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来源:飞排名养生咨询    发布时间:2019年03月25日 05:29:37    编辑:admin         

Forty-five years ago last February U.S. President Richard Nixon returned from a visit to China that shocked the world and unsettled leaders in Moscow who were awaiting a visit from Nixon a few months later.45年前的2月,美国总统理查德-尼克松刚刚结束对中国的访问,这件事震惊了全世界,也扰乱了莫斯科的领导人,他们正翘首以待数月之后尼克松的来访。Soviet leaders wondered if they were finally witnessing the birth of a U.S.-China alliance that they had feared ever since the breakdown of the Sino-Soviet alliance in the early 1960s.苏联领导人不知道他们是否终于见了美中联盟的诞生。自从1960年初期中苏联盟破裂之后,这是他们最担心的事情。As Washington and the media convulse over every new outrage emanating from Moscow while President Trump repeatedly asks “Wouldn’t it be nice if we actually got along with Russia?” U.S. policymakers are faced with the same choice between Russia and China though this time the stakes might be even higher.虽然莫斯科传出的种种暴行事件总会震惊华盛顿和媒体,然而川普总统还是多次询问,“如果我们真的跟俄罗斯和睦相处会不会挺好?”美国决策者们面临着同样的选择,即中俄间如何取舍,虽然这次的风险可能会更高。The history of persistent tensions between Russia and China suggests two choices: Accommodate and reconcile with Russia to balance against the greater power—China. Or align with China to defend a rules-based international order from its most powerful antagonist—Russia.俄中之间曾持续紧张的历史暗示了两种选择:与俄罗斯和解以制衡更强大的中国,或与中国联手来捍卫国际秩序规则以抗衡最强大的对手-俄罗斯。It should be clear by now that we can no longer oppose Russia and China at the same time. Though that route might seem tempting and natural given the historical aspirations of U.S. foreign policy to protect territorial sovereignty promote human rights and provide a frxwork for free trade we are no longer equal to the task.现在有一点很明确,我们不能再同时对付俄罗斯和中国了。虽然这条路看起来很诱人,也是美国外交政策历史诉求的天然选择,用以保护领土主权,提升人权,提供自由贸易框架等等,但我们再也走不动这条路了。 /201704/503801。

Elon Musk, head of Tesla Motors, has sketched out a lofty and futuristic vision for his electric car company, as he sought to regain the initiative after recent setbacks to some of his most ambitious plans.特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)董事长埃隆#8226;马斯克(Elon Musk)为其电动汽车公司勾勒了崇高而充满未来色的图景。在部分最大胆计划近期遭遇挫折之后,他试图借此举重新获得主动性。Writing on his company’s blog, Mr Musk on Wednesday laid out what he described as an update to the Tesla “master plan” he first published 10 years ago. It will involve Tesla expanding to make a full range of electric cars, buses and trucks, as well as a smartphone app through which Tesla owners will one day earn money by renting out their self-driving cars.周三,马斯克在其公司客上列出了他称之为特斯拉“总体规划”更新版的内容。特斯拉“总体规划”由他首次于十年前发布。这一更新版将令特斯拉向生产电动汽车、电动公交和电动卡车全系列产品扩张,还包括一个智能手机应用,特斯拉汽车所有者将从某日起可以通过该应用出租其自动驾驶汽车赚钱。Though much of the plan was vague, echoing Mr Musk’s habit of teasing new ideas long before they come into production, he did reveal that Tesla was in the “early stages of development” on heavy-duty trucks and a new form of “high passenger-density urban transport”, with both likely to be unveiled next year.该计划多数内容仍不够明确,重现了马斯克会将新创意炒作许久再投入生产的习惯。尽管如此,他确实披露特斯拉处于“开发”重型卡车和一种新形式“高乘客密度市政交通工具的早期阶段”,两者都可能于明年公布。With its characteristic mix of vagueness, ambition and self-defensiveness, Mr Musk’s sketch for a 10-year plan looked set to draw a sceptical reaction at a time when Tesla is facing mounting challenges.马斯克行文的特色是将含糊不清、野心勃勃和自我防备混为一炉,在这个特斯拉面临挑战越来越大的时节,他对十年计划的描绘似乎注定会引起人们的怀疑。“As is typical, Elon Musk has laid out a grandiose plan for the future with no time frames and few specifics, and no mention of how and when Tesla will be profitable,” said Michelle Krebs, senior analyst at Autotrader, a US car magazine.美国汽车杂志Autotrader高级分析师米歇尔#8226;克雷布斯(Michelle Krebs)表示:“和往常一样,埃隆#8226;马斯克排出了宏伟的计划,却没有列出时间表和给出多少具体细节,也没提到特斯拉将如何盈利及何时盈利。”Wednesday’s blog post came a month after Mr Musk ran into a wall of scepticism with an offer to buy SolarCity, the solar panel installation company of which he is chairman, for Tesla stock worth up to bn. Investors worried it would distract the company at a critical time, as it struggles to fix nagging production problems and accelerate a move to mass production of its next vehicle, the Model 3, by two years.就在周三的客文章发出一个月前,马斯克曾提出以价值总计30亿美元的特斯拉股票收购SolarCity的收购要约,引起了许多人的怀疑。SolarCity是一家太阳能电池板安装公司,马斯克是该公司董事长。投资者担心,在特斯拉竭力消除持续不断的生产问题并加速向下一款车型Model 3的大规模生产转型之际,马斯克此举会在关键时期把该公司注意力分散两年时间。 /201607/455954。

Who needs a tablet these days? It’s a difficult question. Six years ago, when Steve Jobs unveiled the iPad, the device promised a future of “lean-back” computing. Then, curling up in an armchair with a slim slab of technology seemed an almost rebellious idea. 如今谁还需要平板电脑呢?这是个难以回答的问题。6年前,当史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)推出iPad时,这一产品承诺了“向后靠”的数字未来。在那时,窝在扶手椅中,手持一款薄薄的科技产品,仿佛代表一种叛逆。 Now, most of us own the largest smartphone we’ve ever had, making another big touchscreen seem redundant. Like the proverbial best camera, the best screen is the one you have with you — which invariably means the one in your pocket or bag. 现在,我们大多数人拥有迄今屏幕尺寸最大的智能手机,这就让另一款大屏设备显得多余了。就像众所周知的最好照相机一样,最好的屏幕就是你随身携带的那块——也就是你口袋或包里的那块。 To reinvigorate the tablet, Apple is taking the iPad “professional”, with higher specs — and pricing — to match. With the traditional PC firmly in its sights, this is a tablet less for leaning back and ing or watching, and more like leaning in to get things done. 为了让平板电脑重获活力,苹果(Apple)正把iPad变得“专业化”,配上更高的配置和价格。这款平板电脑牢牢盯住传统PC的功能,其设计不是为了让人们向后靠着阅读文字或观看视频,而是为了帮人们身体前倾、完成工作。 November’s new 12.9-inch iPad Pro was joined last month by a smaller, more affordable 9.7-inch sibling. I have been using the larger model, including its keyboard case and Pencil accessory, for some time now — in part to cover the launch of its successor at Apple’s event in Cupertino, where I also got to test one out. 继去年11月苹果发布新的12.9英寸iPad Pro之后,上月又推出了尺寸更小、价格更低的9.7英寸iPad Pro。现在,我使用12.9英寸iPad Pro(包括键盘和Apple Pencil)已有一段时间了,部分原因是为了报道苹果在库比提诺(Cupertino)举行的9.7英寸iPad Pro发布会。我还在那里试用了一下后者。 For me, neither iPad is quite there as a PC replacement, although both come close for the everyday tasks of typing and research. Both offer meaningful hardware improvements over the iPad Air 2, including much better speakers and a very generous 4GB of Ram for the larger version. 对我来说,这两款iPad都不是PC的替代品,尽管它们都更接近于满足输入和研究等日常工作。相对iPad Air 2而言,它们的硬件都有了很大提升,包括性能好得多的扬声器,并为12.9英寸版提供了4G的大容量内存。 Yet more interesting than the tablet itself are the iPad Pro’s dedicated accessories. 不过,比iPad Pro本身更值得关注的是它的专属附件。 Apple’s keyboard case is lightweight yet robust, with a similar feel to last year’s new MacBook. The larger iPad has a full-sized keyboard that was good enough to type furiously on my lap during the Apple keynote speech, with a little help from autocorrect. The matt fabric covering felt slightly odd at first but I did get used to it. 苹果的键盘又轻又耐用,跟去年新出品的MacBook有些类似的感觉。12.9英寸iPad Pro配有全尺寸键盘,十分好用,辅以“自动更正”功能,让我在苹果的主旨演讲过程中能在腿上飞快地键入。亚光的织物表面一开始令人感觉略怪异,但我的确习惯了它。 Crucially, the iPad Pro has a physical connector to attach its keyboard, so there were none of the Bluetooth-related issues I suffered with Google’s Pixel C, which I reviewed in February. (Some of the Pixel’s keyboard problems have been resolved with a software update, and a recent Android beta pilot promises to add split-screen app usage, but the Google Play app store’s limited selection of tablet-friendly software remains a problem.) 至关重要的是,iPad Pro配备了一个连接键盘的物理连接器,所以就不存在我使用谷歌(Google)的Pixel C时遇到的蓝牙相关问题。我在2月对Pixel C进行了评价。(Pixel的部分键盘问题通过软件升级得到了解决,最近的Android beta试用版承诺增加分屏应用,但Google Play应用商店中适合平板电脑使用的软件选择有限,仍是一个问题。) The smaller Pro’s keyboard, however, is much more compact. While I have tried it out only a few times, it feels unlikely to be comfortable to a touch typist for long-form writing. 然而,9.7英寸iPad Pro的键盘就显得太过紧凑。尽管我就试用了几次,但对于一个盲打输入者而言,长时间写作不可能感觉很舒。 On the other hand, at under 1lb, the smaller Pro is far lighter and more comfortable to hold for longer ing sessions than its big brother. Even though the 12.9-inch version is lighter than most laptops, it still feels too heavy, especially when I carry it in a shoulder bag all day. 另一方面,不到1磅重的9.7英寸iPad Pro比12.9英寸iPad Pro要轻得多,而且更适合手持进行长时间阅读。尽管12.9英寸iPad Pro比大多数笔记本电脑轻,但它还是让人感觉太重,尤其当我整天用肩包携带它的时候。 Contemplating a choice between a proper keyboard and a lighter screen left me thinking that neither iPad Pro was quite y for regular use in my workday. 在好用的键盘和更轻的屏幕之间做选择,让我觉得,这两款iPad Pro都不太适合在工作中经常使用。 Pencil to paper 从笔到纸 By positioning the iPad Pro as a PC killer at its launch event, Apple is underplaying a different opportunity: replacing pen and paper. 苹果在发布会上把iPad Pro定位为PC杀手,却放过了另一个机会:取代笔和纸。 I am no sketch artist but Apple’s new Pencil accessory is easily the best stylus I have used, for its ease of set-up and smooth, pressure-sensitive strokes across the screen. 我不是素描艺术家,但苹果的Pencil附件绝对是我用过的最好的触感笔,它容易设置,在整个屏幕上书写都很流畅而且对压力十分敏感。 Drawing and handwriting on a solid surface still lacks the friction of paper but it worked well for annotating documents (see Planet of the Apps) and jotting down notes. The Pencil’s main drawback is my own lack of familiarity with having one: I often forget to pick it up or take it out and about with me. 在坚硬的表面上写和画仍缺少纸面的那种擦感,但它已非常适合于给文档做评注(参见Planet of the Apps)和简要地做笔记。Pencil的主要缺陷是我自己对它不够熟悉:我经常忘记把它拿出来或者带在身边。 One computing accessory I did not miss when using the iPad Pro at work was the mouse. I loved tapping the screen to hop between paragraphs or select text, which I found far faster and more ergonomic than clicking around. 我在使用iPad Pro工作时没有错过的一个附件是鼠标。我喜欢轻敲屏幕,在段落之间跳来跳去,或选取文字——我发现,这样做比到处点击更快,更符合人体工程学。 Verdict 结论 While Samsung and Microsoft have sold tablets with keyboard cases and styluses for years, iOS and the App Store still provide the best software experience and now Apple has the hardware to match. 尽管三星(Samsung)和微软(Microsoft)出售配有键盘和触感笔的平板电脑有好多年了,但iOS和苹果应用商店提供的软件体验仍是最好的,如今苹果有了与之匹配的硬件。 The combination of increased computing power and new accessories does open up the tablet to many more new uses beyond Netflix and newspapers. 计算能力的增强加上新的附件,确实让平板电脑在Netflix和报纸之外增加了更多的新用途。 Some day it might replace the PC but, for now, the iPad still remains an optional extra screen, rather than an essential one. 有一天,iPad或许会取代PC,但目前,它仍是又一块可选屏幕,而不是必不可少的屏幕。 /201604/438365。

Google’s big bet on computers that can teach themselves is about to face its most significant examination.谷歌(Google)押注计算机可以自主学习的赌局,即将面临最重大的考验。Machine learning has brought artificial intelligence (AI) back into the technology mainstream which, for Google, means using its computing resources to analyse mountains of data to identify patterns and make predictions, from calculating the adverts users are likely to find relevant to whether a digital image shows a cat or a dog.机器学习把人工智能(AI)带回到科技主流中,对谷歌而言,这意味着利用它的计算能力来分析海量数据以识别模式并作出预测,从计算用户可能觉得相关的广告,到一幅数字图像显示的是猫还是。It’s now solving problems we don’t know how to solve in any other way, said Jeff Dean, the engineer who has spearheaded Google’s efforts since it began to focus on the area nearly five years ago. 它现在正在解决我们完全不知道如何解决的问题,自谷歌在近5年前开始聚焦该领域以来一直引领研究的工程师杰夫#8226;迪恩(Jeff Dean)表示。About 100 product teams at Google now apply the technology, he added. 他补充称,谷歌如今约有100个产品团队正在应用这项技术。The latest — and most visible — product of the push is an intelligent digital assistant, intended to usher in a more natural and intelligent form of human-computer interaction, based on the use of everyday language. 最新(也最显眼)的产品是一个智能数字助理,旨在开启一个更自然、更智能的人机交互模式,基于日常语言的使用。The feature — called Assistant — is due to appear, in different guises, in a range of Google products and services in the coming weeks.被称为助手(Assistant)的这项功能将于未来几周以不同形式出现在谷歌一系列产品和务中。That will give it a central place in the company’s efforts to steal users away from some of its rivals’ most successful recent ventures. 它将有助于谷歌从某些竞争对手最成功的新项目夺取用户。These include Amazon’s voice-activated home device, Echo; Apple’s smart assistant, Siri; and Facebook’s messaging services, Messenger and WhatsApp.这些包括亚马逊(Amazon)的家庭声控设备Echo;苹果(Apple)的智能助手Siri;以及Facebook的通讯务——Messenger和WhatsApp。But even for a company with Google’s massive computing power and engineering brains, teaching computers to act more naturally and intelligently has required it to confront some of the most intractable computer science problems.但是,即使是对于像谷歌那样拥有庞大计算能力和工程设计人才的公司来说,教会计算机更自然更智能地行动,也需要面对一些最棘手的计算机科学问题。Google certainly has the bench strength to make a dent in this problem but no one has cracked the code yet, said Tim Tuttle, chief executive of MindMeld, an AI start-up that is building its own platform for conversational computing.谷歌当然拥有足够强大的人才实力来挑战这个问题,但是迄今还没人能完全破解,AI初创企业MindMeld的首席执行官蒂姆#8226;塔特尔(Tim Tuttle)表示。该公司正在打造自己的对话式计算平台。Many experts in the AI field credit Google with having edged ahead of its main rivals in machine learning.AI领域的很多专家承认,谷歌在机器学习方面领先于其主要竞争对手。It has been showing leading edge results in the field, said Oren Etzioni, head of artificial intelligence at the research institute of Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen. 在微软(Microsoft)共同创始人保罗#8226;艾伦(Paul Allen)的研究所负责AI研究的奥伦#8226;埃齐奥尼(Oren Etzioni)称,谷歌在该领域展现了前沿成果。He credits it with taking a more open approach than rivals, publishing its research and making its technologies freely available. 他认为,这是由于谷歌采取了比对手更开放的姿态,发表研究结果,并使其技术可以免费获得。This open-sourcing has helped it build a wider ecosystem around its approach. 这种开源模式帮助它围绕自己的方法建立了一个更大的生态系统。Amazon has adopted a much more closed model and is playing catch-up in machine learning, said Mr Etzioni. The people that they have attracted are not at the same level.亚马逊采用了更封闭的模式,在机器学习领域正追赶谷歌,埃齐奥尼称,他们吸引到的人才不是同一水平的。All of this has served to raise expectations that Google’s Assistant will reach new standards in understanding language and supplying more intelligent guidance, from answering direct questions to steering users through tasks such as finding a restaurant for dinner or arranging a flight. 所有这一切都起到了提高期望值的作用,即谷歌Assistant在理解语音和提供更智能的指引上将达到新水平,从回答直接的问题,到指导用户完成寻找餐厅或安排航班等任务。But the heightened expectations have also greatly elevated the risks. 但是,期望值提高也大大提升了风险。Users are often quick to impute high levels of intelligence to computers that appear to understand language, leaving plenty of room for disappointment when the results fall short.用户往往很快认为似乎理解语言的计算机具有高智能,当结果不尽人意时会非常失望。Google first disclosed its plans for Assistant at its annual developer conference in May. 谷歌于今年5月在年度开发者大会上首次透露了Assistant计划。The technology will take different forms, depending on the device or service where it is used. 该技术将根据使用的设备或务而采取不同形式。It is set to be used in a product called Home, a voice-activated gadget modelled on Amazon’s breakthrough Echo. 预计将用于一款被称为Home的语音工具产品(效仿亚马逊的Echo)。Google also said in May that it would power a text-based intelligent service to appear inside Allo, an app launched yesterday (see below) that is intended to propel Google, belatedly, into messaging.谷歌5月时还表示,该技术将用于在应用软件Allo中驱动基于文本的智能务。近日已发布的Allo旨在推动谷歌进入即时信息领域。With these new approaches, the search company is betting that many people are y to try new ways of interacting with digital devices. 凭借这些新方法,这家搜索公司押注很多人都已准备好尝试与数字化设备交互的新方式。Around 20 per cent of searches on Android devices in the US are aly conducted by voice, according to Google.据谷歌表示,在美国,Android设备上进行的搜索约20%通过语音完成。Advances in the quality of techniques like speech recognition have brought the technology to a stage where it is y for a mass market, said Mr Dean. 迪恩称,语音识别等技术的进步,使得AI达到了可以面向大众市场的阶段。For instance, Google says its error rate in understanding spoken words, even in a noisy room, has fallen to 8 per cent.例如,谷歌称其理解口语单词的错误率(即使是在嘈杂的房间内)已降至8%。The company has done a remarkable job in areas such as speech recognition and the text-to-speech feature that turns search results into spoken answers, said Mr Tuttle.塔特尔称,该公司还在语音识别和文本转换语音(将搜索结果转换为语音回答)等领域取得了出色的表现。Each of these draws on Google’s roots in internet search, which supplies it with mountains of data about general language usage to fuel its core language engines. 这一切成功都利用了谷歌在互联网搜索方面的根基,后者使其可以利用有关一般语言用法的海量数据来推动其核心语言引擎。In these contexts, Google has an advantage, says Mr Tuttle.在这些方面,谷歌具有优势,塔特尔表示。However, understanding language at the deeper level involves grasping the context of a statement, which is often not obvious, or being able to follow a sequence of comments that follow human but not computer logic. 然而,若要在更深层面上理解语言,就必然涉及掌握一句话的背景(往往不明显)或是能够理解一系列遵循人类(而非计算机)逻辑的。These are things that trip up general-purpose tools such as Assistant, said Mr Tuttle.塔特尔称,这些任务会使Assistant等通用工具出错。In taking on the more intractable challenges, Google is looking to draw on deep learning, the most advanced form of machine learning. 为了应对更棘手的挑战,谷歌正在寻求利用深度学习——机器学习的最高级形式。Patterned on the workings of the human brain, deep learning systems use multiple processing layers, like artificial neural networks, to filter data to reach their results. 深度学习系统借鉴人类大脑的工作方式,利用多个处理层(就像人工神经网络那样)来过滤数据以得到结果。The technology is particularly well suited to things that computers have traditionally found impossible, such as image recognition, and has been applied most strikingly in Google’s Photos app to automatically identify people or objects in users’ albums.这项技术特别适合于处理传统电脑不可能完成的任务,比如图像识别。该技术迄今最引人瞩目的应用是在谷歌相册(Photos)的用户相簿中自动识别人或物体。According to Mr Dean, the sort of breakthroughs made in image recognition are now beginning to be seen in language, divining context and meaning where other programs have foundered. 据迪恩表示,图像识别上的这种突破,如今已经开始出现在语音、语境和语意推测方面;在这些方面,其他程序已失败。What’s happened recently is the deep learning approaches have started showing an ability to understand language for many different tasks, he said.最近出现的情况是,深度学习方法开始在很多不同的任务中表现出了理解语言的能力,他称。He concedes, though, that Google’s computers are still far from matching human levels of language comprehension, or replicating the broad understanding of the world that people draw on when holding a conversation. 尽管如此,他承认谷歌的计算机距离人类语言理解能力、或者人类在对话时利用深厚背景知识的程度仍然很远。We have a pretty good ability to understand shorter sentences or utterances, said Mr Dean. But we don’t have the ability in long-range context, or the deep background models a human has from other areas when you are talking.我们在理解较短的句子或表达时拥有相当出色的能力,迪恩称,但是我们无法理解长程语境和人类在说话时来自其他方面的深层背景模式。A further challenge will be to restrict the situations in which Assistant can handle tasks automatically, limiting it to areas where there is little chance of it making a mistake. 还有一个挑战将限制Assistant自动处理任务的情形,把它限制在犯错几率很小的领域。It is one thing to unleash a deep learning program to identify pictures of cats, said Mr Dean, but it is another to set the same program free to make changes to your travel itinerary, where a slight misunderstanding would cause deep inconvenience.迪恩称,释放一款深度学习程序来识别猫咪照片是一回事,而放手让同样的程序来更改你的行程则是另一回事。在后面一种情形中,细微的误解都会造成极大的不便。As a result, the packaging of the new Assistant technology — finding a useful set of tasks that it can do well, without over-promising or disappointing — is likely to be as important to its success as the underlying technical achievements themselves. 其结果是,新Assistant技术的包装——在不过度承诺或让人失望的情况下,找到一套它可以顺利完成的任务——可能会和它本身作为根本性技术成就的成功同样重要。The best technologies don’t always translate to the best product or the winner in the market place, said Mr Etzioni. Google has aly seen Amazon steal a march with the groundbreaking Echo, and Apple catch the popular imagination with Siri. With Assistant, it is time to get back into the conversation.最好的技术并不总是转化为最棒的产品或市场上的赢家,埃齐奥尼称。在眼看着亚马逊以开创性的Echo先声夺人、苹果以Siri抓住大众想象力之后,谷歌是时候在Assistant的帮助下重新成为关注焦点。 /201609/468079。