsin.威斯康星大学(University of Wisconsin)的工业与系统工程教授、驾驶员安全与自动化问题专家约翰·李(John Lee)说,遇到这种情况时,人类通常会“进行眼神交流。在行进中,他们会对谁有先行权达成协议”。“Where are the eyes in an autonomous vehicle?” he added.“那么自动车辆的眼睛在哪里呢?”他接下来问道。 /201509/397247

  Yingzao Fashi《营造法式》Yingzao Fashi , the first official treatise on architecture and craftsmanship, plays an immeasurable role in the research on ancient architecture, the development of architecture in the Tang and Song Dynasties, and the probing into the architectural structures, project decoration methods and the construction organization and management in the Song and its ensuing Dynasties. The treatise was written by the well-known architect Li Jie in the third year of Yuanfu of the Song Dynasty, namely in 1100, and published and applied in the second year of Congning, i. e. in 1103. Various architectural criteria are standardized in the book, and the requirements of such aspects as the construction designs, materials, structures and a of numerous kinds of architecture specified in detail. The book, with a total of 34 chapters, is divided int0 5 sections, viz. the explanations of the architectural terms, regulations for various types of work, labor a for various types of work, material a for various types of work and drawings, along with one chapter of the illustrations of the theoretical or historical bases of some regulations and one chapter of the table of contents respectively at the beginning of the book. It is a collection and summary of the architectural designs and construction experiences at the time, exerting a far-reaching influence upon the later generations. The precursor of the book, Yuanyou Fashi , was written in the sixth year of Yuanyou (1091) , but could not set strict regulations on the construction proportions and materials , owing to the lack of specifying the modular system , namely the ways of using ; cai; ; there was still great arbitrariness as to the architectural design and construction. Li Jie, under the order of the emperor, rewrote the book. He, based on the abundant experiences accumulated in his ten years of building projects, referred to a great number of relevant documents and old rules and regulations, and gleaned the operating specifications and hang of various types of work told by the craftsmen, thus completing Yingzao Fashi which has come down to the present day.《营造法式》是中国第一部详细论述建筑工艺的官方著作。对于古建筑研唐宋建筑的发展,考察宋及以后的建筑形制、工程装修做法、当时的施工组织管理,具有无可估量的作用。此书于宋元符三年( 1100)编成,崇宁二年(1103)刊印施行。由著名建筑学家李诫所做。书中规范了各种建筑做法,详细规定了各种建筑施工设计、用料、结构、定额等方面的要求。全书共计34章分为5个部分:释名、各作制度、功限、料例和图样,前面还有“看样”和目录各一章。是当时建筑设计与施工经验的集合与总结,并对后世产生深远影响。原书《元裙法式》于元祜六年(1091)编成,但因为没有规定模数制,也就是“材”的用法,而不能对构建比例、用料做出严格的规定,建筑设计、施工仍具有很大的随意性。李诫奉皇帝命重新编著此书,他以个人十余年来修建工程之丰富经验为基础,参阅大量文献和旧有的规章制度,收集工匠讲述的各工种操作规程、技术要领等,终于编成流传至今的这本《营造法式》。 /201601/419362

  Robots will replace a growing number of jobs in industries including automotive and electronics in the next few years, particularly in east Asia, according to new research.一项新研究显示,未来几年,机器人将取代自动化和电子产品等行业越来越多的工作岗位,尤其是在东亚地区。Worldwide sales of industrial robots rose 23 per cent last year and are on course to double by 2018, driving radical change in many manufacturing sectors, Boston Consulting Group said.波士顿咨询集团(G)表示,全球工业机器人销量去年增长23%,到2018年将翻一番,这将令很多制造业领域发生彻底变革。Although robots have been used in industry for decades, recent advances in technology have cut their costs and increased their capabilities, as a new generation of reprogrammable, multipurpose machines comes into service.尽管机器人在工业中的使用已有几十年时间,但最近科技的进步降低了机器人成本并提升了其性能,此际新一代可再编程的多用途机器人正投入使用。The prices of industrial robots have been falling steadily, dropping about 14 per cent in the past four years to 3,000 for a typical system, while capabilities have been expanding.工业机器人的价格一直在稳步下降,过去4年已累计下跌14%左右,至13.3万美元,同时性能一直在提升。Some robots are even cheaper: the Baxter robot from Rethink Robotics has a listed base price of ,000, making it accessible to smaller companies that might have found it difficult to invest in earlier generations.一些机器人的价格甚至更低: Rethink Robotics的Baxter机器人基础定价为2.5万美元,让那些可能很难投资于之前几代机器人的较小公司也能买得起。Five countries — China, the US, Japan, Germany and South Korea — are expected to account for about 80 per cent of investment in industrial robots over the coming decade.预计中国、美国、日本、德国和韩国5国将占到未来10年工业机器人投资的80%左右。Advanced robots are set to cut costs and raise productivity, reducing employment in manufacturing in developed countries, while raising the skill levels demanded of the staff that remain.先进的机器人旨在降低成本并提升生产率,从而减少发达国家制造业就业,同时提高现有员工所需的技能水准。They are also likely to make labour costs a less significant factor for manufacturers making decisions about where to invest.它们还可能会在制造商在做出投资目的地决定时,让劳动力成本的因素不那么重要。About 200,000 industrial robots were shipped last year, G estimates, up from 163,000 in 2013, and in three years#39; time the number could rise to 400,000.G估计,去年工业机器人销量达到20万台左右,高于2013年的16.3万台,到2017年,这一数字可能会升至40万台。In the manufacturing sectors that are the most ily automated, including cars and other transport equipment, computers and electronics and electrical equipment, about 85 per cent of tasks can be performed by robots, according to G.在最容易实现自动化的制造业(包括汽车和其他运输设备、电脑、电子产品和电器设备),约85%的工作可能会由机器人完成。Those sectors are likely to use the most robots over the coming decade, but other areas such as chemicals and metals are also likely to see increasing adoption of the newer, more flexible machines.未来几十年,这些行业使用的机器人可能会最多,但化工和金属等其他行业使用这种更为新颖灵活的机器的做法可能也会越来越多。The uptake of industrial robots will vary between countries as well as between industries, depending on factors including wage costs and labour regulations that could limit employers’ ability to replace workers with robots. G expects the fastest adoption will come in South Korea, Taiwan and Thailand, which have heavy concentrations of the industries that are capable of high levels of automation, higher labour costs than some of their low-wage competitors, and limited employment protections that would prevent job cuts.工业机器人的使用情况将会因国家和行业的不同而不同,这取决于很多因素,包括薪资成本以及劳动力监管规定——这些规定可能会限制雇主用机器人取代员工的能力。G预测,韩国、台湾和泰国将是最快使用机器人的国家,这些国家拥有大量能够实现高度自动化的行业,劳动力成本高于一些低薪资竞争国家,而且就业保护有限(就业保护将阻止裁员)。Other relatively rapid adopters are expected to be China, Japan, the US, the UK and Canada.预计其他使用工业机器人相对迅速的国家将是中国、日本、美国、英国和加拿大。The countries likely to be slowest to embrace the new robots include more heavily regulated economies of Europe including France, Italy and Spain, as well as Brazil and India, according to G.G称,最慢接纳新一代机器人的国家可能是那些欧洲监管较严的经济体,包括法国、意大利和西班牙等,还有巴西和印度。 /201502/359373。

  What’s going to happen to the tech world in 2016? While of course no one really knows for sure, it’s possible to make a few semieducated guesses. Here are 10 predictions for the biggest tech trends for the coming year — from the blindingly obvious to the wildly speculative.2016年科技界会有什么样的新发现?没有人可以给出肯定的答复,但这并不妨碍我们作出一些简单猜测。以下是2016年十大科技动向,其中有的是板上钉钉,有的只是大胆推测。1. Apple will unveil a new Watch and a new iPhone 苹果公司将发布新一代Apple Watch和iPhoneThis is the easiest prediction in the world, which is why we started with it (guaranteeing that at least one of these will be right).这是铁定的事实,也是我们之所以把它放在开头的原因(至少能保这十大预测有一个是真的)。Apple is expected to release Apple Watch 2.0 sometime this spring, we hope with an improved interface and a lot more apps. And next fall will see the release of the iPhone 7, which (if rumors are to be believed) will include a fingerprint sensor on the screen, wireless charging, multiple cameras, and a USB-C port instead of power or headphone jacks.苹果有望在明年春发布Apple Watch 2.0,届时其界面或许能有所改进,应用数量也能有所增加。iPhone 7将在明天秋发布,据传其在屏幕上增加了指纹传感器,还具备无线充电功能,配有多摄像头,并用USB-C接口取代了原有的电源和耳机接口。2. Apple’s dominance of tech culture will decline 苹果的统治力将有所下降Since the Second Coming of Jobs in 1997, interest in all things Apple has been climbing at a steady rate, going into hyperdrive with the release of the iPhone (2007) and then the iPad (2010). Lately, though, the products coming out of Cupertino have been less than magical and life-changing.1997年乔布斯重回苹果公司后,苹果渐渐开始吸引大众的目光,后分别于2007年和2010年推出iPhone和iPad,引起了巨大轰动。而如今虽然苹果产品层出不穷,其创意和影响力却不比当年。And for all of Tim Cook’s many fine qualities, he can’t generate a reality distortion field the way his predecessor could. Until Cook manages to pull another rabbit out of his iHat — an Apple Car? a fully integrated smart home? — the Apple mystique has clearly peaked. Nowhere to go but down.尽管库克也推出了许多优秀产品,但他却不具备前任乔布斯那样的“现实扭曲力场”,除非他也能变戏法般地弄出个Apple Car或是一体化自能家居什么的来。苹果的创意已经达到上限,现在只能走下坡路了。3. Virtual reality will finally be real — and most people will go ‘meh’ 虚拟现实或将成真,而消费者只能望洋兴叹After nearly four years of teasing us, the Oculus Rift VR headset will finally reach consumers this year, probably some time in the early spring. HTC’s Vive and Sony’s Playstation VR (formerly Morpheus) will likely appear a few months after that. And no matter how awesome they are — and odds are they will be pretty awesome — very few people will buy them.放了四年鸽子,Oculus Rift虚拟现实眼镜终于要问世了!发售时间为今年或是明年春初。HTC的Vive和索尼的Playstation VR(原名Morpheus)也将在之后的几个月问世。这都是些使人眼前为之一亮的产品,但不管这些设备多酷多棒,只有很少一部分人会选择购买。Why? They’ll likely be expensive, require vast amounts of computing power, and be limited mostly to games and porn (ewww). The fact is, after four years of hype, VR headsets can’t possibly live up to expectations. And then there’s the whole after-15-minutes-you-feel-like-puking factor (10 minutes if you’re watching porn). VR will find a niche audience, at best, for a long time to come.究其原因,这些设备主要用于游戏和色情音像(呃),拥有强大的计算能力,其价格可能会高得离谱。而另一方面,这些虚拟现实眼镜被热炒了四年,最终可能难以达到大众的期望值。这种眼镜戴上15分钟就让人忍不住想吐(如果看的是色情片只要10分钟),可想而知,在未来的很长一段时间内,这顶多只能是一种小众产品。4. AR will beat up VR and steal its lunch money 增强现实将与虚拟现实争夺市场While the world oohs, ahhs, and hurls over VR (but doesn’t buy it), Augmented Reality (AR) will infiltrate all kinds of industries, from design and engineering to architecture, education, and medicine. Why? Being less immersive — you can actually see the world around you, as well as virtual objects — makes AR much more practical.当世人还在惊叹于虚拟现实产品(但又不买)的时候,增强现实技术已开始渗透到各个领域,从建筑设计、建造,到教育行业,再到医疗行业。这是因为增强现实技术的仿真度要相对低些,人们可以获得真实的感官体验,还包括虚拟物品。这大大增强了技术的实用性。Microsoft just released a new version of its HoloLens and will begin shipping ,000 HoloLens development kits this spring. Google Glass will also emerge from the rock it’s been hiding under since its ill-fated debut, most likely aimed at industrial use.微软刚刚推出一款全新的全息眼镜,并将于明天春推出价值三千美元的开发套件。而谷歌眼镜首次问世反响不佳,在雪藏了一段时间后也将重出江湖,很可能是面向工业用途。5. Comcast will try to acquire Netflix — or possibly vice versa 康卡斯特或将收购网飞公司,亦或是被网飞公司收购Whether or not you’re a cord-cutter, streaming media is the future of entertainment — and nobody streams bigger than Netflix, which accounted for nearly 40 percent of all Internet traffic last year. Since big cable can’t beat the streamers at this game, the only thing left is for it to join them by acquisition; Comcast (2 billion valuation) and Netflix ( billion) are the most logical candidates for an arranged marriage. While it stands to reason that the larger company will swallow the smaller one, it’s not inconceivable that the reverse will happen — not unlike AOL’s acquisition of Time Warner 15 years ago, but perhaps with better results.不管你是否承认,流媒体都将是业的发展趋势。而在这方面没有谁比网飞公司做得更大了。去年网飞公司就占据了网络总流量的百分之四十。强强争斗没有结果,唯有收购这一条出路。现在康卡斯特(价值1920亿美元)和网飞公司(价值420亿美元)最有可能走到一起。虽然一般情况下是大公司吞并小公司,但也不排除相反的情况——15年前美国在线就曾收购时代华纳。但与之相比,康卡斯特和网飞的合并或许会有更好的结果。6. Antidrone technology will rise 反无人机技术将出现The only thing people love more than ing about drones is hating them — witness all the cheering when a Kentucky man blasted one out of the sky with his shotgun last July. (Not to mention all the animals that love to attack drones.) Look for companies to come up with antidrone technology that use nonballistic methods of ridding the flight zones of these pests. Let the games begin, and let the odds be ever in the antidrones’ favor.虽然人们对无人机技术充满兴趣,但却抑制不住对无人机的厌恶之感。今年七月,肯塔基州的一名男子开打下了一架无人机,引起了围观者的欢呼(更别说还有很多动物也喜欢攻击无人机了)。现在有的公司正开发反无人机技术,这种技术不用弹,而是采用了一种挤占无人机飞机空间的方法。好戏就要开始,希望这项技术真能派上用场。7. Facebook will continue to eat the world Facebook将继续主宰世界The Facebook juggernaut will continue, though most of its membership growth will be overseas. However, expect a public backlash as Facebook assumes just a bit too much control over the media it arbitrarily delivers to everyone’s feeds. How many autoplay s of bacon, egg, and cheese bboats can one person watch?随着海外用户的增加,Facebook将继续主宰世界。然而人们现在抗议Facebook管得太宽,人们不得不被迫看一些自己不想看的视频。可以统计一下,现在每个人要在Facebook上看多少次培根、鸡蛋和芝士面包的自动播放的视频?8. Cyberterrorists will attack the Internet 网络恐怖主义来袭We’ve seen targeted hack attacks on a massive scale, and we’ve seen state-sponsored cyberespionage. In 2016 we will see them converge, with a direct attack on the Internet infrastructure motivated by politics, not greed or misplaced juvenile aggression. Time to back up your data, encrypt your hard drives, and stock up on beef jerky and tinfoil.我们目睹过大规模的黑客攻击,也见识过国家持的网络间谍活动。在新的一年里它们将结合起来,在政治目的的驱动下直接对网络基础设施展开攻击,而不再是愤青们的盲目行为。所以,是时候备份数据,加密硬盘,囤积好牛肉干和锡纸了。9. There will be an Uber for friends朋友出租务将上线Need a date for a party or someone to hang with at a ballgame? Just share someone else’s. Frog Design predicts the rise of “friendship as a service” in 2016. We liked that prediction so much we decided to borrow it. Isn’t that what the sharing economy is all about?想参加聚会、想打球但却苦于找不到伴吗?完全可以从别人那租一个来!据青蛙设计公司(Frog Design)预测,“朋友出租务”将于2016年上线。有需求就可以租,这和“分享型经济”不是同一个道理吗?10. Your next boss may be an algorithm老板也许会是机器人Artificial intelligence will continue to be baked into an increasing number of devices and services. More than that, though, entire companies may be built around self-running programs, with business decisions made without any human intervention. Think we’re joking? The first decentralized organizations are aly being developed for the Ethereum Frontier network. We have met our robotic overlords, and we’d like a 10 percent raise and more flex time, please.人工智能技术将运用到更多的产品和务中去。甚至整个公司都有可能实现自动运作。通过编排程序,商业决策或许不需要人的参与。这可不是开玩笑,以太坊(Ethereum)的Frontier平台就在实行分散性运作。这么说我们的老板也许会是机器人。那么请给我加薪百分之十再给我更多的弹性时间吧,老板! /201601/420999

  Citigroup is testing new technology that will allow customers to withdraw money using retinal scanning.花旗正在测试允许客户通过扫描视网膜取款的新技术。The bank wants to replace PIN codes with biometric scanners that could identify customers using only their eyes.花旗打算用仅通过客户的眼睛即可识别其身份的生物识别扫描仪来取代个人识别号码。Customers would use a smartphone app to key in the amount they want to draw out ahead of time.客户只需在智能手机客户端上提前输入他们想取出的金额就可以了。As they approached the ATM, the app would link up to the machine and use retinal scanning to confirm the customer’s identity.当客户走近自动取款机时,该客户端将与自动取款机连接,并通过扫描视网膜确认其身份。The ATM would then release the cash, providing the scanner recognises the individual.若扫描仪识别出客户的身份,自动取款机就会吐出现金。Citigroup said the retinal scans would take 15 seconds to complete compared to 45 seconds for traditional transactions.花旗表示,传统交易方式需花费45秒,而视网膜扫描技术可在15秒内完成交易。It would, they claim, be more secure and would mean that cards could never be skimmed at an ATM again.该声称,此项技术更加安全,将意味着再也不用将卡插入自动提款机了。The Wall St Journal reported that Citigroup has not set a date for when the retinal scanners would be introduced.《华尔街日报》报道称,花旗尚未确定何时将视网膜扫描仪投入使用。The bank may have to overcome privacy concerns as some customers may be uncomfortable giving their biometric data to such an institution.花旗可能需要解决人们对隐私的担忧,因为部分客户可能会对将自己的生物识别数据提供给这种机构感到不安。Citigroup says it has been working with cash machine manufacturer Diebold and has confirmed that preliminary scanning tests have been carried out on 30 consumers in a laboratory at its head office in New York.花旗称,该一直都在与自动取款机制造商迪堡公司合作。花旗还确认,花旗已经在纽约总行的实验室对30名客户进行了初步的扫描测试。The test cash machines do not even need a screen or a touchpad as all the information is loaded by the app ahead of time.受测的自动取款机甚至不需要安装屏幕或触摸板。因为客户端提前加载了所有的信息。Citigroup is not the only financial institution testing out cardless cash machines - JP Morgan Chase and Bank of America are working on similar technology.花旗并非唯一一个测试无卡取款机的金融机构。根大通和美国也在研发类似的技术。The moves comes in response to US credit scoring firm FICO announcing that in May this year the number of attacks on debit cards used at ATMs had reached its highest level in 20 years.今年5月,美国信用评分公司FICO宣布在自动取款机上使用的借贷卡遭到攻击的数量创20年新高,各个的举措旨在改善此现状。 /201511/407504He only had himself to blame, Mike Weston thought ruefully as he strapped a Fitbit to his wrist one cold February morning. His company was about to start tracking him 24 hours a day, gathering data on everything from his sleep quality and heart rate to his location and web browsing habits.在今年2月的一个寒冷的早上,迈克#8226;韦斯顿(Mike Weston)把一个Fitbit手环套在手腕上,沮丧地想这只能怪自己。他将受到自己公司全天候的追踪,并被采集从睡眠质量和心率到所处位置和上网习惯等各种数据。“I was really quite grumpy about it, I didn’t want to put myself on display like that,” he says. But as chief executive of Profusion, a data science consultancy, he had been urging his team of number crunchers to plan more ambitious internal projects — and this was the one they had come up with.韦斯顿说道:“我真的感到非常不爽,我不想这么展示自己。”但作为数据科学咨询公司Profusion的首席执行官,他一直在敦促自己的数据分析团队策划一些更具雄心的内部项目,于是他们就提出了这个项目。For 10 days, Profusion’s data scientists used Fitbits and other apps to track 171 personal metrics for 31 staff who volunteered (including the somewhat reluctant Mr Weston). Combing through the data, the analysts found they could group the staff into clusters, based on shared patterns of behaviour. They labelled one group “Busy and Coping”; another “Irritated and Unsettled”.在十天时间里,Profusion的数据科学家们使用Fitbit和其他应用来追踪31名员工志愿者(包括有些不情愿的韦斯顿)的171项个人指标。分析师们通过整理这些数据发现,可以按照一些共同的行为模式对这些员工分组。他们把一组员工称为“忙于应对型”,将另一组称为“烦躁不安型”。Technology has made it possible for employers to monitor employees more closely than ever, from GPS trackers for delivery drivers to software that tracks which websites office workers visit. Companies such as Profusion think wearable gadgets could open a new frontier in workplace analytics, albeit one that would further blur the lines between our work and private lives.从跟踪送货司机的GPS定位仪到追踪办公室员工浏览网站习惯的软件,技术让雇主能够比以往更严密地监控员工。Profusion等公司认为,可穿戴设备可能为办公场所分析开辟了新的前沿阵地,虽然它将会进一步模糊工作和私人生活之间的界限。“I think there’s an inevitability that it will gain ground, and there’s a backlash risk that will follow if the data get abused,” says Mr Weston.韦斯顿表示:“我认为,可穿戴设备普及开来是势所必然的,而如果数据被滥用,就有引起强烈反弹的风险。”For employers, the simplest way to use wearable gadgets (and so far the most common) is to give them to staff and try to nudge them into healthier lifestyles — a financially worthwhile goal if the company is on the hook for their health insurance. BP, for example, gives Fitbits to workers in North America and offers them rewards if they meet activity targets. Indeed, one of Fitbit’s five strategic goals is to “further penetrate the corporate wellness market”, according to its IPO prospectus. Wearables could also be straightforward tools.对雇主来说,使用可穿戴设备最简便(也是迄今最常见)的方法是,把它们发给员工,设法让他们选择更健康的生活方式——如果公司负责员工医疗保险的话,这个目标从财务上来说是有价值的。例如,英国石油公司(BP)向北美员工发放Fitbit可穿戴设备,如果他们完成了活动目标,还会给予他们奖励。实际上,按照Fitbit的IPO招股说明书所示,该公司的5个战略目标之一是“进一步渗透企业福利市场”。可穿戴设备也可能是直接的工具。But the bigger prize is to use the data from such devices to make the workforce safer or more productive. Some warehouse workers aly wear wristbands or headsets that measure their productivity and location in real-time.但更大的作用是利用此类设备获得的数据来让工作场所变得更安全或者提高生产效率。一些货仓工人已经戴上腕带或耳机来衡量他们的工作效率和进行实时定位。Kronos, the “workforce management” company whose customers include Apple, Starbucks and Ikea, makes annual revenues of more than bn by selling scheduling and real-time data tools that minimise salary bills and maximise productivity. Brenda Morris, who runs Kronos’s UK business, says the company sees applications for wearables in blue and white collar work.Kronos是一家“工作场所管理”公司,它的客户包括苹果(Apple)、星巴克(Starbucks)和宜家(Ikea),销售可以最小化薪资成本和最大化生产效率的排班和实时数据工具,年收入超过10亿美元。Kronos英国业务主管布伦达#8226;莫里斯(Brenda Morris)表示,该公司看到在蓝领和白领职员身上应用可穿戴设备很有效。“If you’re monitoring where people are, what their stress levels are, what their fatigue levels are#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.[that’s] really important when operating machinery#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Or [in an office] you can see that person’s getting stressed because they’ve been working on that legal contract for too many hours and they don’t have enough support.”“如果你在监控人们所处位置、他们的压力水平,以及他们的疲劳程度……在操作机器时,(这)真的非常重要……或者(在办公室),你可以看到某个人因长时间研究法律合同,而且没有获得足够持而变得焦虑不堪”。Chris Brauer, a senior lecturer at Goldsmiths, University of London, who runs experiments with workplace wearables, predicts a future in which managers have dashboards showing real-time employee biometrics such as sleep quality that are leading indicators for performance. “It becomes a predictive tool and possibly also a prescriptive one.”伦敦大学金史密斯学院(Goldsmiths, University of London)高级讲师克里斯#8226;布劳尔(Chris Brauer)负责有关工作场所可穿戴设备的试验,他预计未来经理们将会用仪表盘显示员工睡眠质量等实时生物指标,这些是预示业绩表现的先行指标。“它会成为一种预测性工具,可能也会成为一种规定性的工具”。But that vision is a long way off — and there are a number of practical, legal and ethical hurdles in the way.但这一设想距离实现还有很长的路要走,面临着许多实践、法律和道德方面的障碍。First, no one seems to have worked out yet how to analyse or draw useful conclusions from wearables data. Profusion plans to do more trials in larger companies, overlaying the personal metrics with workplace performance data. But so far, the experience of Rob Symes, co-founder of a London start-up called The Outside View, is typical. He tracked all his employees with wearables last year, only to realise: “Right, I’ve got all this data, what the hell does it mean?”首先,似乎还没有人研究出,如何对可穿戴设备产生的数据进行分析,或者如何从中得出有用的结论。Profusion计划在较大型公司开展更多试验,将个人指标和整体工作场所业绩表现数据叠加起来。但到目前为止,通常会看到的情况是伦敦初创公司The Outside View的联合创始人罗布#8226;赛姆斯(Rob Symes)的经历。去年他利用可穿戴设备追踪了所有员工,最后意识到:“好吧,我掌握了所有数据,但这些数据到底意味着什么?”Meanwhile, wearable devices crossing over corporate “digital perimeters” every day are an obvious target for hackers, says Dave Palmer, who spent 13 years at GCHQ and MI5 before joining cyber security company Darktrace as head of technology. “You might think that’s a bit alarmist — what are the chances of my watch or heartrate monitor getting hacked — but this idea of the ‘internet of things’ is racing farther ahead in terms of functionality than in terms of security.”另一方面,每天穿越企业“数据边界”的可穿戴设备明显会成为黑客的目标,在英国政府通信总部(GCHQ)和军情五处(MI5)工作13年后加入网络安全公司Darktrace担任技术主管的戴夫#8226;帕尔马(Dave Palmer)表示。“你可能会认为这有点危言耸听——我的手表或者心率监测器被黑客入侵的几率能有多大呢——但‘物联网’这个概念在功能性方面已经走在了安全性的前面。”The gadgets are also easy to game. Adam Miller’s employer gives him cash rewards if his Fitbit shows he has taken a certain number of steps a day. But it registers “steps” when jolted, so if he has not met his daily target, “I might watch TV and wave my arm around#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;or my kids will grab it and start shaking it to see what the numbers get to.”这些小玩意也很容易糊弄。对于亚当#8226;米勒(Adam Miller)来说,如果Fitbit显示他一天走到了一定的步数,他的雇主就会给予他现金奖励。但Fitbit是在摇晃的情况下记录“步数”的。因此如果米勒没有完成每日的目标,“我可能一边看电视一边挥舞我的手臂……或者我的孩子们会抓着它摇晃,看上面的数字会到多少。”For Dane Atkinson, chief executive of tech company Sumall, this highlights a serious problem with workplace metrics. “It has a law of physics — as soon as people know it’s being observed it changes the outcome.” His solution as a young CEO was to come up with a secret metric his employees did not know about: he tracked the volume and length of their work emails, which he found a surprisingly good indicator of who was in “professional distress”.科技公司Sumall的首席执行官戴恩#8226;阿特金森(Dane Atkinson)认为,这凸显了工作场所指标存在的一个严重问题。“这其中存在物理法则——一旦人们知道一个指标在被观测,结果就会改变。”作为一名年轻的首席执行官,阿特金森的解决方案是提出一个他的员工不知道的秘密指标:追踪员工工作邮件的数量和长度,他发现在显示谁处于“职业困难期”方面,这种指标效果好得惊人。“I was struggling with empathy#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;the data really helped me catch up,” he says. “In watching those patterns I could start a conversation and say, hey, what’s going on, and there was almost always a huge unload.”“我之前难以对员工感同身受……数据的确帮助我弥补了这一点,”他说,“看到那些情况后,我就可以与员工交谈,并且对员工说,嗨,怎么了,几乎总是会听到大量倾诉的话语。”He thinks it is reasonable for an employer to monitor work emails, “but there’s a moral line that’s not been navigated by public conversation yet”.他认为雇主监视工作邮件是合理的,“但这其中有一条道德的界线,公共舆论还没有找到这条线的位置。”The legal line has not been navigated yet, either. Lawyers say companies would have to gain the explicit informed consent of employees before gathering personal data from wearables — and further consent to correlate it with other data, such as performance metrics.法律的界线也还没有确定。律师们表示,企业通过可穿戴设备收集个人数据前,应该在员工知情的情况下取得员工的明确同意——在将这些数据与工作表现指标等其他数据进行关联前,还要进一步取得员工的同意。Even then, there is a risk employees would feel implicit pressure to agree, says Daniel Cooper, head of the data privacy team at the law firm Covington.科文顿#8226;柏灵律师事务所(Covington and Burling)数据隐私小组主管丹尼尔#8226;库珀(Daniel Cooper)表示,即使如此,还存在员工因感到隐性压力而勉强同意的可能性。“Historically European regulators in the data protection area have been very sceptical you can ever get a valid employee consent — they feel that for existing employees, [the relationship] is almost inherently coercive.”“欧洲在数据保护领域的监管机构历来对此抱着非常怀疑的态度,认为你根本得不到切实的员工同意——他们觉得对于现有员工来说,(雇佣关系)几乎有一种固有的强制性。”How many workers would say yes, uncoerced, and under what conditions? PwC asked 2,000 people recently: 40 per cent said they would wear a workplace wearable, rising to just over half if they knew it would be used to improve their wellbeing at work.在不强制的情况下,有多少员工会同意,又需要什么条件呢?普华永道(PwC)最近询问了2000人:有40%的人表示他们会佩戴工作场所可穿戴设备。如果他们知道这将用于改善他们的工作状况,这个比例会提高到略高于一半。Employers and employees might share the same goals (less stress in the workplace, say) but then again, they might not. Many of those who said “no way” did not trust their employer not to use the data against them. A promise to anonymise the data and only analyse them in aggregated form would help win people over, PwC found.雇主和员工或许有一些相同的目标(比如降低工作压力),但他们也可能意见相左。许多回答“不行”的人不相信雇主不会用这些数据来针对他们。普华永道发现,匿名收集数据,只从整体上分析数据的承诺有助于争取人们的持。For Mike Weston of Profusion, the reaction of his staff to their wearables experiment was as interesting as the data it produced. Some found it enlightening and useful, while others found it “quite disturbing.” One ended up “the most stressed I’ve ever seen her”.对于Profusion公司的迈克#8226;韦斯顿来说,员工对可穿戴设备试验的反应和试验产生的数据一样有趣。一些人觉得可穿戴设备很有用,富有启发性,另一些人则认为这些设备“相当令人烦恼”。其中有一个人到最后变成一副“我认识她以来最焦虑的样子”。As for him? “I still don’t know if I love it, but I haven’t taken it off.”他本人怎么看?“我还不知道自己是否喜欢可穿戴设备,不过我没把它脱下来。” /201506/381521

  Thirty years ago, before software began “eating the world,” much of the information in industry was stored on spinning disks—those relatively slow but inexpensive devices reminiscent of record players. A handful of manufacturers competed in that business. The business of relational databases—the software typically used to structure the data as they were stored—was largely dominated by Oracle.30年前,也就是软件还没有“蚕食这个世界”的时候,大量的行业信息都被储存在所谓的“旋转式磁盘”之中。这种存储速度相对较慢,但比较便宜的存储设备,很容易让人回忆起唱片机。在这个领域里竞争的制造商也为数不多。关系数据库(也就是用来构建存储数据的软件)产业,当时基本上是甲骨文公司的天下。Industry hummed along that way for many years. Then it all changed, quickly.整个行业沿着这个方向发展了很多年,但很快一切都变了。First, Apple’s late CEO Steve Jobs refused to continue using spinning drives in the company’s iPod portable music player, choosing instead lighter, more energy-efficient solid-state drives. Given the tremendous volumes of the iPod that were sold at the time, the decision helped drive a movement toward flash memory in consumer devices, says John Vrionis, a partner at Lightspeed Venture Partners. Prices for flash began to fall dramatically. Large businesses and their data centers soon followed.首先是苹果已故CEO史蒂夫o乔布斯不愿继续在iPod便携式音乐播放器中使用旋转式磁盘,转而使用质量更轻,也更节能的固态硬盘。光速创投合伙人约翰o弗里奥尼斯指出,由于当时iPod的销量极大,这项决定推动了闪存在消费电子设备中的使用。闪存的价格也开始显著下降。各大企业和他们的数据中心也很快跟上了这一潮流。“Flash performs like memory, which is 100 times faster than spinning disks, but it’s almost as cheap as disk,” Vrionis says. “You get all the performance benefits of memory, but it costs almost the same as disk.”弗里奥尼斯表示:“闪存的性能与内存相似,但它比旋转式磁盘快100倍,而价格却像硬盘一样便宜。你可以既享受到内存的性能优势,同时享受到几乎像硬盘一样低廉的价格。”Another contributing factor was a gigantic leap in the amount of data that average users were accessing on a given day, supported by the rapid rise of the Internet-connected mobile device. On a consumer level, anyone with a smartphone can relate to the trend; for businesses, the volumes began to get so big as to fall into the territory now known as “big data.”另外一个推动因素,则是普通用户平均每天存取的数据量出现了巨大飞跃,而这主要归功于联网移动设备的快速兴起。在消费者层面上,任何人只要有一部智能手机,都与这种趋势相关。在企业界,数据量开始迅速增大,由此催生了一个现在被称为“大数据”的新兴领域。A final factor was the storage industry’s move to software-defined storage, a kind of storage technique that uses cheap, distributed hardware (rather than massive, centralized boxes) to scale with demand easily and inexpensively. “Just as you want to buy whatever PC you want and then choose the operating system separately, people want to buy hardware and then get the storage software separately,” Vrionis says.最后一个因素是存储行业开始转向软件定义存储,这种存储技术使用了廉价、分散的硬件(而不是集中的大型箱式机)实现了规模效益,可以轻易地并且低成本地满足需求。弗里奥尼斯表示:“就像你可以买任何一台你喜欢的电脑,然后再单独选择操作系统一样,人们也想先买硬件,然后再单独买存储软件。”Put it all together, and what do you get? A storage market ripe for change and a boatload of startups vying to make it happen. “Huge tailwinds are giving all these startups a chance,” Vrionis says. “They’re unstoppable now.”将所有这些趋势聚集在一起,你能得到什么结论?那就是存储市场已经发展到变革的边缘,很多创业公司争相使之发生。弗里奥尼斯认为:“一股巨大的推动力正在给予所有这些创业公司一个机会,他们现在几乎是不可阻挡的。” billion per year每年10亿美元Vrionis’s firm is just one of many that have been betting heavily on enterprise storage startups—including contenders such as DataStax and PernixData, which recently drew fresh funding of 6 million and million, respectively. (Vrionis himself serves on DataStax’s board of directors.)在企业存储领域下了重注的风投还有很多,弗里奥尼斯的公司只是其中之一。在这个领域中竞争的创业公司有DataStax和PernixData等,这两家公司最近刚刚分别拉到了1.06亿美金和3500万美元的投资。(弗里奥尼斯自己就是DataStax公司的董事会成员。)A few other examples that have drawn investment attention in the past few months: Primary Data, which took in million in Series B funding in February; Tintri, which garnered million in Series E funding that same month; Pure Storage, which closed a 5 million Series F round in April; Nutanix, with a 0 million Series E in August; Amplidata, with a million Series E round in September; Formation Data Systems, with a .2 million Series A that month; SolidFire, which closed an million Series D round in October; SwiftStack, whose million Series B round also took place that month; IzumoBase, which raised .4 million in November; Kaminario, whose million Series E took place earlier this month; and DataGravity, which this month closed a million Series C round.除此之外,还有几家公司在过去几个月也吸引了大量投资。比如Primary Data公司在二月的B轮融资中融得1000万美元;Tintri公司也于二月在E轮融资中募得7500万美元;Pure Storage公司四月在F轮融资中筹得2.25亿美元;Nutanix公司在八月份的E轮融资中筹得1.4亿美元;Amplidata公司在九月份的E轮融资中筹得1000万美元;Formation Data Systems公司也于同月在A轮融资中筹得2420万美元;SolidFire公司在十月份的D轮融资中筹得8200万美元;SwiftStack公司在同月的B轮融资中筹得1600万美元;IzumoBase公司在11月融资140万美元;Kaminario公司在本月初的E轮融资中筹得5300万美元;DataGravity公司刚刚在本月的C轮融资中筹得5000万美元。In all, disclosed investment in enterprise-storage startups has amounted to about a billion dollars per year in each of the last few years, says Simon Robinson, a research vice president for storage and information management with 451 Research, which has been covering the space since 2000.451 Research公司自从2000年起就开始关注企业存储领域,该公司的存储与信息管理研究副总裁西蒙o罗宾逊指出,总体来看,在过去几年里,向企业存储类创业公司已披露的投资,基本上每年都能达到10亿美元左右。“You get these waves of startups,” Robinson says. “As soon as you think the industry is done with storage, along comes another wave. It’s been a constant cycle of innovation in the last decade.”罗宾逊表示:“这类初创公司层出不穷,你刚觉得行业的这一波存储潮结束了,马上就会迎来另一波。过去十年,这个领域基本上一直都处于创新期。”Typically, those waves of innovation have each focused on a particular feature, spawning numerous startups playing to a similar theme. “Some wouldn’t last; a couple would be acquired; one or two would do really well and go public,” Robinson says. “Then usually one of the big guys would step in and pay a substantial premium to acquire them.”每一波的创新浪潮基本上都集中于某一特定功能,大量创业公司都在围绕一个类似的主题。罗宾逊指出:“有些创业公司不会持久,有一些会被收购,有一两家公司会做得非常出色,然后上市。然后某家大公司就会踏足进来,花高价收购它们。”Data Domain, for instance, was acquired in 2009 by EMC EMC 1.00% , which snatched up Isilon the following year. Hewlett-Packard HPQ -0.25% bought 3PAR in 2010; Dell acquired Compellent Technologies in 2011. The list goes on.比如Data Domain公司就于2009年被EMC公司收购,就在第二年,EMC又收购了一家名叫Isilon的创业公司。惠普(Hewlett-Packard)则于2010年买下了3PAR公司;戴尔(Dell)于2011年收购了Compellent Technologies公司。类似的收购还有很多。“The thing to bear in mind is that you have five or six big vendors, virtually nobody in middle, and then a whole bunch of startups,” Robinson says. “We haven’t seen a major change in the cast of characters in the last decade.”罗宾逊指出:“需要注意的是,这个领域大约有五六家大厂商,基本上没有人在中游,然后就是一大堆创业公司。在过去10年里,这张‘演员表’基本上没怎么大变。”Dave Wright, SolidFire‘s founder and CEO, says his company grew 700% year over year in 2013 and 50% quarter over quarter this year. He attributes much of that to two “huge waves of change” affecting the industry.SolidFire公司创始人兼CEO戴夫o莱特表示,他的公司2013年的年增率达到700%,而每个季度都比上一季度增长50%。他认为,这主要归功于影响行业的两个“重大的变革浪潮”。The shift to flash and solid-state storage is one of those. “That’s very disruptive—a huge chunk of the storage market is going to move to flash over the next few years,” he says. (SolidFire offers all-flash systems with a focus on scale-out storage for data centers.)首先是向闪存和固态硬盘的转变。他表示:“它非常有颠覆性,在未来几年,存储市场将有相当一部分向闪存转型。”(SolidFire主要提供全闪存系统,同时重点提供数据中心的扩展存储。)At the same time, though, Wright downplays that trend as “a fairly short-term disruptive shift—everybody is doing that,” he says.不过与此同时,莱特也看低这股趋势,认为它只是“一种较为短期的颠覆式转型——人人都在做它。”More interesting from Wright’s perspective is a second major shift: the transition within enterprises from traditional, so-called siloed data infrastructures to cloud-based ones. It’s a change that is affecting the entire industry, but one that “a lot of other startups in the storage space are not really attuned to,” he says. ‘That’s what we think is going to make us more successful in the long term: SolidFire is the only infrastructure purpose-built for this wave of cloud.”从莱特的观点看,更有意思的则是第二个重大转型,也就是企业从传统的所谓孤立式数据架构向云架构的转变。这种转变正在影响整个行业,但是“很多存储类创业公司并没有真正适应这种转变。”他还表示:“这就是我们为什么认为我们在长期会更加成功,因为SolidFire是目前唯一专门为云计算浪潮构建的专用架构。”‘Looking for simplicity’寻找简单性Part of the challenge for storage startups today is to simplify what has become an inordinately complex and fragmented landscape, Robinson says. It’s the result of a lot of feature-focused research and development over the last decade.罗宾逊认为,如今存储类创业公司面临的挑战之一,是要简化过去那种非常复杂和碎片化的格局。它正是过去十年很多以功能为重点的研发所造成的结果。“Big companies have lots of storage systems, each of which serves a particular purpose,” he says. “The challenge that organizations are having now is not just the data growth, but managing that environment, which may consist of seven or eight storage silos with huge complexity.”他表示:“大公司有很多存储系统,其中每个系统都务于一个特定的用途。企业所面临的挑战不仅仅是数据量的增长,还有如何管理这种环境,因为这些系统可能包括了七八个独立的存储系统,极其复杂。”Simplicity is a new goal, in other words. The trend has led to an industry preference for more all-encompassing approaches. “Converged” (which combines storage and compute in a single device) and “hyper-converged” (which combines storage, compute, networking, and virtualization in a single device) models reflect the shift. Robinson points to Nutanix and Formation Data Systems as notable contenders.换句话说,简单性是一个新的目标。这种趋势使得整个行业开始青睐那些“万金油”式的方案。所谓的“融合”模式(将存储和计算整合到一台设备上)和“高度融度”模式(将存储、计算、网络和虚拟化整合到同一台设备上)的流行也反映了这种转变。罗宾逊指出,Nutanix和Formation Data Systems公司是这方面的两个值得注意的竞争者。Meanwhile, the flood of apps—internal and customer-facing, and often mobile—continues unabated, increasing pressure on businesses to achieve better performance and speed from the databases and storage systems that underpin those applications.与此同时,应用软件的热潮(包括内部应用、面向顾客的应用,往往还有移动应用)依然没有减退,这也加大了企业的压力,迫使它们不得不提高数据库和存储系统的性能和速度。“Every second of latency can cost you 10 percent of conversions, and it’s getting worse on mobile, where the network has its own built-in latency,” says Matt Murphy, a general partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield amp; Byers. (KPCB invested in both DataStax and PernixData; Murphy serves on PernixData’s board.) “If you can cut off a second or half a second, there’s millions or hundred of millions of dollars in opportunity there in play. At all layers—storage, compute, network—everyone is trying to figure out how to get that extra edge.”Kleiner Perkins Caufield amp; Byers公司(该公司是DataStax和PernixData公司的投资方,其合伙人墨菲也是PernixData的董事会成员)的合伙人马特o墨菲指出:“每一秒钟的延迟都可能让你损失10%的客户,在移动端则更严重,因为移动网络本来就有延迟。如果你可以把延迟减少一秒或半秒,就拥有了可能赚几百万甚至上亿美元的机会。在存储、计算和网络等所有层面上,每家公司都在想方设法地获得这种额外优势。”The question is which technologies and vendors will best deliver that edge. Lightspeed’sVrionis contends that newcomers to the scene have an advantage over incumbents, which are still “staring at yesterday’s problems and not able to take a blank sheet of canvas.” (One of those incumbents, Oracle, did not respond to Fortune‘s request for comment.)现在的问题是:哪些技术和哪些厂商能够最好地将这种优势带给客户?光速创投公司的弗里奥尼斯也认为,这个领域的新进者其实比守成者更有优势,因为“守成者们仍然盯着昨天的问题,不能毅然扬帆前进。”(其中的一个“守成者”甲骨文公司并没有回复《财富》的请求。)Henry Baltazar, a senior analyst with Forrester Research, agrees. “The big guys are finally catching up, but they left the door open for too long,” he says. “Now it’s a battle.”福雷斯特研究公司的高级分析师亨利o巴尔塔扎尔也表示:“大公司最终会赶上来,但是他们给创业公司留了太长时间的空子。现在,战争开始了。”(财富中文网) /201501/351915You can credit Apple Pay with dramatically raising the visibility of mobile payments technology over the past four months. Even the U.S. government now accepts it, for admission to national parks and such.过去四个月里,移动付技术获得的关注度显著提升,这笔功劳很大程度要记在苹果公司的Apple Pay上。就连美国政府现在也接受了它,允许人们用它购买国家公园的门票什么的。Google isn’t just watching: it just signed some formidable partners to build its own share more quickly. ATamp;T, T-Mobile and Verizon will all preload Google’s app on certain mobile handsets. They’ve also decided to let Google take control of Softcard, the alliance they created to control their mobile payment destiny.谷歌不仅仅是在观望:该公司刚刚和几个强大的合作伙伴签约,企图迅速构筑自己的市场份额。ATamp;T、T-Mobile和Verizon等运营商都将在特定机型上预装谷歌的付应用。他们还决定让谷歌控制他们为掌控移动付命运而创建的Softcard联盟。Plus, you shouldn’t discount the potential influence of the world’s biggest smartphone maker, Samsung. Last week, it bought LoopPay, a technology that doesn’t require massive upgrades of point-of-sale technology.另外,我们也不应忽视全球最大手机制造商三星公司的潜在影响力。就在上周,三星刚刚收购了LoopPay公司,后者的技术并不需要POS机技术的重大升级。Nor should you overlook PayPal, which processedapproximately billion in mobile payments during 2014. That was 20% of its total.PayPal也不容忽视。2014年,PayPal通过移动付处理了将近460亿美元的交易额,占其总交易额的20%。Why all this fuss? The answer lies in the success of the Starbuck mobile app, which supports at least 7 million mobile transactions per week.各大公司为何纷纷涌向移动付?与星巴克移动应用的成功有关,该应用每周至少要处理700万次移动交易。An impressive digital payment vehicle? Certainly. But that understates the app’s powerful influence as a marketing tool. It’s aly used liberally to distribute third-party software, digital music, and promotional offers. A valuable marketing channel that is mostly underexploited today.移动付是一个优秀的数字付载体吗?当然。但这种说法低估了它作为一种营销工具的强大影响力。它已经被广泛用于推广第三方软件、数字音乐和促销活动。这是一个极具价值,但目前还没有得到充分开发的营销渠道。“Access to loyalty rewards from brands is the most wanted features from consumers, and it’s the one least integrated in mobile payments today,” notes Forrester Research analyst Thomas Husson, in a recent blog about this topic.福雷斯特研究公司分析师托马斯o哈森最近在一篇讨论这个话题的客中写道:“获得各大品牌的忠诚度奖励,是消费者最想要的功能,它也是这些移动付最大的缺陷之一。”Indeed, approximately 57% of U.S. adult smartphone users want access to loyalty programs and rewards through mobile wallets, according to his firm’s ongoing Consumer Technographics surveys.实际上,根据福雷斯特公司正在进行的消费科技调查,大约57%的美国成年人智能手机用户想通过智能钱包参加某个品牌的忠诚度奖励计划。Three other tidbits to consider:另外还有三点需要注意:o Don’t forget price comparison information. It was only slightly behind loyalty programs as a desired feature for mobile wallets.o 不要忘了价格比较功能。在消费者看来,比价信息的重要性只是略低于忠诚度计划,也是消费者非常需要的移动钱包功能之一。o Consumers may be slow to trust. They’re more likely to consider mobile wallets from banks and credit card processors than from technology companies or retailers. PayPal stands out as an exception.o 要让消费者信任移动钱包可能需要比较长的时间。他们可能更容易相信或信用卡处理商推出的移动钱包软件,而不是科技公司或零售企业提供的移动付功能。PayPal是个例外。o Dramatic three-year increase anticipated. According to Forrester’s report in early February, just 3% of consumers have used a mobile wallet in the past three months. By 2018, however, adoption should reach 15-20% of smartphone users. That’s an impressive upside.o 在未来三年内,移动钱包有望实现快速增长。根据福雷斯特公司二月初发布的报告,在过去三个月里,只有3%的消费者使用了移动钱包功能。不过到2018年,移动钱包的使用率将达到全部智能手机用户的15%到20%。这种增长速度将是非常惊人的。 /201503/362737

  

  The Great Wall长城Construction of the Great Wall began during the Spring and Autumn Period to the Warring States Period. Several vassal states built wall fortifications successively along the precipitous mountain ridges to ward off the plunder of nomadic people and the invasion of each other. In 221 B. C. when Qin Shihuang united China, he ordered to link the walls up. During the following dynasties, the Great Wall was destroyed continuously by natural disasters and human beings.Among the remaining broken pieces of walls, those constructed in the Ming Dynasty are the most well-preserved and splendid ones. The Great Wall stretches some 6,300km from Jiayuguan Pass in the west to the Yalujiang River in the east, traversing 11 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. Not only is it the most magnificent ancient military defense work, but one of the most remarkable ancient buildings in the world.长城始建于春秋战国时期。各诸侯国为互相防御和抵御北方游牧部落的侵扰,在地形险要之处相继兴筑长城。公元前221年,秦始皇统一中国后,将从前的长城连接起来。在以后的几个历史时期,由于自然和人为因素的毁坏,保存到今天的大都已是断断续续的遗迹。而在这些遗迹中保存最完整、最套固、最雄伟的是明代长城。长城绵亘中国的11个省、市、自治区,西起嘉峪关,东到鸭绿江,全长约12600华里。它不仅是古代最雄伟的军事防御工程,也是世界上最非凡最伟大的古老建筑之一。 /201601/419350。

  

  Sometime in 2000, my colleague Verlyn Klinkenborg started bringing his Mac laptop to our New York Times editorial board meetings. The rest of us would hover around the sleek white machine with the cool lighting radiating from it, wondering if Verlyn could possibly be serious. Some of us had used Apple computers AAPL -0.84% in college, sure, but everyone does crazy things in college.2000年的某个时候,我的同事福林o克林肯伯格开始带着自己的苹果笔记本电脑参加《纽约时报》编委会。一看到这玩意,其他人立刻纷涌上前,围观这台散发酷炫背光、圆润光滑的白色电脑,吃不准福林到底是不是真的要用它工作。一些同事上大学时也用过苹果电脑,但谁没在大学时干过点疯狂的事儿呢?Was an Apple really fit for a workplace? Verlyn assured us that it was no toy, and that his Mac could do all the things ours could—the mix of surfing, emailing, and pontificating that the gig entailed—without crashing as frequently as our PCs. Verlyn claimed that his Apple was not susceptible to those nasty viruses that plagued our land of “WinTel,” and I wanted to believe him. I too bought a Mac and instantly felt cooler as a result.苹果电脑真能用来办公吗?福林向我们保,它可不是什么玩具,我们的电脑能干的这台Mac都能干——上网、发邮件之类的,并信誓旦旦地断言它很可靠,绝不会像PC那样经常死机。福林宣称,他的苹果电脑不会感染一直困扰“微软英特尔联盟”的各种讨厌病毒,我对此将信将疑。等我也买了一台Mac后,立刻觉得自己时尚多了。Fast forward to 2015, when the novelty would be for someone at a meeting to take out a laptop that isn’t an Apple. And, somehow, the caché remains. Apple has walked the tightrope between ubiquity and coolness, attaining one without sacrificing the other.时光飞逝,转眼就到了2015年,现在如果有人在会议上拿出一台不是苹果的笔记本电脑,那才是新鲜事儿呢。同时苹果也保留了其独特性。可以说它一直是在大众化和引领潮流之间走钢丝,在努力赢得前者的同时,不牺牲后者。The company recently announced the most profitable quarter in U.S. corporate history, a three-month period in which it sold almost 75 million iPhones and 5.5 million Macs. CEO Tim Cook, Steve Jobs’ down-to-earth successor, couldn’t help himself on the earnings call, describing the quarter as “historic” and his company’s performance—selling an average of 34,000 iPhones an hour, 24/7—as “hard to comprehend.” Apple is now the world’s most valuable company, with a stock market valuation of some 0 billion and nearly 0 billion in cash on hand. The company’s iTunes store counts a staggering 800 million active users.最近,苹果公司公布了美国公司史上盈利最丰厚的一个财季,在过去三个月中,它售出了约7500万台iPhone和550万台Mac。这使首席执行官蒂姆o库克,史蒂夫o乔布斯脚踏实地的继任者,在季报电话会议上情难自禁,称这个财季“具有历史意义”,公司的业绩——按一周七天,每天24小时算,相当于每小时卖出34,000台iPhone——“令人难以置信”。苹果现在是全球价值最高的公司,市值约7000亿美元,手握1800亿美元现金。iTunes商店拥有8亿活跃用户,着实令人惊叹。What’s most astonishing, given those numbers, is that Apple is far less ubiquitous than you might think. It has plenty of room to grow. Indeed, it may only be getting started.尽管这些数字如此巨大,但最让人目瞪口呆的是,苹果产品远不如一般人所想象的那么普及。它还有很大的成长空间,实际上,它可能才刚起步。If you look at its existing product lines, Apple only dominates the tablet market. The competing Android operating system runs more than two-thirds of the world’s smartphones. Apple ranks fifth worldwide in the number of computers sold, and third in the U.S. There is plenty of market share left for Apple to steal from others.看看现有产品线就会发现,苹果只不过统治了平板电脑市场。全球有三分之二的智能手机搭载的是安卓操作系统。在全球电脑销量排行中,苹果仅位列第五,在美国市场上也仅位列第三。苹果还能从对手那里抢到很大的市场份额。Apple’s growth strategy is disciplined. The company doesn’t slash prices or create subpar products to meet less affluent consumers in emerging markets halfway. Apple instead holds out its meticulously designed, pricier products as coveted trophies for new middle-class consumers.苹果的增长战略是极具原则的。它不会大幅降价或推出性能平平的产品来迎合新兴市场中那些囊中羞涩的消费者。它只会拿出精心设计、价格高昂的产品,将其打造为新兴中产消费者渴望的、彰显身份的象征。Apple is only starting to wade into an array of markets that it will likely revolutionize, and dominate, in short order. Apple Pay, its bid to become your all-encompassing cashless wallet, is off to a strong start. Fledgling Apple ventures like HomeKit, CarPlay, iBeacon, and the Apple Watch provide clues to Apple’s unstated, ultimate goal: providing you with one portal, or operating system, that links your Apple devices to your car and your home.苹果进军一系列新兴市场的脚步才刚刚启动,它很可能将在很短时间内彻底改变或统治这些市场。号称要成为无所不能的电子钱包的Apple Pay,就是一个强劲的开端。而那些羽翼未丰的项目,如HomeKit,CarPlay,iBeacon以及Apple Watch,则让我们看清了苹果未曾明说的终极目标:提供一个端口或一套操作系统,将你的苹果设备与你的汽车和住宅连接在一起。No other company is anywhere near being able to match Apple in providing us with such seamless curation of our lives. The Italian novelist Umberto Eco famously said in the 1990s that Apple was like Catholicism in that its followers had to adhere to one way of doing things, while Microsoft (you could say Google nowadays) was more akin to Protestantism, which gave followers more latitude to reach their own conclusions and organize themselves accordingly.没有哪家公司能像苹果这样,让我们的生活实现无缝连接。意大利小说家安伯托o艾柯1990年代曾说过一句名言,苹果就像天主教,信徒们只能遵循一种行为方式,而微软(如今你也可以说谷歌)则更像是新教,信徒们可以有更多方式得出自己的结论并自行组织起来。And so Apple’s prospects appear brighter than ever. Its own success would seem to be the only threat to a company that has billed itself as the scrappy underdog that promised to help us “think different.” Therein lies the company’s existential challenge: Can Apple remain cool if its products become the one indispensable means of controlling your life and communicating with others?有鉴于此,苹果的前景看上去比以往任何时候都更加光明。这家公司曾经自称为斗志昂扬的失败者,声称要帮我们“不同凡想”(think different),而如今,过于成功才是它面临的唯一威胁。苹果现在面临的挑战在于:如果苹果的产品成为控制我们生活并与他人联络的不可或缺的手段时,它还能那么酷吗?I reached out to Verlyn, who now teaches at Yale, to ask whether he’s still inhabiting the Apple ecosystem. He is, and his disgust at his pre-2000 Windows experience sounds as raw as it did when he first started proselytizing for the Mac. But he draws a line at the coming Apple Watch: “I’ve never worn a watch, and I can’t imagine starting now.”为此我特地去请教目前在耶鲁大学任教的福林,看他是否还固守着苹果的生态系统。确实还这样,而且他现在依然还清楚地记得在2000年开始膜拜Mac电脑之前使用Windows系统的糟糕体验。但他跟即将上市的Apple Watch划清了界线:“我从来就不戴手表,也不能想象现在要开始戴。” /201502/360374

  

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