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In one campaign, with General Lee#39;s forces threatening Washington,在其中一场战役里,当李将军的部队逼近华盛顿Lincoln responds by telegraphing direct orders to his generals.林肯用电报直接向将军们下令The exposed position of General Banks makes his immediate relief a point of paramount importance.班克斯将军的位置已暴露,因此当务之急是解除他的指挥权You are therefore directed by the President to move against Jackson at Harrisonburg.你现在直接听命于总统立刻移师哈里斯堡迎战杰克逊部This movement must be made immediately.务必立即出发In the course of the war,Lincoln sends almost 1000 telegrams from the small office.整个南北战争期间林肯从这个小办公室发出了约1000份电报But the South never grasps the potential of the telegraph in creating a centralized command and control system.但南方从未意识到电报的这一潜力它可以建立一个集中的指挥和控制系统It means Southern generals like Lee must plan their battles without that kind of strategic overview.这也意味像李这样南方的将军们只能在没有战略全局观的条件下指挥作战As the war continues,Lincoln brings down the hammer of his war machine.随着战争的继续,林肯使出了他那战争机器的致命杀招Industry,Lines of communication and supplies,manpower and firepower, are all marshalled to deliver a blow after blow to the Confederate Army.工业,通讯和供给线路,兵力火力都被调动起来向南方联盟军发动一波接一波的攻击 But the South,bolstered by the belief in the rightness of its cause doggedly refuses to give in.然而南方坚信他们是在为正义而战, 仍旧负隅顽抗拒绝投降As a result, the death toll just keeps rising.因此,死亡人数不断攀升At Antietam in 1862, 6,000 are killed,17,000 wounded.1862年安提耶坦一役中6000士兵阵亡, 17000士兵负伤Over four times as many as during world War II#39;s D-Day landings.是二战时诺曼底登陆死伤人数的四倍The carnage will trigger a revolution in battlefield medicine.巨大的伤亡催生了一场战地医疗的革命3/4 of all operations conducted by army surgeons during the Civil War are amputations.内战时期军队外科医生实施的手术四分之三均为截肢Letters from surgeon William Watson record what these battlefield ERs were like.外科医生威廉·沃森所写的信里记录了当时战场上急诊医师的工作状况Day before yesterday I performed 14 amputations without leaving the table.前天,我一共进行了14个截肢手术一刻也没有离开手术台 I do not exaggerate when I say我可以毫不夸张地说I have performed at the least calculation, 50 amputations.算起来我起码做了50台截肢手术There are so many severely wounded to the joints.很多士兵的关节受了重伤There are so many operations yet to be performed.还有很多手术要做Surgeon Theodore Dimon describes the hideous wounds left by weapons like the Minie ball.外科医生西奥多·戴蒙描述了由迷你弹这类武器所造成的可怕伤口 /201211/207392

Today in History: Thursday, December 06, 2012历史上的今天:2012年12月6日,星期四On Dec. 6, 1998, Hugo Chavez, who had staged a bloody coup attempt against the Venezuelan government six years earlier, was elected president.1998年12月6日,六年前上演一场血腥政变企图反对委内瑞拉政府的乌戈·查韦斯当选总统。1790 Congress moved from New York City to Philadelphia.1790年,国会从纽约搬到费城。1907 The worst mining disaster in U.S. history occurred as 362 men and boys died in a coal mine explosion in Monongah, W.Va.1907年,在西弗吉尼亚州Monongah发生美国历史上最严重的矿难,362名男人和男孩们死于煤矿爆炸。1923 A presidential address was broadcast on radio for the first time as President Calvin Coolidge spoke to a joint session of Congress.1923年,总统卡尔文·柯立芝在国会联席会议上的演讲首次通过广播传播出去。1947 Everglades National Park in Florida was dedicated.1947年,佛罗里达大沼泽地国家公园落成。1957 The AFL-CIO expelled the International Brotherhood of Teamsters.1957年,美国劳联-产联驱逐了国际卡车司机联盟。1957 America#39;s first attempt at putting a satellite into orbit blew up on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Fla.1957年,美国首次尝试将一颗卫星送入轨道,但在卡纳维尔角发射台发生爆炸。1969 A free concert by the Rolling Stones at Altamont Speedway in Livermore, Calif., was marred by the deaths of four people, including a man who was stabbed by a Hell#39;s Angel.1969年,滚石乐队在加利福尼亚州利弗莫尔阿尔塔蒙特高速公路上举办的免费音乐会因造成四人死亡而糟蹋,其中包括一名被地狱天使刺伤的男子。1973 House minority leader Gerald R. Ford was sworn in as vice president, succeeding Spiro T. Agnew, who had resigned after pleading no contest to income tax evasion.1973年,众议院少数党领袖杰拉尔德·福特接替逃税的斯皮罗·阿格纽宣誓就任副总统。1992 Thousands of Hindu extremists destroyed a mosque in India, setting off two months of Hindu-Muslim rioting that claimed at least 2,000 lives.1992年,成千上万的印度教极端分子摧毁了一座清真寺,引发了印度教徒与穆斯林之间长达两个月的骚乱,造成至少2000人丧生。1994 Orange County, Calif., filed for bankruptcy protection due to investment losses of about billion.1994年,加州橘郡由于投资亏损约20亿美元申请破产保护。2004 Al-Qaida struck the U.S. Consulate in Jiddah, Saudi Arabia, with explosives and machine guns, killing nine people.2004年,基地组织使用爆炸物和机袭击美国驻吉达、沙特阿拉伯大使馆,造成九人死亡。2006 The bipartisan Iraq Study Group concluded that President George W. Bush#39;s war policies had failed in almost every regard, and said the situation in Iraq was ;grave and deteriorating.;2006年,两党伊拉克研究小组得出结论,总统乔治W.布什的战争政策完全失败,并表示伊拉克局势“严重恶化”。 /201212/212713

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