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Press freedom in Japan日本新闻自由Secrecy and lies保密与谎言A tough new law on secrecy has suddenly become controversial一部事关保密的严苛新法突然间引起了争议Oct 19th 2013 | TOKYO |From the print editionFull of leaks都在泄密“A PARADISE for spies” is how a former agent of the Soviet KGB described Japan in the 1980s. Little has changed, though now the politicians and bureaucrats more often pass information to journalists than to foreign agents. But this autumn Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, is trying to stop the leaks by passing a forceful new secrecy law, even as he seeks to pass economic reforms as part of his programme of measures known as “Abenomics”. He also wants to legislate for a new national security council in order to centralise intelligence information and speed decisions on national security. New rules on secrecy are needed for it to function well, says the government. The media, fearful for press freedom, are crying foul.“间谍的天堂”,在80年代,潜伏日本苏联克格勃特工如此称呼这个国度。到如今,“天堂”依然是“天堂”,只不过相比外国特工,政客与官员现在更多是把消息透露给记者。但这个秋天,安倍晋三首相决意推动一部新的强有力的保密法案,希望以此止住泄密。其认真程度,不下于他推动“安倍经济学”中的经济改革法案。他还想设立一个国家安全委员会,用以集中情报信息,便于对国家安全问题做出快速决策。政府称,国家安全委员会需要新保密法案的持。为新闻自由担忧的媒体界高呼此举违规。Japan is much less punitive than other countries towards leakers. Civil servants who breach rules on confidentiality are currently liable to just one year in prison. Only officials of Japan’s Self Defence Forces face the possibility of stricter punishment: five years for leaking defence secrets, or ten if they are gleaned from Japan’s security pact with America.相比其他国家,日本对泄密者的惩罚较轻。违规泄密的公务员只会被判一年徒刑。只有自卫队的官员会遭受更严厉的惩罚:泄露军事机密判5年,收集日美军事关系情报的判10年。The gap widened after the events of September 11th 2001, when security elsewhere became tighter. This year America used its Espionage Act of 1917 to hand down a 35-year prison sentence to Bradley Manning, a former soldier, for passing information to the WikiLeaks website. Previous Japanese governments have tried to clamp down, but memories of the feared wartime secrecy regime have caused moves to tighten the law to be blocked.2001年9·11之后,全球各地的安全局势变得紧张,而对军人泄密的惩罚也随之加重。今年,美国依照1917年制定的《反间谍法》,判处了布拉德利·曼宁35五年监禁。这位曾经的军人因向维基解密网站提供情报而获罪。日本前几任的政府都曾努力推动类似法案,但由于对战时保密制度的恐惧记忆犹新,法案受到了阻挠。Japan’s allies, especially America, complain that information entrusted to it is too often leaked, says Nobutaka Machimura, a former foreign minister who heads the ruling Liberal Democratic Party’s task-force on the law. If passed, the bill would apply to all civil servants and to high-ranking politicians. “Special secrets” would be designated in three new fields of diplomacy, counter-espionage and counter-terrorism (in addition to defence). The penalty for leaks—also applied to those who encourage breaches, such as journalists—would be up to ten years in prison. Further details are scant, but the bill reportedly lacks important provisions, including independent review of what can be called secret, and a clear limit on the period of confidentiality.前任外务大臣,负责自民党这次立法行动的町村信孝说,日本的盟国,尤其是美国,都抱怨说委托给日本的情报泄密过于频繁。如果法案得以通过,那将适用于所有公务员,包括高级别的政治家。“特秘”情报(除军事以外还)包括外交、反间谍与反恐三方面。对泄密者的惩罚——包括鼓动泄密的,譬如记者——将是十年徒刑。具体细节仍然未知,但据说法案缺少一些重要条款,包括对机密定义的独立审查,以及保密期长的限制。That means the government could keep far more information under the veil than is necessary, says Kiyoshi Gojima, deputy managing director of Sankei Shimbun, a newspaper. The public would have less access to information than before, to some degree reversing a campaign in recent years for greater government transparency.《产经新闻》副社长Kiyoshi Gojima称,这样的法案意味着政府可能会秘密掌握太多信息,超出必要数目。公众知情权更少了,这是对近年来要求更大政府透明度之潮流的一种颠覆。In the field of diplomacy, for instance, the contents and outcome of summit meetings could be kept firmly secret. Last month, Norika Fujiwara, a television celebrity, warned that information relating to radiation from the meltdown at the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear plant in 2011 could be ruled off limits by the new law. An adviser to Mr Abe denied this would happen.以外交领域为例,首脑级会议的内容与结果都将保密。电视明星藤原纪香上个月警告说,与2011年福岛核电站第一反应堆泄露有关的信息也将为新法所禁。安倍的一名顾问否认了这一点。Another risk is that public officials will stop talking to journalists entirely, says Mr Gojima. That would be a big shift from the current system of privileged press clubs, in which reporters have special channels to sources in the government and bureaucracy who pass on inside information. The current system needs reform, says Koichi Nakano of Sophia University, but there is no need to jump to the other extreme.另一风险是,公职官员会完全停止与记者的往来,Gojima如是说。这将极大地改变现有的特权新闻俱乐部体系,记者将再难通过特殊渠道从政府机构获取信息。现有体系是需要改革,但也不需要走到另一个极端,上智大学政治学教授中野晃一如是说。The final bill is expected to state the public’s right to know, and to include a commitment to press freedom. The LDP’s coalition partner, New Komeito, will insist on such amendments. But public opinion seems to be firmly against the law, so Mr Abe may face resistance, even though his government has a majority in both houses of parliament. One unwelcome outcome would be if the bill diverts government attention from economic reforms.法案的最终版本将涉及公众知情权,并包括对新闻自由的承诺。自民党的盟友新公明党将致力于完成这些修正。但公众坚决反对这项方案。即便安倍在国会两院都坐拥多数席位,他的前方仍有阻碍。如果这项法案分散了在经济改革上的专注,那结果就不妙了。201310/262876At precisely the same time, that Jerusalem was being purified by the Babylonian exiles.在同一时间, 耶路撒冷由巴比伦流亡者所净化。Here in the very gentile world of Upper Egypt, exiles are living a Jewish life of a very different kind.在上层埃及的世界,流亡者们过着犹太人截然不同的生活。This is Aswan, where the Nile once plunged over the first cataract.这里是阿斯旺,尼罗河曾经在这里汇入到第一条大瀑布中。Here on an island called Elephantine, stood a fortress town guarding the frontier between Egypt and Nubia to the south.同样在这里有一座叫做艾里提恩的小岛,而要塞城镇守卫着埃及和南方努比亚之间的边疆。Since the 7th century , it had been manned by Judean mercenaries who lived on the island along with their families.自公元前7世纪以来,它一直由岛上同家人住在一起的犹太人雇佣兵把守。A century later, when the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and carried its elite into exile, some of the ordinary people finding themselves abandoned, made their way south, an exodus in reverse.一个世纪后巴比伦人毁灭耶路撒冷,让其精英流亡海外,一些普通人发现自己遭到遗弃,于是反过来来到南方。That was one great formative moment when the Israelites became Jews and that of course was the exodus from Egypt and the Nile ran through that story like a silver th.这是以色列人成为犹太人伟大的时刻,当然是来自埃及的《出埃及记》和尼罗河起到了穿针引线的作用。That destiny had begun when pharoahs daughter had found the baby Moses in the river and taken him back to be brought up as the prince of Egypt at court.命运始于法老的女儿发现在河里的婴儿西,将带他回作为埃及王子养大。When that prince had turned liberator, his God had turned the Nile to blood in an effort to persuade pharoah to let the Israelites go.而当王子变为解放者, 为了说法老让以色列人离开他的神明已经将尼罗河染成血色。201405/300584By the mid 1800s, the horse and the cowboy had come to symbolize the wild west. And of course, with the cowboys came cattle. As the bison quickly vanished from the landscape, cattle filled their place. 到19世纪中叶,马与牛仔成为了辽阔西部的象征。当然,既然提到牛仔,那么一定会提到牛。随着北美野牛快速地从大陆上消失,家牛取代了他们的位置。Meanwhile increasing numbers of the tame horses escaped into the wild. These feral horses became known by the Spanish name, mustang. They put extra pressure on the dwindling bison numbers by competing for their grazing sites and drinking holes. 与此同时,越来越多的被驯的马儿逃到了西部。这些野马成为了西班牙语中所称的“木斯塘马(mustang)”,它们数量的上升也给北美野牛的存活增添不少压力,它们与北美野牛争抢草原和水源。Mustangs form social groups led by a dominant stallion, echoing their prehistoric relatives that lived here during the Ice Age. 木斯塘马是一个群居的种族,由一匹占统治地位的公马领导整个族群,这一点和它们冰河时代栖息于此的史前亲戚相同。Bred to carry the weight of a rider, mustangs are larger than those early wild horses, but they still display the same kind of behavior. 木斯塘马是供人骑乘的,从体重看,他们比那些之前的野马体型更大,但是两种马匹的行为有很多相同之处。By the early 1800s, the wild horse was well and truly back in North America, but how did other wildlife on the continent survive alongside growing human populations?19世纪早期,野马真正回归北美大陆,但是大陆上其他的野外生物是怎么在人类数量速度增加的情况下存活的呢?Some wild creatures did the reverse of mustangs by becoming tame and choosing to live close to people. The purple martin became an unofficial mascot for native inhabitants in the eastern half of the continent. Here people erected special nesting sites to encourage the birds to stay.一些野外生物也和木斯塘马一样选择了追随人类并被其驯。在大陆的东半侧,北美洲紫燕在当地居民眼中是一种吉祥物。在这里,人类为紫燕建巢并希望这些鸟儿留在这里。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201311/266549

New Japanese fiction新晋日本小说Slightly off A haunting introduction to the work of an important Japanese author伤感自难忘—日本知名作家小川洋子作品的简略介绍Revenge: Eleven Dark Tales. By Yoko Ogawa.《复仇:十一个暗黑传说》,作者小川洋子;AN ELDERLY man who curates a museum of torture. A landlady who grows carrots shaped like hands. A woman who buys a birthday cake for her dead son. The odd stories of Yoko Ogawa, a Japanese author, irrupt into the ordinary world as if from the unconscious or the grave. “Revenge”, the latest collection to be translated into English, offers a short and haunting introduction to her work.在传说中,年老的男人管理着收藏煎熬的物馆,女房东种着人手形状的胡萝卜,妇女为死去的儿子购买生日蛋糕。日本作家小川洋子的这些奇特故事,仿佛从坟墓中破土而出或者由无意识逃逸而出,侵入正常的世界。《复仇》,作为小川洋子最新一本被翻译为英文的合集,让我们可以一窥其作品那萦绕其中的美丽哀伤,经久难忘。Nameless narrators describe strange and often shocking encounters in cool, almost ordinary language. The characters suffocate, are stabbed to death, die crushed by the detritus of the world. Ms Ogawa has said her work is influenced by Haruki Murakamis magical-realist style. There are fantastic flashes, such as a woman born with a heart outside her body. Yet the overall effect is more David Lynch: the rot that lurks beneath the surface of the world.佚名叙述者描述了离经叛道甚而多是骇人听闻的故事,用语却是冷淡,或可以算上平常的语句。故事人物或死于窒息,或被刺而亡,或被尘世碎石压碎而亡。小川女士曾说过,她的作品深受村上春树魔幻现实风格影响。奇异画面闪烁作品其中,如一位妇女与身体之外的心共降临于世。然而整体效果其实更像大卫·林奇的现实主义:发掘潜藏在世界表面之下的腐烂。Ms Ogawa has written more than 20 books and won every big literary prize in Japan. The English translation of her novel “The Housekeeper and the Professor” in brought her attention and success in America. Publishers keen to spot the next Murakami have now released four of her books in English. Her translator, Stephen Snyder, describes her work as remarkably diverse.小川女士已著有20本书,并包揽了每一个日本文学大奖。年,她的小说《女管家和教授》的英译版让她在美国赢得了巨大的关注和成功。那些热衷寻找下一位“村上春树”的出版商已经出版了四本她的小说的英译版。她的译者,斯蒂芬·斯奈德认为小川洋子的作品极其与众不同,独一无二。Her novels range from tender to sadomasochistic; her stories are more straightforwardly disturbing. This weird otherworldly quality is deeply Japanese, says Mr Snyder. It is in part a reaction to the glassy perfection of this self-conscious society. Ms Ogawas fiction considers what is out of place. She is less concerned with brutality than with loss and absence.她的小说文笔波诡,基调可由温柔细腻转至施虐受虐,更多是直截了当的让人烦躁不安。斯奈德先生认为,这种奇异,难以理解,超脱世俗根植于日本。这种风格是小川女士对这个过于关注他人评价的社会,缠绕其间那如玻璃般的完美的反应。小川女士的小说关注的是那些和完美世界格格不入的东西。她不是为了书写残酷故事而创作,迷失和缺席才是她更加关心的事。Yet there is a steadying effect in her stories through repeating motifs—a classic technique of Japanese poetry. Rotting food and body parts recur; actors in one story reappear obliquely in others. The result is a spectral connectedness. Ms Ogawa understands the consolation of order within apparent randomness. One story describes a dying mans cluttered house: “As I studied the mass more closely, I began to feel that it was not the product of random accumulation but that it actually had a coherent form all its own.”通过重复主题这一经典的日本诗歌技巧,她的故事有种稳定的效果。正在腐烂的食物和尸体反复出现,在一个故事出现的角色会在另一个故事里间接地出现,这些都是冥冥之中早注定。表面杂乱无章,小川女士却深谙顺序的艺术。她有个故事,描述了一个将死男人,凌乱不堪的房间。 “当我对于“乱”有更深的理解,我开始意识到它不是随意积累的产物,而事实上,它有着自己条理性的形式。” /201405/302435

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