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2018年12月13日 13:52:27 | 作者:飞排名永州新闻 | 来源:新华社
The meteoric growth of Huawei, the Chinese telecoms group, is reflected in its changing presence at Mobile World Congress in Barcelona.中国电信集团华为(Huawei)飞快的成长速度,就体现在它出席巴塞罗那世界移动大会(Mobile World Congress)的排场变化上。When the company first attended the world’s biggest telecoms event in 2003, it was forced to take a tent on the beach after it missed out on a place in the official conference hall.2003年这家企业首次参加这一全球最大电信盛会时,由于未能获得正式会议厅中的展位,该公司不得不在海滩上占据了一个帐篷的位置。“Everyone walked around asking ‘Who is Huawei’?,” Vincent Peng, its European president, tells the Financial Times days before the event. “People questioned if the Chinese can even make telecoms infrastructure; how long we were going to be in Europe; if we were just there to look at the market.”大会开幕几天前,华为西欧地区总裁彭(Vincent Peng)向英国《金融时报》表示:“每个路过的人都在问:‘华为是谁?’甚至有人问,中国能生产电信基础设备吗?我们打算在欧洲待多久?我们到那里去是不是只是为了看一下市场?”This year a company that has become the third-largest smartphone vendor in the world will occupy half of one of the enormous hangers that houses the event to show off its latest network services and products.今年,华为将占据大会所在的其中一个巨大机库的一半,展示其最新网络务和产品。Huawei’s area is no longer protected by a large barrier as in previous years but instead opened up to show its latest technologies. Executives were just as open, keen to stress the group wanted to work with the rest of telecoms industry to develop next generation, 5G networks.华为的展区不再像往年那样用巨大的屏障保护起来,而是开放式的,向人们展示着其最新的技术。高管们也同样开放,他们主动强调该集团希望与电信业同行合作,开发下一代的5G网络技术。Guo Ping, one of Huawei’s rotating chief executives, says: “China, the European Union and other countries are aly discussing 5G standards. We hope stakeholders can reach consensus on the standards.”华为轮值首席执行官之一郭平表示:“中国、欧盟(EU)和其他国家已经在讨论5G标准。我们希望各相关方面能够就该标准达成一致。”Huawei is on a par with the world’s largest equipment supplier, Ericsson, which has seven Ramp;D centres across the continent and employs 1,200 people.华为与全球最大电信设备供应商爱立信(Ericsson)规模不相上下,已成为全球第三大智能手机商,仅在欧洲就有7个研发中心、雇有1200人。Yet Mr Peng said more could be done to extend its business on the continent.不过,彭表示,在向欧洲拓展业务方面,华为还有努力的空间。The company is working to develop an “ecosystem” around connected cities, which Mr Peng refers to as the third stage of the group’s plans in Europe after initial success in selling its products was followed by the development of its telecoms operations in the region.该公司眼下正努力开发围绕互联城市的“生态系统”。彭称,这是该公司欧洲计划的第三阶段。在此之前,继在欧洲销售产品的计划取得初步成功之后,该公司已开始在欧洲发展电信业务。“We want to bring in local partners. If we can make the solutions work in Europe then we can help them sell to the rest of the world,” he says. In consumer mobile, Huawei is still “second tier”.他说:“我们希望引入当地的合作伙伴。如果我们能让该解决方案在欧洲行之有效,接下来我们就能帮助他们销往全球其他地方。”而在移动消费领域,华为目前仍处于“第二梯队”。The company wants to add to its stable of high-end devices with the next iteration of its flagship range of phones called the P9. Mr Peng says they will have an advanced camera and specifications to match the top selling handsets of rivals such as Apple and Samsung. The devices will use Huawei’s own chip set, which it claims has improved power consumption and battery life.该公司希望把名为P9的下一代旗舰系列手机加入到其高端产品线中。彭表示,该系列配备先进的摄像头和技术参数,可以与苹果(Apple)、三星(Samsung)等对手的畅销机型一较高下。P9系列将采用华为自己的芯片组,据称将更省电、电池寿命更长。The company also plans to spend more on sponsorship and advertising to develop its brand, and intends to open its first flagship retail stores.华为还计划提高赞助和广告方面的出,以打造自身品牌,并有意开设首家旗舰零售店。“We have a quite big gap compared to tier one. That is what we are working on,” he said.“相比第一梯队,我们还有一个相当大的差距。这是我们正在努力的地方,”他说。Huawei has even more ambitious plans in its telecoms network building division, which still accounts for about 70 per cent of sales.在电信网络架构业务上,华为制定了更加雄心勃勃的计划,目前该业务依然约占华为销售额的70%。Mr Peng wants to join forces with European technology groups to develop suites of services and applications that will enable connected homes and cities, the so-called internet of things.彭希望能和欧洲科技公司合作开发能够连接住宅和城市的务和应用套组,即所谓的物联网。So-called “innovation labs” will be established in cities such as in Munich, Paris and Amsterdam.华为将在慕尼黑、巴黎和阿姆斯特丹等城市设立所谓的“创新实验室”。“We have picked some cities to demonstrate to the world that this is the way to live and work. [Smart cities] want the whole end-to-end solution — from connectivity, infrastructure, content, applications.”“我们挑选了一些城市,向世界展示,这就是生活和工作的应有方式。(智慧城市)想要的是全套端对端解决方案,从连通性、基础设施、到内容和应用。”The centres will work alongside the support for at least three new “connected cities” in Europe — expected to be in London, Madrid and Berlin — which form part of the group’s strategy to extend its influence more deeply across the continent.这些中心将为欧洲至少3个新的“互联城市”(预计将是伦敦、马德里和柏林)提供持,这是华为一项策略的部分,即更深入地拓展其在整个欧洲的影响力。But Mr Peng says that European technology has been held back by a lack of scale. When Huawei launched its Honor smartphone range — an online only brand — it found that the only means to promote and sell devices was through US groups such as Amazon, Facebook, Instagram and Twitter.但彭表示,规模不足阻碍了欧洲技术的发展。当华为发布仅在线销售的“荣耀”(Honor)系列智能手机时,发现他们只能通过亚马逊(Amazon)、Facebook、Instagram和Twitter等美国公司来推广和销售。“Europe has a lot of good companies but the environment is not good for them to scale up,” he says.“欧洲有很多优秀的公司,但环境不利于它们扩大规模,”他说。Nonetheless, he admits that Europe has been more welcoming to Huawei than other regions such as the US, where politicians have raised suspicions about its links to the Chinese state.尽管如此,他也坦言欧洲比美国等其他地区更欢迎华为。美国的政治人士对华为与中国政府的关系提出了疑问。“European countries are the most open to new things and challenges. Its open, honest, transparent to Huawei, which we like a lot.”“欧洲国家对新事物和新挑战最为开放。欧洲对华为是开放、诚信和透明的,我们非常中意这一点。” /201602/428241We all know that passwords such as ‘12345#39; and ‘password1#39; are far from secure, but how about your lock screen pattern for your smartphone? A study shows that most of us use similar patterns to unlock our handsets, meaning they could be easily guessed by criminals.我们都知道,“12345”或“password1”这样的密码非常不安全,但是你使用的智能手机的锁屏图形安全性又如何呢?一项研究显示,我们多数人都会使用相似的图形来解锁手机。这就意味着,解锁图形很容易地就会被犯罪分子猜到。More than three quarters of people start their lock screen patterns from a corner, according to the researcher behind the worrying work. Marte L#248;ge, a graduate of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, also said 44 per cent of study participants start their Android lock screen pattern #39;password#39; from the top left corner. 这项引人担忧的研究背后的研究人员称,超过四分之三的手机用户所使用的锁屏图形从四个边角之一开始。挪威理工大学(Norwegian University of Science and Technology)的研究生马尔特·洛格还表示,在所有研究参与者中,有44%的人为自己的安卓手机设置的锁屏图形“密码”都从左上角开始。She found that around 10 per cent of patterns create a letter, such as an N or C, which more often than not corresponded to a user#39;s own name, or that of a loved one, Ars Technica reported. She presented her findings into Android lock patterns, which were introduced in 2008, at PasswordCon in Las Vegas last week.据科技客媒体Ars Technica报道,洛格发现,大约10%的解锁图形会构成一个字母,比如N或C。多数时候,这些字母都与用户自己或亲近的人的名字对应。安卓图形解锁于2008年推出。上周,洛格在举行的密码保护研讨会(PasswordCon)展示了自己针对安卓手机的图形解锁的研究成果。Ms L#248;ge sampled 4,000 user-generated Android lock patterns as part of her thesis. She asked study participants to create three Android lock patterns – one for an imaginary shopping app, another for a fake banking app and one to unlock a phone.洛格在其论文中取样了4000个用户自创的安卓解锁图形。她要求研究参与者创造出三个安卓锁屏图形——一个用于一款虚构的购物应用,一个用于一款虚构的应用,一个用于解锁手机。She found that most people chose to create a pattern that travelled through the minimum amount of nodes of spots – four – making their pattern much less secure than if they opted for the maximum number of nodes. The average number of nodes used was five, meaning there were less than 8,000 possible pattern combinations, but this dropped to just 1,624 for four node patterns.她发现,大多数人用的图形都只使用了最少的节点,即四个节点。与选择使用最多节点相比,这样做会大大降低安全系数。用户平均使用的节点数为五个,这意味着总共可以产生不到8000个可能的图形组合。但如果只使用四个节点,那么这个数字将会降到1624。Ms L#248;ge found that most people chose patterns that moved from left to right, making guessing combinations slightly easier.洛格发现,多数人选择的图形都是从左向右移动,这样使猜到密码的难度又稍微降低了一些。Men were more likely than women to choose long and complicated patterns, but interestingly there was little difference between the patterns chosen by right-handed and left-handed participants.与女性相比,男性选择复杂的长密码的可能性更高。但是有趣的是,右撇子和左撇子用户创造的图形并未有很大不同。‘Humans are predictable,#39; Ms L#248;ge told Ars. ‘We#39;re seeing the same aspects used when creating a pattern locks [as are used in] pin codes and alphanumeric passwords.#39;洛格告诉Ars Technica:“人们的行为很容易预测。不管是解锁图形密码、PIN码还是字母数字组合的密码,人们的设置习惯都是一样的。”She believes that using #39;crossovers#39; to bamboozle onlookers and not starting from a corner produces the safest password patterns. Using a long and complex password is also unsurprisingly more secure.她认为,使用“交叉”图形迷惑“有心的”旁观者以及不从边角开始绘制图形可以设置出最安全的密码图形。意料之中的是,使用复杂的长密码也更为可靠。 /201508/395548On New Year’s eve, Pieter Van Ostaeyen hung out with his brother’s family before skipping the midnight celebrations and going home to work.新年前夕,彼得#8226;范奥斯塔延(Pieter Van Ostaeyen)与哥哥一家呆在一起。之后,他没有参加午夜的庆祝,直接回家工作了。This pursuit — toiled over at night and in his holidays — is not overspill from his day job as an enterprise architect and business analyst. Rather it is an all-consuming passion: to use Twitter and Facebook to track principally Belgian radicals fighting for the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis) and Jabhat al-Nusra in Syria.范奥斯塔延的正式职业是企业架构师和商业分析师。他在晚上和假期辛苦从事的这份工作并不是他白天没干完的部分,而是一份他热爱的、并倾注全部精力的事业:使用Twitter和Facebook来追踪极端分子的动向,主要目标是效忠伊拉克圣战组织“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(ISIS)以及叙利亚圣战组织Jabhat al-Nusra的比利时极端分子。As jihadis take to social media to find new recruits and broadcast their activities, so bloggers are able to track their activity from afar. Some do it as part of their job, but others such as Mr Van Ostaeyen, who is not recompensed for this work, hope one day to make it pay.随着圣战分子开始使用社交媒体招募新成员并宣传他们的活动,主们可以远程追踪圣战分子的动向。对一些人而言,这是他们工作的一部分。然而,范奥斯塔延等其他人不从这份工作中领薪水,他们希望有一天自己能得到回报。After last week’s attacks in Paris on Charlie Hebdo magazine’s office and a kosher supermarket, Mr Van Ostaeyen, who lives in Mechelen, Belgium, waded through his social media feeds, trying to detect significant information about the threat from Belgian fighters. Amid the feeds, he says, was one Belgian Isis fighter in Iraq calling on people back home to follow suit.今年1月7日,法国巴黎发生了《查理周刊》(Charlie Hebdo)杂志社击案和犹太超市袭击案。此后,住在比利时梅赫伦(Mechelen)的范奥斯塔延浏览了他关注的社交媒体源发布的大量信息,尝试从中发现来自比利时极端分子的威胁的关键性线索。他说,在这些消息源中,有一名身在伊拉克的比利时籍ISIS战士呼吁人们在本国发动类似袭击。Mr Van Ostaeyen says his feelings on the attackers are summed up in a blogpost by Clint Watts, senior fellow at the Foreign Policy Research Institute. “Many, if not most, western jihadis are deeply troubled souls, at times more confused about their intentions and motivations than we are.”范奥斯塔延说,他对这些袭击者的看法可以用美国外交政策研究所(FPRI)高级研究员克林特#8226;沃茨(Clint Watts)文中的一句话总结。“就算不是大多数,至少有很多西方圣战分子是饱受困扰的人,有时他们对自己的意图和动机比我们还迷惑。”There is a remarkable amount of information to be found about home#173;grown radicals and those who go to Syria and Iraq to fight, he says. Some research has been relatively straightforward — once, for example, Mr Van Ostaeyen created a false identity of a fictional foreign fighter. He picked a photo of a man, his face concealed, waving an Isis flag on a mountain. Pretty soon he got 1,400 “friends” from across Europe.范奥斯塔延表示,关于成长于本国的极端分子,以及那些到叙利亚和伊拉克参战的人,还有相当数量的信息有待发掘。他进行的一些调查相对简单。比如,有一次他创建了一个外国圣战战士的虚假身份。他挑选了一张蒙面男性在山上挥舞ISIS旗帜的照片。很快他就拥有了1400个来自欧洲各地的“朋友”。“Syria is the most social mediated war ever,” says Mr Van Ostaeyen. “Social media is a propaganda channel.”“叙利亚战争是迄今为止受社交媒体影响最大的战争,” 范奥斯塔延说,“社交媒体是一种宣传渠道。”This comes at a time when journalists have become trophy targets, shown vividly by the Isis beheadings of American reporters James Foley and Steven Sotloff. According to the Committee to Protect Journalists, 79 reporters have been killed in Syria since 1992, and in Iraq the death toll stands at 166.最近这段时期,记者成了圣战战士向外界炫耀的战利品,ISIS斩首美国记者詹姆斯#8226;弗利(James Foley)和史蒂芬#8226;索特洛夫(Steven Sotloff)的事件鲜明地体现出这一点。保护记者委员会(Committee to Protect Journalists)的数据显示,自1992年以来,有79名记者在叙利亚被杀,而在伊拉克身亡的记者达到了166名。The new breed of researcher analyses fighters at a distance rather than in the conflict zone. Currently writing a book on the Middle East from the crusades to today, Mr Van Ostaeyen sees Eliot Higgins, who became known by his blogging name Brown Moses, as a game-changer, demonstrating that the work can provide an income.新型调查者并不亲临冲突一线,而是从远离冲突的地方分析这些战士。范奥斯塔延最近在撰写一本书,主题是从十字军东征到当代的中东。在他眼中,以客“布朗#8226;西”(Brown Moses)出名的埃利奥特#8226;希金斯(Eliot Higgins)是一个改变游戏规则的人,他向世人展示这份工作能够提供收入。Mr Higgins, a games enthusiast and stay-at-home dad, who had previously worked in finance ad#173;ministration, has become a munitions expert, tracking the Syrian war from his home in Leicester in the UK. “The work he has been doing [on Syrian weapons and the downing of the MH17 plane] has been groundbreaking,” says Mr Van Ostaeyen. “He’s a good example of an independent, writing what he wants.”希金斯是一个爱好者和全职父亲。他之前从事财务管理的工作,后来成为了军火情报专家,从位于英国莱斯特(Leicester)的家中追踪叙利亚战争。“他做的(关于叙利亚武器和MH17航班坠机事件的)调查是开创性的,”范奥斯塔延说,“他是一个独立写手的典范,他撰写他想写的东西。”Mr Van Ostaeyen got into this work through his interest in history and Arabic culture, which he studied at university. When the popular uprising in Syria began in 2011 — a country he had visited — his work intensified.范奥斯塔延对大学里学习过的历史和阿拉伯文化很感兴趣,这让他投身于这份工作。2011年叙利亚发生动乱,这是一个他曾经踏足的国家,他的工作量也因此变大了。“I tried to make people in the west understand what was going on. I found it shameful that no one was doing anything.” He zoned in on foreign fighters. “Social media is my main source of information. It’s unbelievable how much information is out there.”“我试图让西方的人们理解正在发生的事情。可耻的是,谁也没有在这方面有所作为,”他将外国战士锁定为关注对象,“社交媒体是我的主要信息来源。从中获得的海量信息让人难以置信。”There is also a vast array of fake material. To make the switch from amateur to professional, bloggers must be scrupulous.其中也有大量虚假内容。要从业余爱好者转变成专业人士,主们必须一丝不苟。Reputation is everything, says Mr Higgins, who now gives talks to journalists. “It’s all you have. You have to be so careful. It requires a lot of work to produce reliable material.”希金斯表示,信誉就是一切。他现在为记者开讲座。“这是你拥有的一切。你必须非常小心。需要很多工作才能产生可信的材料。”Obsessiveness is a trait Mr Higgins looks for in collaborators, although he is cautious that it is not ideology fuelling their passion.对这份工作的强烈兴趣是希金斯在寻找合作者时看重的特质,不过他很谨慎地避免让意识形态成为驱动这份事业的动力。A hazard of the work is witnessing horrifying acts of violence. “The first beheading I felt very sick — now I am numb to it,” says Mr Van Ostaeyen.这份工作的危险之一是目睹可怕的暴力场面。“第一次(看)斩首的时候,我觉得非常恶心——现在我对斩首已经麻木了,”范奥斯塔延说。Mr Higgins says anyone who works with this sort of material has to “learn to mentally compartmentalise”. It is, he says, the small things that catch you off-guard.”希金斯说,任何在工作中要和这种材料打交道的人都必须“学会在心理上与之隔开”。他说,让你措手不及的是一些小事。Professional res#173;earchers deploy their own strategies. JM Berger, the author of Jihad Joe: Americans Who Go to War in the Name of Islam, started life as a journalist and combines traditional reporting techniques with social media analysis. He has learnt to make a quick and efficient assessment of violence in s. At key mo#173;ments, he mutes the sound. “The most important thing is to frequently connect with life outside of work and remember that even when extremist movements are most successful they still only represent a tiny [section] of people.”专业的调查者运用他们自己的策略。JM#8226;伯杰(JM Berger)是《圣战者乔:以伊斯兰之名奔赴战场的美国人》(Jihad Joe: Americans Who Go to War in the Name of Islam)这本书的作者。他最开始做过记者。现在他将传统的新闻报道技法和社交媒体分析结合在一起。他已经学会对视频里的暴力行为进行快速有效的评估。在关键时刻,他会把视频静音。“最重要的事是经常与工作之外的生活保持联系,记住即使极端分子的行动非常成功,他们也依然只是人群中的很小的(一部分)。”Phillip Smyth, a researcher at the University of Maryland who writes the blog Hizballah Cavalcade, which focuses on Shia Islamist militarism in the Middle East, notes that some groups want analysts to reproduce their content to legitimise and publicise it. “I very rarely disclose [which] social media accounts I follow, and I don’t publicly redistribute their propaganda,” says Mr Berger, whose next book will focus on Isis.来自马里兰大学(University of Maryland)的研究人员菲利普#8226;史密斯(Phillip Smyth)撰写一个叫“Hizballah Cavalcade”的客,主要关注中东什叶派伊斯兰好战主义。他提到,一些群体希望分析人士将它们发布的内容重新撰写出来,以使其合法化和公开化。“我极少公开我关注哪些社交媒体账号,我也不会公开发布它们的宣传内容,”伯杰说。他下一本书的主题是ISIS。The majority of people do not need to view it, believes Mr Berger. “This violent material is intended to push viewers’ buttons and provoke emotional reactions that serve the extremists’ interests.” However, policy makers and re#173;searchers should see some of the material, he says, in order to understand the cult of violence that Isis in particular is propagating. Mr Van Ostaeyen sees such s as source materials to be used by historians, human rights watchers and possibly future war crimes prosecutors.伯杰认为,大多数人不必观看这些内容。“暴力内容的目的是惹急观看者,引起情感上的反应,为极端分子的利益务。”然而,他表示政策制定者和研究者应该看一些这种内容,以便理解ISIS特别着重宣传的暴力崇拜。范奥斯塔延认为,历史学家、人权观察者、可能还有未来的战争罪检察官应该使用这类原始材料。The work is important, he believes. “I want people to be aware why people go to fight in Syria,” he says. Nonetheless, there is a cost to the 38-year-old’s work. The intensity he devotes to his extracurricular job has meant he has lost social contacts. “It’s not a life. I live alone with a cat.”范奥斯塔延相信,这份工作非常重要。“我希望人们意识到,为什么有人会去叙利亚参战,”他说。尽管如此,对38岁的范奥斯塔延来说,这份工作还是有代价的。他对这份业余工作投入甚多,这意味着他失去了社会接触。“这称不上生活。我和一只猫孤独地生活在一起。” /201503/364163

The April 25 earthquake in Nepal and powerful aftershocks have not only killed more than 8,000 people and destroyed thousands of homes, but also left historic buildings in ruins. While reconstruction could take decades, the Chinese web services company Baidu has begun a campaign to recreate these structures online.尼泊尔4月25日发生的地震以及后来发生的强烈余震,不仅造成8000多人死亡,毁坏了成千上万家的住房,而且还把许多历史建筑变为废墟。重建可能需要数十年的时间,不过中国的网络务公司百度已经开始了一项在线重建这些建筑的行动。“We want to apply our own technology instead of donating money or using another corporate relief effort to provide help for the earthquake,” said Kaiser Kuo, Baidu’s director for international communications, in a telephone interview.“我们要用我们自己的技术,而不是用捐钱、或通过其他企业救灾行动,来为震后重建提供帮助,”百度的国际交流主管郭怡广在接受电话采访时说。In its campaign, called “See you again, Kathmandu,” Baidu has appealed to Internet users to upload their photographs of historic sites. The imaging system requires hundreds of photos taken from different angles and under different weather conditions to create a comprehensive view of the sites. According to Baidu, between 500 and 1,000 photos are needed for the digital re-creation of a single building. These static images can be used to generate a 3-D to allow users to view the sites from the perspective of a visitor touring them before the earthquake.百度在这个名为“See you again,加德满都”的行动中呼吁网民们上传他们拍摄的历史古迹照片。百度的成像系统需要数百张从不同角度、在不同天气条件下拍摄的照片,来制做这些景点的全部图像。据百度说,用数字化方式重建仅一座建筑物就需要500到1000张照片。这些静态照片可以用于产生3D视频,让网络用户可以从地震前观光者的视角来欣赏这些景点。Nepal is a popular destination for Chinese tourists, and since the campaign was announced on April 29, more than 42,000 photographs have been uploaded, and eight sites have been 70 percent to 80 percent digitally recreated, including the 17th-century Maju Deval temple in Kathmandu.尼泊尔是中国游客的热门目的地。自从行动于4月29日宣布以来,百度收到的上传照片已超过42,000张,有八个景点的数字重建已经完成了70%到80%,包括位于加德满都的17世纪的马驹德瓦尔寺。“We started with sites on the Unesco World Cultural Heritage list, but we are expecting more sites to be recreated, not only those in Kathmandu, but other damaged buildings in Nepal,” Mr. Kuo said.“我们是从列入联合国教科文组织世界文化遗产名录的古迹开始的,我们预计会重建更多的景点,不仅是加德满都的那些,而且也包括尼泊尔其他的受损建筑物,”郭怡广说。To encourage non-Chinese speakers to contribute photographs, the campaign’s website for uploading images is in both English and Chinese. Baidu is also planning to hold an exhibition of the digitally recreated historic sites.为鼓励不懂中文的人也贡献照片,这一行动用来上传照片的网站是中英双语的。百度还计划为数字重建的古迹举办一个展览。 /201505/374907

In the ed States, automakers conduct their own emissions tests and submit the results to the government. In Europe, automakers pick who conducts the tests and where they are done. And these two regulatory systems are considered the world’s gold standards.在美国,汽车制造商自己进行排放测试,然后把结果提交给政府。在欧洲,汽车制造商挑选由谁在哪里进行测试。这两种监管机制被视为全球最佳标准。Questions about the wisdom of allowing automakers so much sway in how air pollution standards are enforced grew this week after the resignation of Volkswagen’s chief executive, following the company’s diesel emissions cheating scandal.在大众汽车(Volkswagen)爆出柴油车排放作弊丑闻,其首席执行官辞职之后,本周出现了一些疑问的声音:让汽车制造商在空气污染标准的执行上发挥这么大的作用,是否明智?Regulators in several European countries have opened investigations, attorneys general in the ed States have joined federal inquiries, and there has been broader criticism of Volkswagen, and diesels, in markets from South Korea to Brazil.欧洲一些国家的监管机构已经在开展调查,美国检察长们也加入联邦调查的行列,而从韩国到巴西的很多市场出现了对大众和柴油车的广泛批评。Volkswagen has admitted installing software in 11 million vehicles that was used to provide false results about emissions, though it was not clear if it was used in all countries where the cars were sold. But the bth of the scandal could finally threaten to bring change to an industry with a record of cheating since cars were first regulated.大众汽车已经承认,公司在1100万辆汽车上安装了软件,以提供有关排放的虚假结果,目前还不清楚,它是否在所有销售大众汽车的国家都使用了这种软件。但这起丑闻的广泛影响可能最终会给这个行业带来变化;汽车业自从受到监管的那一天起,作弊事件就陈出不穷。While ed States automakers are allowed to test their own cars, the Environmental Protection Agency does its own random checking, and the vast majority of enforcement actions are undertaken by American regulators.虽然美国汽车制造商获许自己进行车辆测试,但美国国家环境保护局(Environmental Protection Agency,简称EPA)也会进行抽查,而绝大部分执法行动是由美国监管机构开展的。In the European Union, by contrast, automakers can get new car models tested in any member state and can hire private companies, which regard them as clients, to conduct the testing. Member states have regulatory jurisdiction, and enforcement is scant.相比之下,欧盟的汽车制造商可以在任何一个成员国测试新车型,也可以聘请私人公司进行测试;对于这些私人公司来说,汽车制造商就是客户。欧盟成员国拥有监管管辖权,执法行动非常不足。One of the testing firms used by automakers in Europe is Applus Idiada of Spain, which has counted the major automakers, including Volkswagen, among its clients, though no company beyond Volkswagen has been implicated in the current scandal.欧洲汽车制造商常用的一家测试公司是西班牙的Applus Idiada。其客户包括大众汽车和其他一些大牌汽车制造商,但除大众之外,没有哪家公司卷入当前的丑闻。But advocates say tactics used by such companies highlight flaws in the European system. Applus Idiada markets itself as being able to provide “optimization of engine behavior to fulfill emissions and F.E. targets” — F.E. refers to fuel economy — in one of its publications, and uses similar language in others.但一些维权者认为,这些公司使用的策略突显了欧洲机制的缺陷。 Applus Idiada在一份宣传资料中称自己能够“优化发动机行为,以满足排放和FE目标”—— FE指燃油经济性。该公司在其他宣传资料中也使用了类似语言。What does that mean for automaker clients?对于汽车制造商客户来说,这意味着什么呢?“They will find ways to artificially lower the test results using flexibilities in the testing methods,” Greg Archer, a former director at Britain’s renewable-fuels regulator who now works at Transport and Environment, a Brussels-based advocacy group that has done its own testing, said in an interview.“他们会找到办法,使用灵活的测试方法,人为地降低测试结果,”格雷格·阿彻(Greg Archer)在接受采访时说。阿彻是英国可再生燃料监管机构的前总监,现在在权益团体“交通运输和环境“(Transport and Environment)工作。这个总部设在布鲁塞尔的组织进行了自己的测试。The way the system is set up creates inherent problems, Mr. Archer added.这种制度的安排存在其固有问题,阿彻说。“Carmakers ‘shop’ for the best deal from agencies across Europe and directly pay for their services,” he said in a recent statement on the Volkswagen scandal. “The job of the engineer overseeing the test is ultimately dependent on the next contract from the carmaker.”“汽车制造商在欧洲各地的测试机构中‘选购’最划算的务,并直接为这种务买单,”他近日在关于大众丑闻的一份声明中说。“负责测试的工程师能不能保住饭碗,最终取决于和汽车制造商签订的下一份合同。”The company did not have an immediate comment.该公司没有当即予以置评。Automakers have the same incentive to shop around for lenient testing companies that bond issuers have long had to shop around for the credit rating agency that would give them the highest credit rating. Overgenerous ratings of complex financial instruments based on mortgage prices were widely blamed as helping to set off the global financial crisis.就像债券发行人长期以来“选购”可以给予他们最高信用评级的信用评级机构一样,汽车制造商同样也会“选购”比较宽松的测试公司的务。那些基于抵押贷款价格的复杂金融工具获得了过分高的评级,被广泛指责为引爆全球金融危机的原因之一。Volkswagen’s rivals have had a clear response to the emissions cheating scandal: not us. “There is no evidence that this is an industrywide issue,” the European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association said in a statement on Wednesday, adding, “We cannot comment on an issue affecting one individual company.”大众汽车公司的竞争对手对排放作弊丑闻做出了明确回应:我们不这样。“没有据表明,这是整个行业的问题,”欧洲汽车制造商协会(European Automobile Manufacturers’ Association)本周三在一份声明中表示:“对于影响个别公司的问题,我们不予置评。”Lawmakers in the European Parliament on Wednesday debated the implications of the scandal at length, with members in several parties advocating a greater regulatory and oversight role for the European government, instead of the member states.本周三,欧洲议会(European Parliament)的议员深入辩论了丑闻的影响,有几方的成员主张由欧盟政府而不是成员国自己发挥更大的监管和监督作用。“Of course that will be a big fight with the member states,” said Bas Eickhout, a Dutch Green Party member who sits on the Parliament’s committee on Environmental, Public Health and Food Safety.“当然,这会是与成员国之间的一场大争斗,”荷兰绿党成员、欧洲议会环境、公共卫生和食品安全(Environmental, Public Health and Food Safety)委员会成员巴斯·埃克豪特(Bas Eickhout)说。He said he wanted the European Commission, the government’s executive branch, to move quickly on plans to put new emissions testing into effect that will take place at independent laboratories. And he wanted commission officials to quickly determine if the Volkswagen software was used to evade European tests, something that has still not been disclosed by Volkswagen.他说,他希望欧盟的行政机构欧盟委员会(European Commission)能迅速让新的排放测试计划生效;该计划要求在独立实验室进行测试。他希望委员会的官员迅速确定大众汽车是否用软件来逃避欧洲的测试;大众汽车尚未披露相关情况。He said some lawmakers also lamented that Europe lagged on enforcement, leaving American regulators to take on such cases.他说,一些议员还哀叹欧洲的执法落后了,要让美国监管机构去应对这些问题。“We are better in talking. The U.S. is better in acting,” he said, adding, “That’s a bit of a painful conclusion.”“我们善于谈论。美国善于行动,”他说,“这个总结有点让人难受。”In the ed States, as attorneys general across the country opened investigations, Dan Becker, director of the safe climate campaign at the Center for Auto Safety, said the country also needed to rethink how emissions were tested. Independent testing has shown a widening gap between results in laboratories and the real world, raising suspicion.在美国,各地的检察长开启了调查行动。汽车安全中心(Center for Auto Safety)的安全气候活动主管丹·贝克尔(Dan Becker)表示,美国需要重新考虑如何进行排放测试。独立测试显示,实验室和现实世界测试结果之间的差距正在拉大,已经引起了一些人的怀疑。“The automakers have proven that they’re not trustworthy,” Mr. Becker said. “The government has to overhaul the testing to make sure that independent parties ensure that the cars that are put on the road pollute less and are safe.”“汽车制造商已经明了他们不值得信赖,”贝克尔说。“政府必须对测试机制进行全面修改,让独立机构来确保路上的汽车污染更少,更加安全。”The new scandal could also crush the efforts of German automakers to open more export markets to diesel. Volkswagen had struggled for many years to win governments’ permission to sell diesel cars outside Europe, and that goal now seems especially challenged.德国汽车制造商正在努力为柴油车开辟更多的出口市场,这起新丑闻可能会让他们的努力付诸东流。多年来,大众汽车一直在试图获得一些政府的许可,以便在欧洲以外的地方销售柴油车,现在要实现这个目标似乎变得特别困难。In China, there has been little official response to the Volkswagen revelations. Xinhua, the official Chinese news agency, made a terse mention, referring to reports that South Korea would investigate three Volkswagen models. But Chinese regulators may have unintentionally saved Volkswagen from bigger problems.在中国,官方几乎没有对大众汽车丑闻做出回应。中国官方通讯社新华社简短地提到此事,主要是报道韩国将调查大众的三种车型。但中国监管机构可能在无意中让大众汽车免于陷入更大的麻烦。Although China only uses Euro 4 emissions standards for diesel cars, government officials have exercised their considerable regulatory discretion to discourage mass production within China of diesel engines for cars. Volkswagen has lobbied unsuccessfully for years against that policy, and sells fewer than 1,000 diesels a year in China, all imported, out of overall annual sales of about 3 million cars, virtually all of them gasoline-powered.中国对于柴油车仅仅采用了欧4排放标准,但政府官员行使了相当大的监管自由裁量权,阻止了柴油车在中国的大规模生产。关于这项政策,大众汽车进行了多年的游说,但都不成功,公司每年在中国销售的柴油车不到1000辆,而且全部是进口的。大众在中国的年销量约300万辆,几乎全都是汽油动力车。But there was much chatter online in China, with little positive for the company#39;s image.但是中国网民对此事的议论相当多,而且对该公司看法几乎都是负面的。“I just want to ask, as a world famous corporation that ranks the second in the industry,” wrote Zhong Xiaoyi on the website Zhihu, “why is it so difficult for you to manufacture good cars, to do something good?”“作为世界知名企业,作为行业前二,好好做好汽车本身,好好做些实事,真的那么难吗?”知乎网站的钟小逸问道。Many commenters lamented the state of Chinese regulation, with a Weibo user writing: “They must have sold cars that should have been exported to China to the U.S.”很多者对中国的监管状况发出了感概,一名微用户写道:“他们肯定是把本应出口到中国的汽车出口到了美国。” /201509/401143

The listing of Alibaba in New York in September created the world’s second-largest internet company by market capitalisation, behind Google. This did not happen by accident. Of the top 10 internet companies in the world, ranked by market cap, three are Chinese, and the rest are from the US.9月,阿里巴巴(Alibaba)在纽约上市,成为以市值衡量的全球第二大互联网公司,仅次于谷歌(Google)。这并非偶然。在市值最高的全球十大互联网公司中,3家来自中国,其他则来自美国。Together, Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent form what is know in China as “BAT”. These economic juggernauts that have come to dominate the internet in China are operating almost along the lines of Japan’s keiretsu, which are alliances of businesses with similar interests or that have shareholdings in one another. They are also rapidly branching out into offline sectors, such as transport, travel, retail and banking.在中国,百度(Baidu)、阿里巴巴和腾讯(Tencent)被合称为“BAT”。这些巨头主宰了中国互联网,它们的经营模式与日本的“经连体系”(keiretsu)非常相似,后者是由利益相似或者互相控股的企业组成的联盟。它们还迅速延展到线下行业,比如交通、旅游、零售和业。Whether the rapid growth of the Chinese internet is just a bubble or a stable trend is open to question. However, for the time being at least, BAT has become the nucleus of an internet industry that is starting to rival the US, creating what is essentially a US-China duopoly. The three Chinese companies also benefit from what has become known as the “Great Firewall”, as most of the top US companies, such as Google, Facebook and Twitter, are excluded from operating in China.中国互联网的飞速发展到底是泡沫,还是一种稳定趋势,还须拭目以待。然而,至少就目前来看,BAT已经成为了中国互联网行业的核心,而中国的互联网行业已经开始与美国相匹敌,基本上形成了一种中美双头垄断的格局。这3家中国企业也受益于广为人知的“长城防火墙”(Great Firewall)。依靠这个防火墙,中国把美国的多数领头企业,如谷歌、Facebook和Twitter拒之门外。However, no Chinese internet company has yet made the leap from China to become a global brand. For now, it is enough for them be dominant in China, which had 632m internet users as of June, 527m of whom go online using mobile devices. The potential of the forecast consumption boom, as China moves from an investment-driven economy to a consumption-driven one, is enough to attract investments such as the bn sunk into Alibaba in its initial public offering, the largest ever.然而,目前还没有哪家中国互联网企业跳出中国,成为一个全球品牌。目前来看,它们能在中国占据主导地位就足够了。6月的数据显示,中国有6.32亿网民,其中5.27亿网民使用移动设备上网。随着中国经济从投资驱动型转为消费驱动型,预计将出现的消费热潮蕴含的潜力,足以吸引大笔投资,比如阿里巴巴在首次公开募股(IPO)中筹得250亿美元,这也是目前规模最大的一次IPO。The internet is the most dynamic part of China’s budding private sector, though it remains solidly under the control of the state. Foreigners hold large shareholdings in Alibaba, Tencent and Baidu and dozens of other internet companies. But these stakes are largely theoretical at best and owned via “variable interest entities”, or VIEs, which guarantee a payment stream from, but not ownership of, the licence-holding vehicles in China. These VIE’s are technically illegal, though Chinese courts turn a blind eye to the practice, and owners know their large holding only exists thanks to the tacit consent of the state.互联网是中国崭露头角的私营部门中最活跃的部分,尽管其依然处于国家的严密控制之下。外国投资者持有阿里巴巴、腾讯、百度及其他数十家互联网企业的大量股份。但大体上,这些股份充其量不过是理论上的,是通过“可变利益实体”(variable interest entities, VIE)持有的,这保持股人从持有许可的中国企业那里得到付流,但并不保对企业的所有权。这些VIE理论上是违法的,但中国的法院对这种做法睁一只眼闭一只眼,而持股人也知道,他们持有的大量股份全都仰赖政府的默许。Nimble private internet companies, able to dance circles around the inefficient state-owned enterprises, have begun impromptu liberalising of whole sectors such as financial services. Alibaba’s fund company Yu’e Bao is China’s biggest online money market fund, with Rmb574bn (.8bn) worth of assets私营互联网企业非常灵活,能将低效的国企远远甩在后面。在并无事先谋划的情况下,这些企业已经开始在一些领域掀起整个行业的自由化,比如金融务业。阿里巴巴的基金公司余额宝(Yu’e Bao)是中国最大的在线货币市场基金,资产总值达到5740亿元人民币(合938亿美元)。The internet is a phenomenal wealth generator. Five of the 10 richest men in China are tech moguls, up from none three years ago, according to the Hurun China Rich List, which tracks wealthy individuals. In September, Alibaba founder Jack Ma joined the list in first place and became one of the wealthiest men in the world, with a 7.8 per cent stake in a 0bn company.互联网也制造了非凡的财富。根据追踪富人的《胡润中国百富榜》(Hurun China Rich List),中国最富有的10人中,5名是IT业大亨,而3年前他们还未能进入榜单。9月,凭借在当时市值2300亿美元的公司中7.8%的持股,阿里巴巴创始人马云(Jack Ma)一跃登上榜单首位,也成为全球最富裕的人之一。Competition between internet companies is fierce, however. With the entire industry switching from desktop devices to mobile ones, many companies risk being left behind if they don’t have a “killer app” that will act as a gateway for mobile users.不过,互联网企业之间的竞争非常激烈。随着整个互联网行业从桌面设备转至移动设备,对许多企业来说,如果他们没有一款“杀手级应用”,作为移动用户接入的通道的话,就有可能落在后面。Alibaba has been searching for just such a feature to challenge the currently undisputed leadership of Tencent, whose WeChat instant messenger has 350m monthly users. WeChat and Tencent’s other messenger, QQ, are the two most popular mobile apps in China, according to iResearch, a Beijing-based internet research firm.阿里巴巴一直在寻求推出这样一款应用,来挑战目前腾讯无可争议的领导地位,腾讯的即时消息应用微信(WeChat)有3.5亿月活跃用户。根据北京互联网咨询公司艾瑞咨询(iResearch)的数据,微信和腾讯旗下的另一款消息应用QQ是中国最受欢迎的两款移动应用。In June, Alibaba bought UCWeb, a popular mobile browser company, and the two have developed Shenme, a mobile search engine. They are also working with Quixey, a US-based company in which Alibaba has invested, to design a mobile gateway using Quixey’s app search engine. Francis Bea of PapayaMobile, a Chinese mobile technology company, says Alibaba is attempting to mirror Tencent’s success with WeChat. He says: “In as highly competitive a market as China, there is potential for the mobile internet to disrupt established internet players if they don’t manage the transition from desktop to mobile.”6月份,阿里巴巴收购了人气颇高的移动浏览器公司UC优视(UCWeb),两家公司已联手开发移动搜索引擎“神马”。阿里巴巴还在与所投资的美国公司Quixey合作,拟利用Quixey的应用搜索引擎,设计一个类似的移动门户应用。中国移动技术公司木瓜移动(PapayaMobile)的弗朗西斯#8226;贝亚(Francis Bea)表示,阿里巴巴试图复制腾讯在微信上取得的成功。他说:“在中国这样高度竞争性的市场,如果当前已确立市场地位的互联网企业不能处理好从桌面端到移动端的转移,移动互联网可能使它们陷入困境。”Alibaba has spent an estimated bn-bn in the space of a year on full acquisitions of, or investments in, companies including mobile providers, chain stores, an internet TV company, a maker of electrical appliances, a movie producer, a digital broadcaster and a professional Chinese football team.在仅一年之中,据估计阿里巴巴已经花去60亿到80亿美元,对企业进行全资收购或者投资。这些企业包括移动运营商、连锁店、网络电视公司、电子设备制造商、影视制作公司、数字电视台,甚至还有一中国职业足球队。While attention has focused on Alibaba’s acquisitions, Tencent and Baidu have been on similar spending sprees. Baidu is betting that its stake in Qunar, China’s top travel website by users, and mobile app store 91Wireless.com, will complement its popular search engine to carry it into the mobile age. Tencent has taken a stake in JD.com, China’s second-largest ecommerce platform, and mobile-friendly companies such as restaurant review site Dianping and South Korea’s CJ Games.尽管人们的关注点集中在阿里巴巴的收购上,但腾讯和百度也进行了类似的大笔出。百度投资了用户数量最多的国内旅行网站去哪儿(Qunar)和移动应用商店91无线(91 Wireless.com),希望二者能与其广受欢迎的搜索引擎相互补充,将其带入移动时代。腾讯则入股中国第二大电商平台京东(JD.com),以及一些适应移动时代的企业,如餐馆点评网站大众点评网(Dianping)和韩国游戏开发商CJ Games。 /201412/351392

The Birth of the First Computer中国第一台计算机的诞生In the mid-50th century, though the Chinese computing technology was only one or two years later than Japan, after all, but it has been a decade later from the emergence of world#39;s first computer. The unanimous opinion is to learn and master the Soviet Union#39;s technology first, on this basis, according to China#39;s specific conditions, to carry out their own research, that is, ;innovation ofter imitation, imitation for innovation. ;上个世纪50年代中期,中国的计算技术虽然只比日本晚一两年,但毕竟距世界上第一台电子计算机的出现已经晚了十年。大家一致的意见是:先学习掌握苏联已有的技术,在此基础上,再根据我国的具体条件,开展自己的研究工作,即“先仿制后创新,仿制为了创新”。In September 1956, China sent a delegation of computing technology to the Soviet Union. Min Naida is the head, deputy head Wang Zheng, fifteen members including Wu Jikang, Fan Xinbi, Xia Peisu, and so on. The former Soviet Union reception unit is the Soviet Academy of Sciences, Preasion Machinery and Computing Technology Institute . In two months, computing technology research, production and education of Moscow, Leningrad were studied respectively, with an emphasis on the M-20 computer.1956年9月,我国派出赴苏计算机技术考察团。团长闵乃大,副团长王正,团员有吴几康、范新弼、夏培肃等15人。前苏联方面的接待单位是苏联科学院精密机械与计算技术研究所。在两个多月的时间里,考察团分别对莫斯科、列宁格勒两地的计算技术的科研、生产与教育进行了考察,并重点对M-20计算机进行了学习。In April 1957, by the government, China ordered a M-3 computer and B3CM computer drawings information. On the basis of study and drawings information, the development work started. Led by Zhang Zichang and Mo Gensheng, M-3 ( code 103) Computer Engineering Group was organized. Through the efforts of all staff, in close collaboration with Beijing cable plant, China#39;s first digital computer successfully developed on August l,1958. This tube computer with computing speed of 30 times per second filled in our modern electronic computer blank.1957年4月,我国政府订购了M-3计算机和E3CM计算机图纸资料。在考察和取得图纸资料的基础上,研制工作开始了。以张梓昌、莫根生为首,组织了M-3(代号103)计算机工程组。通过全体研制人员的努力和北京有线电厂的密切配合,于1958年8月1日研制成功了我国第一台数字电子计算机。这台运算速度为每秒30次的电子管计算机,填补了我国现代电子计算机的空白。 /201602/419377

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