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2019年02月18日 00:43:05

The cat in the hat can be merged with a verb phrase to create a new object, a sentence: The cat in the hat came back. And that sentence can be merged into bigger sentences: You think the cat in the hat came back. And so on.”the cat in the hat”再与动词短语结合就能组成句子” The cat in the hat came back”。短句继续结合组成长句” You think the cat in the hat came back”。以此类推。Why would this be of any use? No one else had Merge. Whom did Prometheus talk to? Nobody, at least not using Merge. (Humans may aly have been using cries and gestures, as many animals do.) But Merge-enabled, hierarchically structured language, according to Mr Chomsky, did not evolve for talking at all. Rather, it let Prometheus take simple concepts and combine them in sentence-like ways in his own head. The resulting complex thoughts gave him a survival advantage. If he then passed the mutant Merge gene on to several surviving children, who thrived and passed on the Merge gene to their children, Messrs Chomsky and Berwick believe that they must have then come to dominate the population of humans in Africa. Only later, as Merge came to work with the vocal and hearing organs, did human language emerge.这能有什么用呢?别人又没有“合并”。“普罗米修斯”与谁去谈话?没有人,至少不用“合并” 。(人类可能正如许多动物一般,一直使用叫喊还有手势。)但是根据乔姆斯基,合并型的、纵向结构的语言并不是为会话而进化。确切地说,这种语言使得“普罗米修斯”采取简单概念,并自己思考用句子的方式把它们结合起来。结果这些复杂思维给了他生存上的优势。如果他当时将这一突变的“合并”基因遗传给自己几位幸存的孩子,而他们继续繁衍并将“合并”基因传递给他们的小孩,乔姆斯基与贝里克认为想必他们那时已经主导了非洲人类。之后只有当“合并”与发音、听力器官相结合,人类语言才得以出现。 Many scholars find this to be somewhere between insufficient, improbable and preposterous. The emergence of a single mutation that gives such a big advantage is derided by biologists as a “hopeful monster” theory; most evolution is gradual, operating on many genes, not one. Some ability like Merge may exist, but this does not explain why some words may merge and others dont, much less why the worlds languages merge so differently. (Not a single non-English example appears in “Why Only Us”, nor a single foreign language in its index.)许多学者认为依靠具有“合并”大优势的单一突变体的这一语言进化理论是不充分、不恰当,而且荒谬的。同时这一观点也被生物学家讽刺为“有前途的怪诞”理论;就生物学上认为大多数进化是渐进型,需要很多基因共同作用,而不是单独一个。一些像“合并”的能力可能确实存在,但这不能解释为何一些词汇可能合并而其他不能,更不能解释为何这个世界的语言合并地如此不同。(《为什么我们是唯一的》书中所举的例子都是英语的,在索引里也没有一门外语)Mr Chomsky says those who disagree with his ever-more contentious ideas are either blind or hucksters. Critics refer to a “cult” of “acolytes” around a “Great Leader”, unwilling to challenge him or engage seriously with the work of non-Chomskyan scholars. (One critic has said “to be savaged by Chomsky is a badge of honour.”) Linguistics is now divided into a Chomskyan camp, a large number of critics and many more still for whom the founder of the modern discipline is simply irrelevant. He is unlikely to end up like Freud, a marginal figure in modern psychology whose lasting influence has been on the humanities. Mr Chomskys career is more likely to end up like Einsteins—at least in the sense that his best and most influential work came early on.乔姆斯基表示,那些不同意他曾更具争议的想法的人都是瞎子或是跳梁小丑。批评家们把这些解释为一群围着“伟大领导者”打转的信徒们对乔姆斯基的狂热崇拜,他们不愿意挑战他或从事非乔姆斯基学派的学术工作。(一位批评家曾说过“被乔姆斯基抨击也荣幸之至”。)语言学如今被划分成乔姆斯基阵营、大量的批评者以及还有更多是与现代语言体系建立者不相关人等。乔姆斯基本身是不可能像心理学家佛洛依德那样结束他的学术生涯——在现代心理学被边缘化,但却能一直对人性产生持续的影响。乔姆斯基最有可能像爱因斯坦那样—至少在狭义上,他在初期就开始推出最佳且最有影响力的学术著作。翻译:邓小雪 amp; 颜琪琳 校对:杨霭琳 译文属译生译世 /201604/435412永春医院宫颈肥大John Bellezza and Tsering Gyalpo have their own ideas, ideas that take them to the infamous cave of the dead, could the bodies of the Chinese army saw more than 50 years ago be the corpses of the last royals of Guge?约翰·贝勒查及和嘉波才让有他们的想法,他们前往恐怖的干尸洞五十多年前人民解放军所看见的尸骸是否是最后的古格王朝贵族。The only answer is the overwhelming stench of more recent decay.回应他们的只有洞内强烈的尸臭。The cave unfortunately has once again become a burial site, and in recent years it remains of Tibetans have once again been deposited there, and this is actually complicating the archaeology about determining what was really there originally, and whats come after.很不幸的 这座洞穴一度成为弃尸的地点,直到最近几年仍旧有藏民将尸首放在那里,这使得考古的工作更加的复杂,哪些是原有的,哪些又是后来放的呢。In Tibet the dead receive a sky burial, this means corpses are carried away by birds, skilled morticians cut up the dead body to encourage eagles and vultures to consume the flesh, local tales suggest that at one time the cave may have held as many as 400 skeletons,西藏采行天葬由鸟类吃食尸体,负责处理尸体的殡葬人员将尸体切块让老鹰及秃鹰吃食,传说干尸洞内的尸骸多达四百具。but over time, bandits, scholars and the curious have taken much, leaving but a few remains, Tibetan rituals of the dead forbid any possible DNA studies, but John Bellezza believes this could very well be the resting place of the last king of Guge.随着时间推移,盗匪,学者及好奇的民众拿走多数的尸骸,现在只剩下几具,西藏葬礼拒绝DNA检测,但约翰·贝勒查相信古格王朝的最后一位国王葬在干尸洞中。There are some evidence that lends credence to the idea that indeed the corpses in the cave are those of the royal family, most of them seemed to have been beheaded, to have undergone execution, so that probably would not have been the case with the common soldiers who had been, who had fallen on battlefield.那里有一些可采信的据能明,洞内的遗骸的确属于古格皇族,他们大多遭到斩首,全数判处死刑,所以应该不可能是,一般战死沙场的将士的遗骸。译文属201605/444015泉州市妇幼保健人流要多少钱Berlins image柏林映像Losing its cool风华渐失The German capital, famous for its edgy urbanity and quality of life, looks tired以前卫和高生活品质闻名于世的德国首都,如今却是一副倦怠的样子A disappointing missed opportunity?错失良机,让人惋惜?WHEN a magazine proclaims on its cover that a city is the worlds “coolest”, it is often a sign that it has peaked. Newsweek did it to London in 1996, just as the city was becoming unaffordable for many cool people. Now it is Berlins turn. In October Stern, a German magazine, declared the city the coolest, giving special attention to its many great clubs for partying.如果某家杂志封面上大肆赞美某个城市为世界“最好玩”的城市,那往往预示着这座城市开始衰退。美国《新闻周刊》曾经于1996年夸赞伦敦,而当时这个城市不断增加的消费让很多冷静的人难以承受。如今,轮到柏林上演这一幕了。德国《明星》杂志于10月份宣扬它是最好玩的城市,并特意报导了许多举行派对的大型俱乐部。The party scene is thriving, drawing tourists from Tel Aviv toStockholmwho fly in for long insomniac weekends. The most famous venue, Berghain, notorious for its arbitrary bouncers, is a world hub for techno music. But true cognoscenti are nostalgic for the rougher, anarchic days just after the Berlin Wall fell, when clubs popped up in abandoned spaces along the former no-mans-land, always several steps ahead of tedious fire regulations. A new book, “Berlin Wonderland”, documents the “wild years between 1990-96” with black-and-white photographs.派对场面激奋人心,从特拉维夫到斯德哥尔的众多海外游客纷纷而至,在这里度过几个漫长无眠的周末。最出名的地方非世界电子音乐中心—柏林“伯根哈因”夜店莫属,其中随心所欲的保安让该店“闻名于世”。但真正的电音行家却一直怀念柏林墙倒塌后那些艰苦混乱的岁月,各种各样的夜店纷纷在之前无人地带的废弃地方出现,总能机智应对冗长乏味的禁火规定。《柏林奇境》这本新书用黑白照片讲述了1990年至1996年期间的癫狂岁月。Some Berliners nostalgia goes further back. The hottest museum exhibition is about West Berlin as a freedom-loving, libertine and yet parochial island surrounded byEast Germany. These days, by contrast, locals are annoyed by throngs of expats and westerners gentrifying formerly edgy neighbourhoods like Prenzlauer Berg.还有一些柏林人则怀念更加久远的年代。当时最受欢迎的物馆展览主题一般是关于被东德环绕,地域狭小但崇尚自由,无拘无束的西柏林。相比之下,如今当地人却对不断涌入的移民和西方游客颇为恼怒—他们让以往棱角鲜明的普伦茨劳贝格街区变得更优雅了。Berlinis still fascinating. Nowhere are the scars of history—holocaust, war, destruction, division—so visible. And rents and prices remain low. A Facebook post by an Israeli expat in Berlin, called Olim le Berlin (“ascend to Berlin”), has launched a small exodus of Israelis who come for affordable fun and find Germanys dark past more intriguing than repulsive.柏林依旧迷人。历史之殇无处不在—大屠杀、战争、毁灭、分裂—皆历历在目。租金和物价仍然处于低水平。一位以色列裔柏林人在脸书上发表一个名为“进柏林记”的活动—该活动吸引了少许追求享乐的以色列人,并且让他们发现相比德国曾经的黑暗历史,柏林纸醉金迷的生活更有诱惑力。Yet rents have been rising for years, and locals and creative types complain about being priced out (even as they oppose any attempts to build new housing). Worse, much of the city has been made unusable or ungainly because of construction. The most notorious project of all isBerlins new airport, originally due to open in 2011 but repeatedly delayed (to 2017 on the latest estimate). It is now the butt of jokes.然而,租金连续几年增长,当地人与创作型的人埋怨迫于高房价而离开柏林(即使他们始终反对建造新住房)。更为不妙的是,城市的很多地方由于施工建设而无法使用或丑陋不堪。其中臭名昭著的工程当属柏林新机场,原计划于2011年投入使用,但却一再地延迟(据最新预计于2017年建成)。它成了当今时代的一大笑柄。Even more telling is a huge building-site in the city centre, where the former castle of the Prussian kings (damaged in the war, razed by the communists) is being rebuilt to house a cultural forum. After years of controversy, most Berliners have decided that it is boring, retrograde and a missed opportunity. And there may be too little money left to make three of the fa?ades look like the old castle, so the edifice could end up disappointing even its fans.更值得说道的是在市中心进行的一项遗址修复工程,该遗址原是普鲁士国王的城堡(在战争中受损,被共产主义分子摧毁),重建后用于举办文化论坛。历经多年的争议,大部分柏林人一致认为,这一遗址工程的是让人厌烦,落后的并且已经失去最好的时机。并且,项目资金可能也不足以持让城堡的三面都恢复原状,再这样继续下去可能会最终让工程的持者们都失望万分。For Berliners with children, schools are the biggest problem. The centre-left Social Democrats who runBerlins government have fiddled about with no fewer than 23 school reforms, most of them ideologically tinged to level down rather than foster excellence.Berlincomes last in the school rankings amongGermanys 16 states. Now the government is harassing the international (ie, English-taught) schools with new regulations, which will anger many expats and cosmopolitan locals.对于有孩子的柏林人来说,学校成了最头痛的问题。柏林的执政党中左翼社会民主党先后进行了多达23次的学校改革,结果一事无成,他们当中大部分人只是在思想上轻描淡写,想以此来消除差距,而非培育英才。柏林在德国16个州的学校中排名倒数第一。现在政府采取的新法规让国际性(英语教学)学校烦恼不已,也会触怒许多旅居于此的外国人和来自世界各地的当地移民。It is symbolically fitting that Klaus Wowereit, the gay and flamboyant Berliner who famously described his city as “poor but sexy”, has just retired after 13 years as mayor, to be replaced by a relatively grey protégé, Michael Müller. After decades of being subsidised byGermanys richer states,Berlinnow balances its budget. It is like an adolescent who has grown up and wants to prove hes responsible. Hence its bid to host the Olympics in either 2024 or 2028. WithinGermanyand evenEuropeit is still hard to find a more exciting city. And yet, as the new nostalgia suggests,Berlins best days may aly be behind it.恰如前柏林市长克劳斯?沃维雷特所说,这是一个“贫穷又性感”的城市—他是一个个性分明的同性恋者,刚刚从长达13年的市长之位上卸任。下一届出任的市长为稍显黯淡的门徒米哈尔·米勒。柏林经受了德国发达州市数十年的欺辱,如今预算平衡。它像是刚成年,急于明自己能有担当的青年人。因此,它申办2024年或2028年奥运会。在德国,甚至是欧洲,依然难以找到一座更激奋人心的城市。然而,如新一代怀旧者所言,柏林的巅峰时光已经一去不复返。译者:石海霞 校对:曾擎禹 译文属译生译世 /201501/353069This week the Flint Water Advisory Task Force released its 116-page report.Although Gov. Snyder appointed the task force, he and his administration were not spared in its frank findings.At the formal release of the task force report, co-chair Chris Kolb singled out the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality as having, as the report said, ;a degree of intransigence and belligerence that has no place in government.;;It is extremely troublesome to me,; Kolb said at the release, ;that an agency whose primary role is to protect human health and the environment came to these decisions, and they never backed off those decisions no matter how many red flags they saw.;On Wednesdays Stateside, the other co-chair Ken Sikkema noted the Emergency Management Law contributed to the Flint water debacle.;By having an emergency manager that has virtually dictatorial control over a city, you lose the checks and balances that representative government provides,; he told us.Dr. Matthew Davis is another member of the task force, and a professor of pediatrics and internal medicine at the University of Michigan Health System.From the top, the report has some strong language. It opens: ;The Flint water crisis is a story of government failure, intransigence, unpreparedness, delay, inaction, and environmental injustice.;Davis tells us the task force made several important points in the report, but that first sentence pretty well sums up many of the lessons learned through the investigation.;The state government and, to some degree, its partners at local levels and at the federal level, did not respond in the appropriate way to several indications that things were quite horribly wrong with the water supply that was being used for drinking water in Flint. The color was wrong, the taste was wrong, the smell was wrong, there were infections from E. coli initially and later legionella that may be related to the water supply as well.;So what does the report recommend be done to change the bureaucratic culture and whats being called the political ineptitude that lead to the lead poisoning of an entire Michigan city?;What needs to happen on several levels is a change to be more responsive to concerns expressed by the public,; Davis says.;One of the challenges that we brought up in our report is that with the emergency manager law, there was no ability for the local population to go to their locally-elected officials and get something done in terms of responding to their concerns about the water.;The emergency manager law was sort of billed as a way to shortcut the local council and take immediate action, but Davis tells us that may have done more harm than good. He says emergency managers lack the actual experience required to make decisions such as switching a water source.;In other words, the emergency manager is focused really on just the fiscal health on something like a city, or a school system in the case of Detroit right now, and not to handle the full bth of decisions that need to happen at the local level. And unfortunately, what happened here was a grave failure in terms of not having the appropriate expertise at the right time to do right by the people of Flint with their water supply,; he says.The report also criticizes the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services for its mishandling of the outbreak of Legionnaires disease in Flint and Genesee County. Davis served with the DHHS as the Michigan Department of Community Healths Chief Medical Executive when the first wave of Legionnaires cases cropped up in 2014.;Unfortunately, I was not aware of the Legionnaires cases,; Davis says. He explains that when cases occur within a county, that county is expected to follow up on them, and DHHS only gets involved at the countys request.;The county did ask for that help and asked for the help from the epidemiological team. The chief medical executive, the role that I had, is only asked to be part of those discussions when theres some question or when … asked to provide input,; he says.The epidemiologists are trained to handle the evaluation, and in this case Davis says they responded to the Genesee County Health Department to assist in the investigation of the 2014 Legionnaires cases.;Should I have been part of this task force?; Davis asks. ;I take that question very seriously, and its something that I thought about a lot when I was asked to be part of the task force.;He tells us he was asked to be part of the task force because he understands the inner workings of the DHHS and because he could apply his experience as a physician and his knowledge of public health policy to the questions presented before the task force.Davis says there was also some question over whether, given his role at DHHS, he could be fairly critical of the department in terms of its role in the Flint water situation.;I think that anyone who sees the report that we released yesterday will see that we were more than critical,; Davis says.Davis tells us one of the task forces key recommendations is to presume that all children in Flint have been exposed to harmful levels of lead and treat them as such.It has been said that only a small fraction of Flints children were actually lead-exposed, but Davis tells us they simply ;dont have information that suggests there are many, many kids in Flint who are safe just because they werent tested.;Additionally, he explains that the lead test performed on the children only indicates their lead level for the past 30 to 35 days, and so its possible a child may have been exposed to lead, but their levels could have normalized by the time they ended up in the doctors office.;Given what we know is true about the lead in the water in Flint, it makes sense from a scientific point of view and especially for the health and wellbeing of those kids to be very thorough in our follow-up for them.;201603/434273福建省医科大学二院怎么样

医科大学第二医院做无痛人流泉州妇科医院哪个好I do the dance.All right.We are back with the first lady of the ed States.我要跳舞了 好的 欢迎回来 我们今天有幸请来了美国第一夫人I dont know if you created this dance.I did not. Ok, but you know it very well.我不确定是不是你创造了这舞蹈 才没有 好吧 但你对这舞很熟Youve rehearsed it, youve practiced it,你有排练过 有练习过and uh-its part of the.. ;Lets move; Campaign. Yes.而且它算是 ;动起来;运动 是的Its important to move, important to dance,so...运动和跳舞都很重要 所以I got the dance steps the same time you got the dance steps.我跟你同时拿到的舞步指导So dont even try it!All right. Dont try to set it up!All right.所以别想找借口 好吧 别想先找台阶下 好吧We brought in some help for this dance,我们为这舞找了一些帮手Please welcome mentors Twitch and Travis Wall.让我们欢迎导师特维奇和特维斯·沃尔Along with the ;So you think you can Dance; Dancers.还有;舞魅天下;的舞者们Ok, y? Yeah.Hit it.Wait wait wait.. I lost my mic pack.好的 准备好了没 好了 开始 等等 等下 我的麦掉了The microphone.I could taken you down. Oh wait!麦克风 我本来可以趁机拿下你的 -等一下You see, yeah.It was that hip thrust. It was that.你看吧 对吧 是因为甩臀的动作 就是那个Is it gonna stay? Cause there is some hip thrusting!能固定住吗 因为有好多甩臀的动作Yes!So, there is a lot of it.Hey, if my mic falls, I may stop it.好了 好吧 有好多这种动作 如果我的麦掉了 我可能就停下来了All right, lets try it again.好吧 我们再试一次 /201602/427162泉州市第一医院宫颈疾病Research shows that the climate in western Tibet has been steadily changing over the past millenium, and that man has been on the losing end of an age old battle with nature.研究显示西藏气候过去经历大改变在与大自然长期对抗中,人类是落败的一方。Areas that were once moist and relatively lush are now dry and have become deserts, and in Guge this process is all the more intensified,这里一度是多雨又富庶的地方,但如今却变成干燥的沙漠,这对古格来说形成相当强烈的对比,its because its located in the range shadow of Asias greatest mountain ranges.因为古格王朝位在亚洲最大山脉的背侧。Evidence of this ongoing force known as desertification comes from satellite photographs of once arable fields now abandoned,从卫星照片可以看出沙漠化曾是耕地的地方,如今弃置荒废,but not all of them moved away, in the middle of desert like conditions that surround modern Tsaparang, there are still a few places with enough moisture to grow barley, the fall of the Guge kingdom might not have been triggered by just one major military campaign,但并非所有地方都改变,在现代札布让周围的,沙漠类似地区中仍有几处地方可种植青稞,引发古格王朝消失的原因可能不是拉达克人的侵略。but rather from a long term sustained assault from mother nature herself,而是长期的自然变迁,even today 400 years after the fall of the citadel, nature is still battling with the remaining few farmers struggling to eke out an existence from the land,即使是今天,在古格王朝投降后的四百年大自然仍然在打击这片土地上寥寥无几的农人。the farmers explained to John that they have been trying to grow barley in these fields, during the time the Guge kingdom they said the water levels much higher than it is now,农人向约翰说,他们想在这些田地内种植青棵,在古格王朝时代水位比现在高很多。but the lack of water has now driven them to the lower areas right next to the river, the demise of the Guge kingdom was the end of line of Tibetan monarchs that stretch from 1630 back to 200 years AD,缺水问题已经扩及象泉河附近的低洼地区,古格王朝灭亡后1630年起存续两百年的西藏王族亦告结束。but the legacy of Guge lives on in festivities like this annual horse fair, as they would centuries ago,但古格王朝的传承活在今日札布让的年度赛马盛会之中,仿照几世纪以前。Buddhist monks are on hand to bless the jockeys, wishing them a successful and safe endeavour, participants dipped their fingers into beer and flicked it heavenward, a sign of gratitude and an offering to the divine.佛教僧侣出席赛马会祝福赛马勇士希望他们平安成功,参赛者依照仪式用手指沾取啤酒,往天空轻弹,显示他们的感激,以酒祭拜天神。But it is when the races begin, that we are reminded of the lenient of these hardy men.赛马开始后我们回想到这些强壮男儿的家族。 译文属201605/445167泉州那个医院做孕前检查好

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